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«EB1661 HOMEMADE MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SAUSAGES Jan R. Busboom and Ray A. Field F or thousands of years, people have prepared meat products similar ...»

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Both forms produce acceptable results, but need to be stored properly and used according to manufacturer directions. Small quantities of cultures for home use may be available from a local sausage maker. You can make “tangy” imitation fermented products by substituting encapsulated lactic acid or citric acid for the starter culture. Use these according to manufacturer directions. It is important to add these encapsulated acids after the final grinding step. Mix the acids in at the end of the mixing period and then stuff and cook the sausage immediately. If the encapsulated acids are ground or the meat mixture gets too warm before stuffing, the acid will escape into the meat too soon and make the sausage mushy and mealy. For safety and convenience reasons, encapsulated acids are recommended for home production of semi-dry sausages.

Making Sausage Read the desired sausage recipes well in advance to be certain you have all needed ingredients and equipment. Home sausage makers have successfully prepared the sausages described in the following recipes. Recipes give brief descriptions of procedures. For more detailed descriptions about equipment use and ingredients, read the equipment and ingredient sections. The recipes can be used for lean meat, poultry, or game which has been trimmed of fat. If the meat contains visible fat, you may need to reduce the amount of fat in the recipes.

The seasoning used in these sausages can be altered to suit individual tastes. Many consumers think, for example, 14 g monosodium glutamate (MSG) per 25-pound batch improves the flavor of these products.

Sausage Recipes

The following abbreviations are used in the recipes:

–  –  –

*Pork fat is preferred in this and in subsequent recipes, but beef fat is usually easier to purchase.

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Season by sprinkling the ingredients over the meat and mixing thoroughly.

• Grind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Sausage can be frozen in packages, made into patties, or stuffed into hog casings.

This recipe produces a mild sausage. For a more highly seasoned sausage, increase the amount of pepper and add additional seasoning (example: 1 tbsp nutmeg, 1 tbsp ginger, 1 tbsp mace).

If you want a leaner sausage, replace some of the pork or beef fat with an equal amount of lean meat. Adding up to 11/2 c of water will improve the tenderness and eating quality of leaner sausages.

Fresh Thuringer

–  –  –

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Sprinkle ingredients over meat and mix.

• Grind through a 1/4-inch plate while adding water and then regrind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes, stuff into hog casings and link.

• Cook thuringer in 170˚F water or in a 185˚F smokehouse until internal sausage temperature is 152˚F.

• Chill to an internal temperature of 100˚F in cold water.

• Hang at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour) and then refrigerate or freeze.

Thuringer can also be served hot right out of the 170˚F water or smokehouse. Liquid smoke (1 to 2 oz diluted with a pint of water) is sometimes added to replace the application of natural smoke.

Add the diluted liquid smoke at the end of the 6-minute mixing period.

Liver Sausage

–  –  –

• Fry liver until it is about half-cooked.

• Grind liver, lean, and fat through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Chop onions and season by sprinkling ingredients over the meat and mixing.

• Grind through a 1/8-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes and stuff into natural casings or artificial casings 2 to 3 inches in diameter.

• Cook in water at 170˚F or in a 185˚F smokehouse until internal temperature of sausage reaches 152˚F.

• Immediately place sausage in cold water until internal temperature of sausage is 100˚F.

• Rinse briefly in hot water to remove grease.

• Hang at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour).

• Move to refrigerator.

Cotto (Cooked) Salami

–  –  –

*Whole pepper, if added in place of ground pepper, must be mixed in after the meat has been ground for the last time.

• Cut meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Sprinkle ingredients over meat and mix.

• Grind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes and stuff into natural or artificial casings 2 to 3 inches in diameter.

• Place in a smokehouse and heat at 185˚F until internal sausage temperature reaches 152˚F.

• Move to a cold water bath until internal temperature reaches 100˚F.

• Rinse briefly with hot water to remove grease and hang sausage at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour) before refrigeration.

• Cool salami overnight in a refrigerator before cutting.

Salami can be roasted in casings in a 185˚F oven if you do not have a smokehouse. For flavor, you can add 1 to 2 oz of liquid smoke diluted in 1 pint of water per 25 lb of product at the end of the 6-minute mixing period. Follow the above chilling procedures.





Another alternative is to roast salami without casings. Mix the above ingredients 6 minutes and form rolls 2 to 3 inches in diameter and 10 inches long. If you wish, sprinkle diluted liquid smoke (1 part to 5 parts water) over the roasts. Place rolls on a broiler rack with 1/2 inch water in the pan underneath and bake in a 185˚F oven until internal temperature reaches 152˚F. Cool in cold water until internal temperature reaches 100˚F and refrigerate overnight before slicing.

Polish Sausage

–  –  –

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Sprinkle ingredients over the meat and mix.

• Grind through a 1/4-inch plate while adding water and then regrind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes and stuff into hog casings.

• Place in a smokehouse and heat at 185˚F until sausage has a smoked color and internal temperature reaches 152˚F.

• Immediately place sausage in cold water until internal temperature is 100˚F.

• Rinse briefly with hot water to remove grease.

• Hang at room temperature until the surface is dry (about 1/2 hour).

• Move to refrigerator.

Bockwurst

–  –  –

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Sprinkle ingredients over meat and mix.

• Grind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes and stuff into hog casings.

• Cook in water at 170˚F or at 185˚F in smokehouse until internal temperature of the sausage reaches 152˚F.

• Immediately place sausage in cold water until internal temperature is 100˚F.

• Rinse briefly with hot water to remove grease.

• Hang at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour).

• Move to refrigerator.

Note: If desired, this product may be cooked from the fresh state without first heating in 170˚F water.

Country Style Bologna*

–  –  –

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Sprinkle ingredients over meat, mix, and regrind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix 6 minutes and stuff into large diameter artificial or natural casings.

• Hang sausage in a 185˚F smokehouse until internal temperature reaches 152˚F.

• Remove sausage from smokehouse and immediately place in cold water until the internal temperature is 100˚F.

• Hang sausage at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour) and then refrigerate.

*You can make frankfurters using this recipe. The only difference is that frankfurters are stuffed into small casings.

Summer Sausage

–  –  –

Encapsulated lactic acid or citric acid as specified by manufacturer.

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate.

• Mix in all ingredients except the encapsulated acid and regrind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix for 4 minutes and add encapsulated acid.

• Mix 2 more minutes and stuff into artificial or natural casings.

• Immediately smoke and cook sausage in a 170˚F smokehouse until internal temperature reaches 150˚F.

• Remove sausage from smokehouse and immediately place in cold water until internal temperature is 100˚F.

• Hang sausage at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour) and then refrigerate.

Pepperoni

–  –  –

Encapsulated lactic acid or citric acid as specified by manufacturer.

• Cut lean meat and fat into 1-inch squares or grind through a coarse (1/2-inch) plate, and mix in all ingredients except the encapsulated acid.

• Regrind through a 3/16-inch plate.

• Mix for 4 minutes and add encapsulated acid.

• Mix 2 more minutes and stuff into artificial or natural casings.

• Immediately smoke and cook sausage in a 170˚F smokehouse until internal temperature reaches 150˚F.

• Remove sausage from smokehouse and immediately place it in cold water until the internal temperature is 100˚F.

• Hang sausage at room temperature until surface is dry (about 1/2 hour) and then refrigerate.

This semi-dry pepperoni will work well on homemade pizza.

Storage You should have excellent products when you remove your sausage from the smokehouse, water cooker, or oven, but improper chilling or storage can ruin both the flavor and safety of your masterpiece. As with all cured meats, place sausages in a container that will minimize exposure to air because cured meats are susceptible to rancidity.

All recipes described in this bulletin yield sausages that require refrigeration at 40˚F or below.

Some commercial dry fermented sausages can be stored at room temperature (read the label), but the eating quality of these dry sausages will also be better maintained with colder storage

temperatures. The maximum recommended refrigerator storage times are:

• 3 days for fresh sausages • 1 week for non-vacuum packaged cooked sausages and specialty meats • 2 weeks for vacuum packaged cooked sausages and specialty meats • 3–4 weeks for properly fermented dry and semi-dry sausages Freeze properly packaged, cured, and smoked sausage at 0˚F for storage up to 6 months. A moisture vapor proof bag is essential for maintaining quality during long-term frozen storage.

Safety Tips

1. Keep your equipment, hands, and working surfaces clean and properly sanitized. Use a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach to 1 gallon of cool water as a sanitizer. It is especially important to clean equipment, hands, and work surfaces that have been in contact with raw meat before you use them for cooked sausages.

2. Use meats and non-meat ingredients that are very fresh and have been properly handled.

3. All recipes in this bulletin call for final internal temperatures that will destroy trichinae. We do not recommend preparing homemade sausages that are not fully cooked. If you do prepare them, be sure the meat, especially pork, has been properly frozen to destroy trichinae and other parasites. Do not eat bear meat that has not been thoroughly cooked, because the trichinae in bear meat may survive the freezing process.

4. Use a meat thermometer to help insure meat is kept cold before cooking and sausage is properly cooked.

5. Cool the sausage quickly after cooking and keep in the refrigerator for short-term storage or freezer for long-term storage.

Issued by Washington State University Cooperative Extension and the U. S. Department of Agriculture in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Cooperative Extension programs and policies are consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation.

Evidence of noncompliance may be reported through your local Cooperative Extension office. Trade names have been used

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