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«Bosworth Battlefield: The Way Forward Final: August 2013 Alison Farmer Associates 29 Montague Road Cambridge CB4 1BU af in ...»

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Bosworth Battlefield:

The Way Forward

Final: August 2013

Alison Farmer Associates

29 Montague Road

Cambridge

CB4 1BU

af@alisonfarmer.co.uk

in association with

Carolyn Lloyd Brown FTS MAHI and Countryscape

Acknowledgements

Alison Farmer Associates would like to thank all parties for their contributions to the

development and formation of Bosworth Battlefield: The Way Forward. It has been

invaluable in helping to shape the production of this document and consider the opportunities for future approaches to caring for and sustaining the wider Battlefield landscape.

Leicestershire County Council would also like to thank the Landowners and other partners for their considerable support for the research and development surrounding the archaeological survey and associated activities over the past fifteen years. This support has been significant in helping to create a first class heritage centre with an international audience. As one of many stakeholders in the Battlefield area, we look forward to continuing to work with our partners in understanding and preserving the landscape.

English Heritage 44 Derngate Leicestershire County Council Northampton County Hall NN1 1UH Glenfield Leicestershire LE3 8RA Executive Summary Introducing the Bosworth Battlefield Area The Battle of Bosworth is a well-known historical event marking a turning point in English history. The Battle took place on the 22 August 1485 between King Richard III and Henry Tudor, who would later be crowned Henry VII. Arguably it marks the end of the Wars of the Roses.

This event has accrued even greater significance following the discovery of the remains of Richard III in Leicester in 2012 and plans for a Richard III Visitor Centre in Leicester, with a re-emphasis on the heritage of the area and the increased interest from tourists, local communities and schools.

The Dawn of the Tudor Dynasty The site of the Battle is of national significance, and a Heritage Centre and Country Park was established in 1974 on Ambion Hill to cater for visitors and to tell the story. The site was designated a Registered Battlefield Area by English Heritage in 1995. Within the existing Registered Battlefield there are two major

–  –  –

The need to find a more exact location for the Battle was identified, and made possible in 2005 thanks to a Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) grant. Subsequent detailed research and survey work has revealed many finds and located the likely Battlefield site partly outside the Registered Battlefield Area, to the south-west of Ambion Hill near Fenn Lane.

An Area of Historical Depth The landscape in the Battlefield area has witnessed considerable activity and development throughout the prehistoric and historic periods right up to the present day. It is notable that the area contains more than just evidence of the Battle which has left its mark on the present day landscape.

Small finds and crop marks indicate activity from the Neolithic period onwards, though Roman evidence of road building and settlement is more substantial. Anglo-Saxon finds are scant, although it is likely that settlement of the area was continuous; a number of villages in the area have names of Anglo-Saxon origin. The Medieval period is defined by nucleated settlement set within an open field farming system. Medieval villages falling within the wider Battlefield area survive to the present day, along with traces of the wider settlement and farming pattern. Land enclosure during the late Medieval and post Medieval periods brought significant change to the landscape of the study area; open fields were reorganised and defined by the planting of hedges and hedgerow trees. The building of a canal and railway in the 18th and 19th centuries divided Redemore Plain creating prominent landscape features and contributing to the industrialisation of the area. The last forty years have witnessed considerable change to the landscape with many kinds of recreational, industrial and agricultural development, countered by a strong conservation focus in the area.

The Way Forward The Way Forward presents a document which sets out a Plan for the conservation of this historically significant area, whilst at the same time respecting the living landscape, the business needs of landowners and stakeholders, the tourism interest, and the current planning policy and other statutory requirements.

To all intents and purposes this document is a Conservation Plan – a technical document that seeks to bring together in one place a fuller understanding of the significance of the Bosworth Battlefield landscape, the challenges and the opportunities going forward. It seeks to recognise the diversity of activity within the landscape and set out a future ambition for how key stakeholders could work together to realise their own goals whilst caring for the integrity of this nationally significant area.

Why do we need a Conservation Plan?

The Battlefield and wider area are already well managed, but this is a time of considerable change, and it is important to consider and seek to minimise the potential impact of current and future developments upon the Battlefield Area.

Numerous landowners manage the area, often expressing different views and aspirations for the future of their land including farming, conservation, educational, economic and environmental ambitions.





Management of the Heritage Centre is now focusing primarily on heritage rather than the Country Park. Subsequent to the discovery of the new location of the Battlefield, there are questions regarding the best ways in which to present updated information and arrange access to other areas - the new Battlefield location, and other sites associated with the Battle, are now outside the Registered Battlefield Area.

Conservation and development is taking place against a background of central and local government cuts, changes in funding and within the context of pre-existing and emerging local development policies. The Registered Battlefield and its landscape setting also contain a wide range of other cultural and natural heritage designations, demonstrating that the area is of considerable significance and not just important as the site of the Battle.

Under these circumstances there is a real need to bring parties together and to develop a shared understanding of the area, its values and significance as well as current issues and concerns, if the special qualities of the area are to be conserved for visitors and locals alike and a sustainable future embraced.

Why is the Bosworth Battlefield area so special?

The inclusion of Bosworth Battlefield on the English Heritage register of battlefields illustrates its immense historical significance as a turning point in English history, but the value of the area goes far beyond this. Public consultation clearly shows that the area is highly valued for its unspoilt landscape and views. In a region that can be busy and urbanised, this area is a tranquil piece of English countryside that provides a sense of identity and belonging for locals, is a working agricultural landscape supporting local business, and a place which offers a wide range of recreation and leisure interests for those who visit it.

This area is particularly special because of the interplay of many different qualities: physical historical evidence, historical value through continuity and landscape features; the aesthetic value of a quintessential, peaceful English landscape, and communal value – the importance of a place giving people a sense of identity, a place for commemoration, as well as being a working agricultural landscape. The Battlefield and its wider environs offer countless examples of these values, ranging from the Battlefield site itself to the tranquil countryside with evidence of historical continuity, right up to more recent industrial heritage.

A partnership approach leading to a sustainable future The Conservation Plan has identified and proposes 14 objectives that aim to point the Bosworth Battlefield Area on a path to a sustainable future. The objectives are set within six broad ‘themes’ that provide a structure upon which they and their associated policies can be built. It is proposed that a Bosworth Battlefield Partnership or Forum is established to take these policies forward and review progress on an annual basis.

The key themes of the Conservation Plan are:

• encouraging a partnership approach and communication between the various stakeholders

• fostering a local economy that supports conversation and the landscape protection of the archaeological resources in this historically rich area

• sustainable land management

• improving appreciation and understanding of the landscape

• improving access to and enjoyment of the Bosworth Battlefield Area The Plan seeks a holistic and sustainable approach that will encourage visitors and support the local economy, whilst balancing this with the need to reduce damage to the fabric of the countryside and protect the tranquillity of the area. A partnership approach involving the landowners and other relevant national, regional and local organisations and individual stakeholders is vital to its success.

Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction

1.1 What is a Conservation Plan?

1.2 Appointment and Brief

1.3 Scope of Work

1.4 Study Area

2 Bosworth Battlefield Conservation Plan

2.1 What Constitutes a Battlefield?

2.2 The need for a Conservation Plan

2.3 Relevant Designations, Policies and Initiatives

2.4 Remit of the Conservation plan

3 The Battle of Bosworth - A Summary of Key Events

3.1 Context

3.2 The Battle

4 Landscape Evolution

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Early Landscape

4.3 Medieval Landscape (pre 1485)

4.4 Post 1485

4.5 Recent Landscape Changes (1970s onwards)

5 Landscape Character and Views

Summary

5.1 Background

5.2 Landscape Character Assessment (LCA)

5.3 Landscape Character Areas

5.4 Visual Analysis

6 Collections

7 Leisure, Recreation and Tourism

7.1 Tourism as an Economic Driver

7.2 Heritage Centre and Country Park

7.3 Recreation Activities within the Battlefield Area

8 Significance, Values and Issues

8.1 Overarching Public Values

8.2 Statement of Significance

8.3 Overarching Significance

8.4 Evidential Value

8.5 Historical Value

8.6 Aesthetic Value

8.7 Communal Value

8.8 Conclusions

9 Addressing the Issues

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Over-arching Objectives for the CP

9.3 Policies

10 Implementation, Monitoring and Review

10.1 Conservation through Co-operative Action

10.2 The Action Plan

10.3 Table of Actions

Appendices Appendix 1: Relevant organisations consulted during the preparation of the Conservation Plan Appendix 2: Battlefield Registration Document and Battlefield Report (1995) Appendix 3: Ambion Deserted Medieval Village: Extract from Scheduled Monument Notification No 17084 Appendix 4: Citation for Kendall's Meadow SSSI Appendix 5: Extract from the Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland Biodiversity Action Plan – Promoting the creation of new wildlife habitat in the wider countryside Appendix 6: Extracts from relevant character assessments Appendix 7: Extract from Hinckley and Bosworth Green Infrastructure Study Appendix 8: Memorandum of understanding on the prevention, investigation, enforcement, and prosecution of heritage crime Appendix 9: Chronology of the Bosworth Battlefield Area Drawings Drawing Number 1: New Registered Battlefield Boundary and Plan Study Area Drawing Number 2: Cultural Heritage and Nature Conservation Designations Drawing Number 3: Landscape Character Areas Drawing Number 4: View Analysis Drawing Number 5: Recreation and Access Drawing Number 6: MIRA Proving Ground and site 1 Introduction

1.1 What is a Conservation Plan?

This Conservation Plan (CP) is intended as an aid to management of the Bosworth Battlefield and its landscape setting1.

It is a set of guiding principles and policies intended for all those involved in the management of the area, including those dealing with recreational activity, land management and planning matters.

The CP comprises a main document and associated appendices that provide a comprehensive overview of the Battlefield area and its setting. The CP provides a range of further reference material via footnotes and figures, drawings and photographs are dispersed throughout the document. Many are taken from other sources and are referenced as necessary.

The CP contains an extensive amount of site survey work, desk research, and the results of consultation with a wide range of stakeholders. Therefore, this document is a comprehensive single resource and a reference for understanding the area's value and significance. The CP highlights current issues affecting the significance of the area and factors which may have the potential to affect it in the future. It addresses these through the development of proposed policies and actions which will help to inform strategic planning as well as day-to-day management and decision making.

To maintain its effectiveness and value, the CP should be updated regularly. This will ensure that the guiding principles and policies, recommendations and understanding sections of the Plan continue to be relevant to on-going decision making.

1.2 Appointment and Brief Alison Farmer Associates, in association with Carolyn Lloyd Brown and Countryscape, were commissioned by Leicestershire County Council and English Heritage to prepare a Conservation Plan for the Bosworth Battlefield in March 2011.

Key representatives from Leicestershire County Council, English Heritage, Natural England and Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council collectively formed the Steering Group for the Project.

The CP has been informed by a review of the wider strategic planning/policy framework within which it will be used and recent research findings2.



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