«Bosworth Battlefield: The Way Forward Final: August 2013 Alison Farmer Associates 29 Montague Road Cambridge CB4 1BU af in ...»
1.3 Scope of Work The principles of conservation planning were introduced by the Burra Charter, adopted by Australia ICOMOS in 1979. The principles and methodology thus established were adopted in the UK by the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) in 1998 and a number of useful guidelines have been published, including The Conservation Plan - a Guide to the Preparation of Conservation Plans for Places of European Cultural Significance by James Semple Kerr, which expands on the principles of the Burra Charter, and a more recent HLF publication entitled Conservation Management Planning published in 2008.
Further information on what constitutes landscape setting can be found in The Setting of Heritage Assets English Heritage Guidance, (October 2011), English Heritage and is defined in appendix 1.
Glenn Foard, August 2011: Bosworth 1485: A battlefield rediscovered. A report on the battlefield investigations 2005-2010 (forthcoming publication).
The process of conservation planning relies fundamentally on developing an understanding of a place through research and analysis, from which an assessment of all aspects of its significance can be established. Significance is defined as broadly as possible and may include aspects of both tangible and intangible value to a wide community. Once the significance is understood, it is possible to assess the vulnerabilities to which a place may be subjected, and to develop strategies and policies for its conservation. The structure of the Bosworth Battlefield CP follows this approach.
The CP draws on site assessment, analysis and review, a desk-based review of research material and a wide range of consultations with landowners, special interest groups and local residents (refer to Appendix 1 for list of consultees). The report represents an understanding of the area as it stands at the time of issue. However, it should be anticipated that because the Bosworth Battlefield is a landscape under complex ownership and battlefield archaeology is an emerging specialist subject, new information and understanding will continually emerge. It is therefore important that the CP should be subject to review at regular intervals.
1.4 Study Area The Bosworth Battlefield was included on the Register of Historic Battlefields by English Heritage in 1995 and is therefore recognised as being of national significance (refer Appendix 2 for registration document and Drawing Number 1 on page 10 below).
This CP focuses on the revised Registered Battlefield boundary following the newly
located Battlefield3. It also includes the wider landscape which:
• forms its physical and historical context/setting
• is associated with the Battle e.g. Dadlington Chapel, Sutton Cheney and Stoke Golding churches
• has views over the Battlefield area
• has potential for related battlefield archaeology
• has complementary recreational activity As a living document the study area has not been explicitly defined and the broad area considered in the CP can be found on Drawing Number 1.
Throughout this document where reference is made to the Registered Battlefield area it relates to that within the newly registered boundary. Where reference is made to the 'wider battlefield' or 'battlefield area' it relates to the Registered Battlefield and its wider landscape setting.
This extended area of Battlefield was approved by the English Heritage Battlefields Panel in July 2011 following significant research and field survey. The final revised Registered Battlefield boundary was confirmed in June 2013 following an extended period of consultation.
2 Bosworth Battlefield Conservation Plan Summary The Battle of Bosworth is a well-known historical event of national significance and international interest – the recent discovery of the remains of Richard III in Leicester in 2012 have served only to add to this interest from tourists, local communities and schools.
A Heritage Centre and Country Park was established in 1974 on Ambion Hill to cater for visitors wanting to visit the Battlefield and discover what happened at the Battle. The Battlefield was designated a Registered Battlefield Area by English Heritage in 1995.
Several contradicting theories regarding the location of the Battle existed for many years, and the desire to determine a more exact location for the Battle was made possible in 2005 thanks to a Heritage Lottery Fund grant submitted by Leicestershire County Council and the generous assistance of the local landowners. Subsequent detailed research and survey work has revealed many finds and located the likely battle site to the south-west of Ambion Hill near Fenn Lane.
These recent discoveries have brought change. Management is now focusing more on heritage rather than on the Country Park, with a heritage team on site. While visitor information has been largely updated, there are questions regarding the best way to present the improved information and arrange access to other areas, as the new site for the Battlefield, and some other sites associated with the Battle, were outside the previous Registered Battlefield Area and are in multiple private ownership.
The Registered Battlefield and its landscape setting also contain a wide range of other cultural and natural heritage designations, demonstrating that the area is of considerable significance and not just important as the site of the Battle. Development and conservation of the Battlefield Area therefore needs to be carefully managed, balancing different values within a changing economic and planning context.
What Constitutes a Battlefield?
2.1 Definition A battlefield is defined as an area where troops were deployed and fought while in battle formation.
Registration English Heritage considers that for a battlefield site to merit registration the battle
• have involved recognised military units;
• be an area where forces amassed and fought, which is capable of definition on the ground;
• include evidence of surviving topographical and built heritage features which played a part in the course of the battle;
• have potential for 'battlefield archaeology' i.e. the survival of features and materials derived from the battle such as graves, projectiles and weapons which can shed unique evidence on the course of events and sometimes demonstrate the actual location of these events;
• include documents which enhance the understanding of the battle through eye-witness accounts or subsequent investigation;
• retain memorials that demonstrate the resonance of the event for later generations.
Registered Battlefields are a non-statutory designation and do not offer statutory protection to an area of landscape. However, the inclusion of land within the Registered Battlefield by English Heritage confers a 'material planning consideration’ status on the area.
The need for a Conservation Plan 2.2 The Bosworth Battlefield Area lies to the south of Market Bosworth and adjacent to the villages of Dadlington, Stoke Golding, Sutton Cheney, Upton, Higham-on-the-Hill and Shenton within the Borough of Hinckley and Bosworth.
The Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre and Country Park was created on Ambion Hill by Leicestershire County Council and was officially opened in 1974 by the Property Department’s Country Parks Service. Its purpose was to provide access to what was then considered to be the area of the Bosworth Battlefield and to provide interpretation, information and exhibition rooms in former farm buildings at Ambion Hill Farm. The landscape and footpaths associated with the Heritage Centre were managed by the Ranger Team as part of the Council's portfolio of country parks.
The Bosworth Battlefield was included on the Register of Historic Battlefields by English Heritage in 1995 as 'Battle of Bosworth Field' and included the Battlefield Centre and Country Park situated in the north-east of the area (refer to Appendix 2 for registration document and Battlefield Report). The Registered Battlefield Area covered some 632 hectares, this has now increased to 1071.76 hectares. By 1995, a number of different theories regarding the location of the Battle were in existence. At the time the designation took in the 'outer reasonable limit of the Battle' ensuring that the two main theories as to where the Battle was fought were included within the designated area. The 1995 designation included Ambion Hill (where Richard is thought to have camped), Crown Hill (where Henry Tudor is thought to have been crowned king), and the flat landscape between Shenton, Sutton, Dadlington and Stoke Golding villages, which Dr Peter Foss4 suggested was the Battlefield.
This has led to a strong consensus that the Battle took place south-west of Ambion Hill close to Fenn Lane and this, along with HLF funding, has enabled LCC to refine the interpretation of the Battle within the Heritage Centre at Ambion Hill. LCC has also redeveloped the footpath trail between the Heritage Centre and Shenton Station and has established new viewpoints out across the Battlefield landscape and further external interpretation. There has also been a shift in management emphasis at the centre, from a country park to a Battlefield Heritage Centre with a small country park attached. This was reflected in the creation of a designated 'heritage' team at the site.
Importantly, the new location of a key part of the Battle close to Fenn Lane, layout of outside the original Registered Battlefield (RB) area and led to proposals by English Heritage to redefine the boundary of the Registered Battlefield. The new proposed Dr Peter Foss (1998) The Field of Redemore. The Battle of Bosworth, 1485.
Registered Battlefield area was discussed by the English Heritage Designations Panel in July 2011 and was confirmed in June 2013 (refer to Drawing No 1) following a period of consultation.
The discovery of the core area of the Battle has also had a dramatic influence on the visitor offer and has lead to questions on how best to explain the Battle to visitors, raising issues of access and interpretation. In addition, the high profile of the new Battlefield location, as a result of the field survey and research, has led to a short-lived increase in specific rural crime, notably ‘night hawking’ (covert metal detecting) and an increased concern of trespass.
These issues are particularly important because the area in the Registered Battlefield, the new Battlefield location and the wider landscape setting of the Battle is owned and managed by numerous landowners. Within the new Registered Battlefield there are two major landowners - Shenton Estate (to the north-west) and Sutton Cheney Estate (to the northeast), with some of their land managed by tenant farmers. To the south, the Registered Battlefield is farmed by more than twelve separate landowners, while within the wider landscape setting there are a significant number of additional landowners, particularly to the south where the land holdings are relatively small.
Consultation has shown that many of the landowners hold differing views as to the value of the area and their aspirations for its future, but their vital contribution to the continued sensitive management of the area and the careful management of change is evident in the well maintained and characterful landscape. This management is often dependent on active cooperation with other bodies, including English Heritage, Natural England, Leicestershire County Council, Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council, Canal and Rivers Trust5 and others.
Recent central Government spending cuts have started to affect local authorities’ resourcing of sites such as Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre and Country Park.
Staffing cuts have already taken place in relation to LCC Countryside Rangers, which in turn is likely to affect the coordination of management with landowners, particularly on land where there is a right of access for visitors.
All of the above signifies a time of change for Bosworth Battlefield and all those involved in its management and conservation. There is potential for competing demands and initiatives, inappropriate expenditure of already limited resources, confusion for the visitor and for landowners, loss of nationally important archaeology, together with associated landscape significance and values.
Under these circumstances there is a real need to bring parties together and to develop a shared understanding of the area – its values and significance as well as current issues and concerns – if the special qualities of the area are to be conserved and future opportunities embraced.
Relevant Designations, Policies and Initiatives 2.3 This CP sits within a framework of existing policy and the wider Battlefield area includes statutory and non-statutory designations which contribute to its overall significance. It lies within the Hinckley and Bosworth District and is subject to corresponding Local Plan documents including Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs) and Conservation Area Statements. More broadly, there are other national initiatives which are of relevance to this CP in taking forward the proposed policies set out in section 9. Statutory and non-statutory designations relating to cultural heritage and nature conservation within the study area can be found on Drawing No 2.
Known as British Waterways until it was replaced by the Canals and Rivers Trust in July 2012.
Statutory and Non-Statutory Designations in the Area Conservation Areas and Listed Buildings Parts of Shenton, Stoke Golding, Sutton Cheney villages and a corridor along the Ashby Canal are Conservation Areas that fall within the Registered Battlefield, or lie adjacent to it. Conservation Area statements have been prepared for each of these6.
The main listed buildings fall within the Conservation Areas with the exceptions of Apple Orchard Farm, Grange Farmhouse, Upton Lane, Church of St James, Dadlington and Hall Home Farmhouse, Dadlington.
There are three Scheduled Monuments in the study area as follows:
• The Moats at Stoke Golding SK3980 9700
• Deserted medieval village of Ambion SP4025 9998 (Appendix 3)
• Bowl barrow at Sutton Cheney SK4141 0062 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) There is one SSSI site within the study area at Kendall's Meadow that lies within the Registered Battlefield area and is valued for its grassland and orchids. Appendix 4 contains the citation for this site.