«The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: The Case of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Paris, Caen) – France Olaf Merk, César Ducruet, Patrick ...»
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The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities:
The Case of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Paris,
Caen) – France
Olaf Merk, César Ducruet, Patrick Dubarle, Elvira Haezendonck and Michael Dooms
Please cite this paper as:
Merk, O., et al. (2011), “The Competitiveness of
Global Port-Cities: the Case of the Seine Axis (Le
Havre, Rouen, Paris, Caen) - France”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/07, OECD Publishing.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg58xppgc0n-en OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/07 JEL classification: R41, R11, R12, R15, L91, D57
OECD REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WORKING PAPERSThis series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected studies on regional development issues prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal authors are named.
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ABSTRACTThis working paper offers an evaluation of the performance of the ports of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Caen and Paris), as well as an analysis of the impact of the ports on their territory and an assessment of policies and governance in this field. It examines declining port performance in the last decade and identifies the principal factors that have contributed to it. In addition, the report studies the potential for synergies between the different ports, and surveys impending developments that are likely to influence port performance. The effect of the ports on economic, social and environmental questions is studied and quantified where possible. The value added of the port cluster of Le Havre/Rouen is calculated and its interlinkages with other economic sectors and other regions in France delineated. The paper outlines the impact of the ports‟ operations, and shows how their activities spill over into other regions.
The major policies governing the ports are assessed, along with policies governing transport and economic development, innovation, the environment and spatial planning. These include measures instituted by the port authorities, as well as by local, regional and national governments. Governance mechanisms at these different levels are described and analysed. A port reform package, implemented in 2011, has changed the roles of the principal actors within the ports, and initiatives at the regional level have been intensified.
Based on the report‟s findings, recommendations are proposed with a view to improving port performance and increasing the positive effects of the ports on their territory.
JEL classification: R41, R11, R12, R15, L91, D57 Keywords: ports, regional development, regional growth, urban growth, inter-regional trade, transportation, input/output
This working paper is one in a series of OECD Working Papers on Regional Development published by the OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate. It is the first case study of the OECD Port Cities Programme. This paper was written by Olaf Merk, César Ducruet (CNRS – Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne), Patrick Dubarle, Elvira Haezendonck (Vrije Universiteit Brussels) and Michael Dooms (Vrije Universiteit Brussels). It was directed by Olaf Merk, under the responsibility of Lamia Kamal-Chaoui (Head of the Urban Development Unit) and Joaquim Oliveira Martins (Head of the Regional Development Policy Division). It draws on the work of a number of other contributors, including Mathieu Bordes, Walter Manshanden and Martijn Dröes (TNO Inro Netherlands), Wouter Jacobs (Utrecht University) and Xiao Wang. The publication was edited by Vicky Elliott. Valuable comments on a draft of the report were provided by Elisabeth Gouvernal (IFFSTAR) and Michèle Collin (CNRS).
The paper can be downloaded on the OECD website: www.oecd.org/regional/portcities.
Further enquiries about this work in this area should be addressed to:
Olaf Merk (email@example.com) of the OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate.
1.1. Lagging performance
1.2 Explanations for lagging performance
1.3 Synergies between the ports in the Seine Axis
Ports in the Seine Axis have different roles
Ports in the Seine Axis have different specialisations
Forelands and hinterlands of ports in the Seine Axis
1.4 Possible trends influencing port performance
2.1 Economic impact
Economic impact of the spatial configuration of the Seine Axis
The case of advanced maritime services
Port clusters and innovation: the case of patents
2.2 Social impact
2.3 Environmental impact
External costs of freight traffic
Effects on house prices
3.1. Economic development
Diversification strategy (short sea shipping)
Attraction strategy and urban economic development
Regional embeddedness of the ports of Le Havre and Rouen
Promoting the Seine Axis
The CPER approach
Port infrastructure and modal shifts
3.3. Jobs and qualifications
3.4. Research and innovation
CPER, competitiveness clusters and the knowledge economy
Ports and R&D
3.5. Spatial planning
The city and the city-port interface
Spatial development and land reserves
3.6. The environment
Modal shift and levels of government
3.7. Culture and tourism
3.8. Final observations
4.1. Port governance: port organisation and activities located in the port
4.2. Governing the port-city interface
4.3. The outlook for regional governance
4.4. The role of the state in port governance
4.5. Potential roles for the private sector
4.6. Governance of the port hinterland
ANNEX 1: LIST OF INTERVIEW PARTNERS
ANNEX 2: METHODOLOGY FOR MULTI-REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS
ANNEX 3: ECONOMIC SPECIALISATIONS OF PORT-REGIONS IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE.......92 ANNEX 4: CLASSIFICATIONS OF PORT METROPOLISES
ANNEX 5: METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL NETWORKS OF ADVANCEDMARITIME SERVICES
ANNEX 6: LOCALISATION AND GLOBAL NETWORKS OF ADVANCED MARITIMESERVICES
ANNEX 7: THE SCIMAGO RANKING OF UNIVERSITIES
Table 1. Average annual growth rate of throughput volumes per traffic category
Table 2. Appreciation of ports by port choice actors in northwest Europe
Table 3. Transport employment according to type (as a share of transport employment, 2005).
.......25 Table 4. Efficiency of northwest European ports
Table 5. Value added of port clusters in northwest Europe (2007)
Table 6. Value added multipliers in selected northwest European port clusters (2005-08).
...............37 Table 7. Value added multipliers for main economic sectors in the Le Havre/Rouen port cluster.....37 Table 8. Value added multipliers by sector and region for the Le Havre/Rouen port cluster.............38 Table 9. Specialisations of port regions in main economic sectors in 2008
Table 10. Specialisations of port regions in selected economic sub-sectors in 2008
Table 11. Port regions and their shares in high-tech and knowledge-intensive services employment.
.45 Table 12. Top 15 maritime service centres in terms of multi-office firms
6 Table 13. Shares of national population and patent applications (2007) in European port regions......49 Table 14. Patent applications in selected sectors of main port regions in northwest Europe................51 Table 15. The main OECD regions in terms of co-patents with Le Havre/Rouen (2005-07)...............52 Table 16. Total employment (direct and indirect) of port clusters in Seine Axis (2006-08).................52 Table 17. Employment of port clusters in northwest Europe
Table 18. Maritime activities in the CPER 2007-13 for Haute-Normandie
Table 19. Strongest links in advanced maritime services between cities
Table 20. Universities in different European port-cities
Figure 1. Map of Seine Axis and the maritime outlet of Paris
Figure 2. Throughput volume growth rates 2001-10
Figure 3. Port throughput growth, population growth and GDP growth in maritime EU nations.
.......17 Figure 4. Correlation between port growth and de-industrialisation
Figure 5. Number of direct port calls on intercontinental routes of major global shipping lines.
........20 Figure 6. Position of Le Havre in the main flows of containerised goods (2006)
Figure 7. The maritime forelands of Le Havre (1996 and 2006)
Figure 8. Modal shift for container traffic in the Hamburg-Le Havre range (2008)
Figure 9. Traffic categories (as share of total tonnage) in Seine Axis ports (2010)
Figure 10. Number of vessels in Seine Axis seaports (April-June 2010)
Figure 11. Commodity diversification index for northwest European seaports (2010)
Figure 12. Correlation between the port links of Le Havre and Rouen (2006)
Figure 13. Shares of value added by sector in different northwest European ports (2005-08).
..............36 Figure 14. Classification of port-cities and their relation with non-port metropolises
Figure 15. Port city weight and distance to core metropolitan region
Figure 16. Correlation between specialisations and value added activities in the Ile de France.
...........43 Figure 17. Correlation between specialisations and value-added activities in Haute-Normandie..........43 Figure 18. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Basse-Normandie............44 Figure 19. Location and connectivity of advanced maritime services in the Seine Axis
Figure 20. The global network of Paris in advanced maritime services
Figure 21. Correlation between distance between port-city/non-port metropolis and patent ratio.
........50 Figure 22. Weighed traffic volumes according to different weight rules
Figure 23. Employment creation potential according to different calculation methods
Figure 24. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Hamburg
Figure 25. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Bremen
Figure 26. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in West-Netherlands.
..........93 Figure 27. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Flanders (Antwerp).........93 Figure 28. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in London
Figure 29. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in southeast England.
..........94 Figure 30. Localisation and connections in Thames Gateway
Figure 31. Global network of London for advanced maritime services
Figure 32. Localisation and connections in the Yangtze River Delta
Figure 33. Global network of Shanghai for advanced maritime services
Figure 34. Localisation and connections in the Pearl River Delta
Figure 35. Global network of Hong Kong for advanced maritime services
Box 1. French hinterlands of Seine Axis ports
Box 2. The Seine-Nord Europe Canal
Box 3. European transport policy
Box 4. Climate change policies in Rotterdam
Box 5. The diverging priorities of port and urban systems
Box 6. The rail/waterway modal shift in the port of Zeebrugge
Box 7. The port of Antwerp and its hinterland policy
Box 8. University initiatives on behalf of the port of Rotterdam
Box 9. Examples of programmes for greening ports
Box 10. Genoa Port Centre
Box 11. Governance and extended gateways at Antwerp and Rotterdam
Box 12. Regional port governance in the Yangtze River Delta