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«Bosworth Battlefield: The Way Forward Final: August 2013 Alison Farmer Associates 29 Montague Road Cambridge CB4 1BU af in ...»

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• The round shot from the Battlefield site now comprises a unique collection greater than from the whole of the rest of Europe. The scatter corroborates Henry's mercenaries coming under heavy artillery fire from the King's guns and offers a subject for academic and scientific research.

Issues affecting Evidential Value:

Undocumented loss or removal of artefacts

• Many of the historic artefacts relating to the Battle have been potentially moved as a result of farming activity since the Battle took place, however they are still relatively in situ and provide valuable information about the Battle

• Registering the Battlefield and altering the boundary can highlight the location and potential for archaeological finds, making the area vulnerable to looting and night hawking

• The 2011 English Heritage reviewed the Registered Battlefields in England and considered Bosworth Battlefield to be at medium risk due principally to its vulnerability to unauthorised metal-detecting

• Looting and night hawking of the area by metal detectorists gives rise to trespass issues, loss of artefacts, damage to ground and health and safety issues

• The sale of artefacts allegedly from Bosworth on the internet strains relationships between the researchers and landowners Physical damage

• Ploughing has the potential to damage artefacts and other buried archaeological remains;

conversely it can have the benefit of bringing artefacts to the surface assisting in plotting the geographical extent of the Battlefield

• The effect of agricultural regimes including the use of fertilisers on artefacts still in the ground is not known, nor is the rate of decline due to factors such as soil acidity. This is a consideration for any archaeological remains and many survive despite these factors

• Drainage of farmland particularly former fen areas has resulted in a loss of valuable evidence which could be used to understand the original extent of the fen at the time of the Battle Knowledge and research

• A strong focus on the location and distribution of archaeological finds when interpreting the Battle underplays the value and opportunities to tell the story of Bosworth through the use of the wider landscape

• The full extent of battlefield archaeology at Bosworth is still unknown and further survey and research is required, particularly in relation to locating mass burial pits31

• There is a lack of written reports associated with some areas of historic research i.e. Roman finds on Ambion Hill

• There is still limited knowledge of the extent and nature of the medieval 'marsh', resulting in limited information being available to inform potential wetland habitat restoration Co-ordinated management

• The Battlefield landscape is managed by a large number of landowners with differing interests and views. In a number of cases the landownership and management is complex comprising multiple family involvement and tenant farmers. This can result in a variety of land management activities with potential for conflicting priorities affecting the conservation of buried archaeology

• A perceived lack of trust and poor communication between various stakeholders and other bodies with an interest and involvement in the management of the area, e.g. landowners, LCC, Hinckley and Bosworth District Council, English Heritage, making conservation planning problematic Guardianship

• The archaeological survey of the Battlefield has provided new evidence on the main location of the Battle and has highlighted that the existing Registered Battlefield boundary needs to be revised. A new extended and refined boundary32 for the Battlefield has been discussed by the English Heritage Battlefield Panel and a revised boundary is to confirmed in due course, following consultation.

However the full extent of the Battle is still not known and future research may require further revisions to the Battlefield boundary as more information comes to light

• Features and places associated with the Battle, but outside of the Registered Battlefield boundary, may be susceptible to adverse change e.g. Dadlington and Sutton Cheney churches

• Although the Battlefield Heritage Centre holds the material from the Survey and displays some of the previous Battlefield relics, there is no official centralised repository for all battle related artefacts and archives, resulting in such material from the Battlefield not all being held locally.

–  –  –

Historical value is derived from the ways in which past people, events and aspects of life can be connected through a place to the present. It tends to be illustrative or associative and can relate to cultural and natural heritage.

Illustrative - may depend on visibility or may aid interpretation of the past through making connections David Knight, Blaise Vyner and Carol Allen (2012) East Midlands Heritage An updated research agenda and strategy for the historic environment of the East Midlands (page103) The revision to the Registered Battlefield includes an extension to the south west and two areas of deletion one to the north of Ambion Lane and one to the southeast between Fenn Lane and Dadlington (refer to drawing no 4).

• The Ashby Canal is a Conservation Area valued for its industrial archaeological interest and demonstrates the art of civil canal engineering

• The geography of the landscape influenced the construction of the Ashby Canal which was constructed using the contour principle, following the natural contours of the low hills and avoiding the lower lying land of Redemore Plain

• The aqueduct at Shenton is one of only two aqueducts associated with the Ashby Canal

• The industrial development of the area in 19th century is reflected in the railway, canal and the architecture in the settlement of Stoke Golding

• Place names and field names reflect the former landscape and its evolution from Anglo Saxon times

• The geography of the landscape was decisive in the Battle - topographically it has remained largely unchanged save for the canal and railway construction landscape archaeology research advanced by Foss and Foard, has extended our understanding of the medieval battle, and has great significance for future battlefield designation, conservation and research

• Fenn Lane is a Roman Road still used today - the majority of the current route closely follows the Roman Road and was of strategic importance to the Battle of Bosworth

• The historic villages of Shenton, Sutton Cheney and Stoke Golding are Conservation Areas and together with the pattern of rural lanes, they reflect the medieval settlement pattern and contain many listed buildings

• There are notable areas of ridge and furrow found throughout area, but particularly within Shenton Parkland, Ambion Hill and Crown Hill

• Hedgerow trees and parkland trees, particularly around Shenton and Stoke Golding, illustrate the past evolution of the landscape in relation to enclosure and emparkment

• Crown Hill is visually prominent in the landscape and is associated with the crowning of Henry as King • 'King Dick’s Well' has historically been associated with Richard's camp prior to the Battle

• Dadlington Church is associated with the Battlefield war dead and a copy of the early 16th century document which discusses a Chantry chapel to commemorate the fallen is displayed within the church

• Kendall's Meadow is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) within the Registered Battlefield, and is valued for its grassland and orchids. It may be one of the best examples of hay meadow in the East Midlands

• Lychgate Fisheries include areas of open water and reed bed, the latter being a rare habitat within the Borough

• There are many Local Wildlife Sites in the area. These cover woodland copes, grassland, grass verges along rural lanes and scrub areas along the disused railway and Ashby Canal Associative - includes association of a place with notable people, events and movements

• The Battle of Bosworth ranks with Hastings as one of the most decisive battles in British History – it marks the death of the last King of England to die on a battlefield; the end of the Wars of the Roses; the end of the Plantagenet dynasty and the start of Tudor dynasty

• The application of gunpowder weapons at Bosworth potentially transformed the nature of warfare - shaping and defining British history

• Polydore Vergil's account of the Battle is the most detailed of the early accounts

• York House Book 2-4 169v is the earliest record of the Battle

• Shakespeare wrote about the Battle in 'Life and Death of Richard III'

• The Stanley Ballads 'Lady Bessiye and Bosworth Field' reflect an oral tradition, albeit poetically rendered, which is well informed and nearly contemporary with the Battle. They also reflect something of the geography of the landscape and Battle.

• The historic significance of the area has inspired artists including John Nichols 1791(engraving of Dadlington Chapel), Philip James de Loutherbourgh 1804 (Painting of the Battle of Bosworth ) and Rimmer 1899 (Painting of Ambion Hill showing King Dick’s Well)

• Samuel Parr erected a cairn over a spring on Ambion Hill in 1813 thought to be the source of King Richard's last drink during the Battle

Issues affecting Historical Value:

Physical damage

• Ploughing has the potential to damage physical earthworks such as ridge and furrow, as is the case with much archaeology nationally

• Development of settlements and loss of their historic form, character, relationship to landscape setting and individual identity Visual fragmentation through partial loss or concealment

• Post battle landscape patterns (notably hedgerow enclosure and woodland planting) have obscured views and make it difficult to understand and visualise the landscape at the time of the Battle

• On average there are 2 - 4 planning applications a year that have a physical or visual effect on the Battlefield and/or its setting

• The adopted Core Strategy identifies a housing requirement for Stoke Golding of 60 dwellings. However a planning application for 59 dwellings was approved in 2010 and 2011 and the development is currently under construction33.

• In addition development proposals within the vicinity of the Battlefield include expansion of the MIRA site to the south-west, associated with the Enterprise Zone, and a potential composting site on Fenn Lane

• Planting of woodland copses or hedgerows may sever views between landscape elements which aid understanding of the area and or have a visual association with the battle area

• Loss of hedgerow trees or veteran trees associated with parkland due to lack of management or replanting

• The subtle topographic changes, of value to understanding the Battlefield landscape, are vulnerable to potential changes in landform e.g. bunding or built development such as new large scale buildings which may alter perceptions and appreciation Gaps in understanding

• Other significances associated with the Battlefield area, including industrial archaeology, Roman sites and nature conservation interest are underplayed

• There is a lack of interpretation within parts of the Battlefield area

• There has been little research into the evolution of Shenton estate village and parkland

• There is no complete record of surviving ridge and furrow within the battlefield area

–  –  –

Aesthetic Value is derived from the way in which people draw sensory and intellectual stimulation from a place

• The quintessential Englishness of Bosworth as an archetypal landscape comprising villages, the village church, narrow winding lanes, the ploughed fields, small streams and hedgerows

• The area has a strong rural / countryside feel and is of high quality (previously identified as an area of Particularly Attractive Countryside within the 2001 Hinckley and Bosworth local plan)

• It has rural tranquillity and quiet character - important area for open air recreation including walking, horse riding and cycling

• The road bridges over the Ashby Canal form distinctive and repetitive features across the area and contribute to local distinctiveness

• The different periods of field enclosure are evident in the landscape today and contribute to local landscape character

• Hedgerow trees and parkland trees, particularly around Shenton and Stoke Golding, make a significant contribution to landscape character and quality

• The historic villages of Shenton, Sutton Cheney and Stoke Golding are Conservation Areas and are valued for their historic integrity and unique character

• The landscape gap between Dadlington and Stoke Golding helps these settlements retain their individual identity

• The Church of Stoke Golding is a key landmark from the Registered Battlefield area, aiding orientation and interpretation

• The views from the hills and higher surrounding Redemore Plain help provide an overview of the area and place the Battlefield in context

• The woodlands and copses in the area are of value for shooting and nature conservation

• Natural habitats which reflect the subtle changes in topography and drainage of the area reinforce and enrich local landscape character e.g. Kendall's Meadow, valued for its grassland and orchids and may be one of the best examples of hay meadow in the East Midlands, Lychgate Fisheries include areas of open water and rare reed bed and many Local Wildlife Sites covering woodland copes, grassland, grass verges along rural lanes, scrub areas along the disused railway and Ashby Canal

• The River Sence, River Tweed and Ashby Canal form important ecological corridors through an otherwise farmed landscape

• Shenton Wildlife Walk along the disused railway is a haven for wildlife and supports three types of orchid

Issues affecting Aesthetic Value:

Physical character - stewardship and management

• Much of the area is covered by Entry Level Stewardship or Higher Level Stewardship. However there are significant areas of land, within the Registered Battlefield area and within the Redemore Plain character area, which are not included in any stewardship scheme including some areas of ridge and furrow

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