«DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD SUMMER STUDY TASK FORCE ON INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FOR THE BATTLEFIELD DTlC OCTOBER 1994 S ELECTE APR I 0 1995' G i 95-01137 I ...»
The formation of a cross-functional, multi-level BITF could provide the mechanism for moving from the system in place today to the future vision. Such a Task Force could closely couple the warfighters and developers in an environment where they would use modeling and simulation to tradeoff potential performance improvements on the basis of cost, schedule, and achieved warfighting advantage. The BITF could become an important agent for cultural change throughout DoD.
-13A Logical Time-Phased Approach to Provide Real Time Information to the Warfighter
3.7 Cre i ato teefield Information Task Force: An Instreent of Chante Figure 3-8 provides additional details concerning the charter and makeup of such a BITF.
The first recommendation of tand DSBi Task Force is to form a Battlefield Information Task Force, charged with the responsibility of defining the warfighters' information needs and future vision. The BITF, chartered by the Secretary of Defense, would report tothat ot the Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The executive agent for the whaigher an prvijoint BITF would be the CINCUSACOM. The BITF would be led by a military (0-8) Field Commander with a DISA Senior Executive Service deputy. The leader of the BITF must have sufficient operational command experience to articulate the needs of CINCs and JTF commanders.
The primary product of the work of the BITF would be the definition of a vision for future information systems, the joint warfighters information system needs for today, and the associated milestones that could lead to vision. Needs will be traded and evaluated utilizzing "joint battlespace" modeling and simulation tools that also provide the basis for training programs and joint exercises. The BITF would sponsor technical demonstrations and in-theater exercises that both educate the warfighters, and provide evidence of decisive battlefield advantage. Performance metrics would be developed and used to verify overall system improvements. Recommendations regarding the system configuration, cost and
-14schedule would be provided to both the JCS and the Enterprise Integration Council for appropriate action.
Figure 3-8 The BITF would be an interim organization that would jump-start the cultural change processes for a period of 24 months. The DoD would then transition to an integrated process team (IMT) to continue the effort as the system evolves. The charter and membership of the follow-on IPT would be established by the BITF during its 24 month tenure.
3.8 Explore Direct Broadcast System To enhance the information services available to the CINC, component commanders and deployed warfighting forces, the Task Force recommends that the BITF explore the utility of a Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Service (see Figure 3-9). This service would be designed to provide much greater capacity for integrated situation awareness at all levels of command. The BITF should use recently deployed on-orbit assets for Direct Broadcast TV and evaluate its utility in joint exercises, ACTDs, and simulation and modeling. When this potential capability to broadcast essential formation to all levels of command to simple receive-only terminals is shown to have utility, and the mechanisms for insuring that the appropriate and necessary information can be selectively included within the information broadcast, the DoD should pursue its future development.
Figure 3-9 If the information needs of the deployed warfighting forces were being adequately satisfied by the UHF/ElF satellite systems connecting the deployed terrestrial and airborne tactical networks, with the DBS capability providing the large bandwidth background data needed for integrated situation awareness, the additional capacity of the DSCS system could be better utilized. For example, DSCS could then be dedicated for uses in support of the point-to-point wideband connectivity required between the CINC and his component commanders at echelons above brigade/wing/CVBG, as well as providing connectivity back to CONUS.
Provide Robust Wideband Communications 3.9 There is also a critical need today to provide more robust, wide bandwidth point-topoint connectivity to CINCs and their component commanders at levels above Wing/Division/CVBG (see Figure 3-10). Multimedia information is needed to perform such functions as collaborative planning, interactive database transfer, and video teleconferencing. Current systems in the field do not provide such services for use during training or during actual military operations. Operational commanders must go to modeling and simulation centers to exploit such technologies. The Task Force sees the need to mainstream such services, such that the Warfighters can exploit them "from the same seat" as in other functions.
The current DSCS system provides a number of wide bandwidth transponders at SHF using a variety of antennas, and provides fundamental long haul point-to-point
-16connectivity. This system could provide the CINC and his component commanders with additional wideband services needed for collaborative mission planning. The BITF should encourage and continue the efforts with ASD (0M) and DISA to offload the current DSCS system as much as possible in order to provide additional capability to the CINCs.
As an alternative/adjunct to the offload approach, the BITF should also encourage and continue the efforts of ASD (C3M) and DISA to explore the acquisition of dedicated leases of wideband communications capacity from commercial satellite vendors to allow for real time surge capability during significant conflicts.
The advent of a variety of low cost commercial information services is bringing about a revolution in space-based commercial communications, navigation, imagery and environmental services. In Desert Shield/Desert Storm, over 80% of the communication satellite use was through commercial assets and three quarters of the airlift was from the civil reserve airlift fleet (CRAF) and commercial systems. The Department of Defense should invest in space-based commercial and federal government civil imagery, navigation, environmental and communications systems to enhance their assured support to military needs. Accordingly, the Task Force recommends that, through the BITF, alternatives or dramatically expanded defense prioritized requirements and investments be examined for more dependable and robust dependency and use of
-17commercial imagery, navigation, environmental and communications information services.
3.10 Give the CINCs Better Staff Support The DSB Task Force also makes two recommendations aimed at giving the CINCs better staff support (Figure 3-11). First, DoD should provide additional support to CINC's operational, training and simulation environment. Currently, CINCs are authorized a single scientific advisor. Given the pace of development in improved information handling and distribution, as well as its increased importance to effective warfighting, this level of support is judged to be marginal, at best.
Figure 3-11 The CINC has an increased need to incorporate technical judgments and knowledge in the generation and justification of operational requirements. Through emersion in the operational, training, simulation and actual contingency response environment, its envisioned technical expertise can accelerate the battlefield information architecture definition and process improvement. The CINC's technical advisors could also facilitate and clarify the necessary dialogue between the developers and users throughout the acquisition process. The CINC's technical expertise should be made available from existing qualified personnel within the service laboratory and R&D support activities.
-18The recommendation should be implemented by SECDEF, with CJCS providing increased technical billets for CNC staffs. Two commands should be designated as pilot entities, consistent with the DSB Acquisition Reform Initiative. USACOM and United States Central Command (CENTCOM) are the recommended commands.
Secondly, the increased importance of Information Warfare and Information in Warfare as true force multipliers increases the urgency to assign an Information Warfare officer/office as a dedicated support function for the CINC. The designated officer in charge must be a qualified combat arms officer, preferably with recent field duty at the command level. Such an officer would effect the formulation, integration and execution of the Commander's operational strategy for information warfare and information in warfare. He would ensure the continuity and accessibility of in.formation to support all warfighting levels and he would formulate and support offensive and defensive information warfare to enable achieving a decisive advantage on the battlefield.
3.11 Virtual Conflict Every Day It is important that modeling and simulation for information systems as well as other operations and training be developed such that the resulting tools enable operators to exploit the tools "from the same seat" that they use in day-to-day operations. Today, the modeling and simulation assets are located at sites that require Warfighters to move to locations that differ from their real command centers. This situation makes the resulting training different than real operations. The modeling and simulation tools should be integrated with the assets of the operational commands and must be interoperable with the planned C41 for the Warrior common operating environment. DDR&E, with USACOM (as lead CINC), JWFC and JCS/J-7 should develop and validate a modeling and simulation system for warfighting operations (including information systems) to support training, readiness assessment and acquisition assessments. As shown in Figure 3-12, the
Task Force recommendation has six major thrusts:
* Initiate and guide the development of an integrated, interoperable test, simulation, exercising, wargaming and planning system for Warfighter information systems in support of the Battlefield Information Task Force and with the goal of mainstreaming modeling and simulation into daily operational use in the GCCS environment;
* Model a "joint battlespace" environment for requirements, acquisition, training, wargaming exercise activities and planning;
* Include a "real world" architecture of deployed and projected systems to assess utility, limitations and sensitivities of critical parameters, including cost;
* Provide interconnection across services and command levels to validate mission planning, information and operational order flow and to provide a combat decision aid for the force commander;
* Provide for a seamless insertion of actual components/systems for flexibility in evaluation and verification of interoperability;
-19Ensure that the interservice/interagency joint simulation and warfighting initiatives provide the simulation/emulation/modeling tools to CINC exercises and warfighting centers and laboratories to develop CINC confidence in their information system readiness in the normal course of joint exercises and demonstrations.
Figure 3-12 Such efforts to enhance joint simulations, exercises and gaming, should incorporate metrics for evaluating warfighter information system readiness. A marginal increase in current resources may be required, but the principal change is a reorientation of current modeling and simulation efforts with higher priority and increased level of supervision and scrutiny (metrics).
3.12 Readiness Impact
There is a significant readiness dimension once these recommendations are implemented. Regional situations develop very quickly, and at the onset, are of uncertain dimension. Accurate preplanning and exercising builds confidence, substantially shortens deployment and execution times, materially increases initial effectiveness and should significantly shorten engagement time with fewer losses and consumption of resources, today's test of success.
-20The CINC information architecture posture is much improved-he knows what he needs to succeed. When a CINC pulls together a concept of operations for an emerging situation, the experience of having a strong modeling system that allowed the CINC to simulate and later train and exercise a potential concept of operations is a significant confidence builder and readiness boost. The CINC would be training and fighting from the same seat.
" He will have tested his concepts. A "Red Team" will have exercised logical counters to his "Blue Team" operations concepts, allowing development of new approaches to increase confidence of success.
" He will determine what information support he'll get. When transitioning from the known information architecture structure of Cold War operations to the unknown structure of regional operations, there is high uncertainty as to what kind of communication and intelligence support will be available. Implementation of these recommendations would materially alter that perception. Since most deploying forces would come from CINCUSACOM, the standardized modeling and simulation plus joint training and exercising concepts would be a well understood baseline for regional support of deployed operations.
"* The CINC will know what to deploy. The combined impact of the recommendations would be widespread understanding of regional information architecture requirements and substantial experience in sizing, assembling, transporting, setting up and exercising the information system employment concepts.
The combination of these four features: 1) matching the information system need to the regional problem, 2) testing its viability via joint exercising and red teaming, 3) educating operating levels of what to expect and depend on, and 4) sizing/practicing what to take-constitutes a very robust capability that is ready when called.
Since the use of information in warfare has been identified as a significant force multiplier, the CINC needs a means of measuring the state of this readiness. Figure 3-13 displays a logical manner to accomplish this - a series of metrics. The high end of the spectrum will show, in advance, the surge capability and capacity required for the information system infrastructure to support two MRCs near simultaneously. The BITF should be tasked to establish information system readiness metrics requirements and measurement processes in consultation with each CINC.