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«The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: The Case of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Paris, Caen) – France Olaf Merk, César Ducruet, Patrick ...»

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The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities:

The Case of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Paris,

Caen) – France

Olaf Merk, César Ducruet, Patrick Dubarle, Elvira Haezendonck and Michael Dooms

Please cite this paper as:

Merk, O., et al. (2011), “The Competitiveness of

Global Port-Cities: the Case of the Seine Axis (Le

Havre, Rouen, Paris, Caen) - France”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/07, OECD Publishing.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg58xppgc0n-en OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/07 JEL classification: R41, R11, R12, R15, L91, D57

OECD REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WORKING PAPERS

This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected studies on regional development issues prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal authors are named.

The papers are generally available only in their original language, English or French, with a summary in the other if available.

The opinions expressed in these papers are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or the governments of its member countries.

Comment on the series is welcome, and should be sent to gov.contact@oecd.org or the Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, 2, rue André Pascal, 75775 PARIS CEDEX 16, France.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------- OECD Regional Development Working Papers are published on www.oecd.org/gov/regional/workingpapers

--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this material should be made to: OECD Publishing, rights@oecd.org or by fax +33 1 45 24 99 30.

© OECD 2011 Photo credits (photos cover page: from left to right): © GPMR – R. Hondier, © AUCAME, © GPMH 2

ABSTRACT

This working paper offers an evaluation of the performance of the ports of the Seine Axis (Le Havre, Rouen, Caen and Paris), as well as an analysis of the impact of the ports on their territory and an assessment of policies and governance in this field. It examines declining port performance in the last decade and identifies the principal factors that have contributed to it. In addition, the report studies the potential for synergies between the different ports, and surveys impending developments that are likely to influence port performance. The effect of the ports on economic, social and environmental questions is studied and quantified where possible. The value added of the port cluster of Le Havre/Rouen is calculated and its interlinkages with other economic sectors and other regions in France delineated. The paper outlines the impact of the ports‟ operations, and shows how their activities spill over into other regions.

The major policies governing the ports are assessed, along with policies governing transport and economic development, innovation, the environment and spatial planning. These include measures instituted by the port authorities, as well as by local, regional and national governments. Governance mechanisms at these different levels are described and analysed. A port reform package, implemented in 2011, has changed the roles of the principal actors within the ports, and initiatives at the regional level have been intensified.

Based on the report‟s findings, recommendations are proposed with a view to improving port performance and increasing the positive effects of the ports on their territory.

JEL classification: R41, R11, R12, R15, L91, D57 Keywords: ports, regional development, regional growth, urban growth, inter-regional trade, transportation, input/output

–  –  –

This working paper is one in a series of OECD Working Papers on Regional Development published by the OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate. It is the first case study of the OECD Port Cities Programme. This paper was written by Olaf Merk, César Ducruet (CNRS – Université de Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne), Patrick Dubarle, Elvira Haezendonck (Vrije Universiteit Brussels) and Michael Dooms (Vrije Universiteit Brussels). It was directed by Olaf Merk, under the responsibility of Lamia Kamal-Chaoui (Head of the Urban Development Unit) and Joaquim Oliveira Martins (Head of the Regional Development Policy Division). It draws on the work of a number of other contributors, including Mathieu Bordes, Walter Manshanden and Martijn Dröes (TNO Inro Netherlands), Wouter Jacobs (Utrecht University) and Xiao Wang. The publication was edited by Vicky Elliott. Valuable comments on a draft of the report were provided by Elisabeth Gouvernal (IFFSTAR) and Michèle Collin (CNRS).

The paper can be downloaded on the OECD website: www.oecd.org/regional/portcities.

Further enquiries about this work in this area should be addressed to:

Olaf Merk (olaf.merk@oecd.org) of the OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate.

–  –  –

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

RECOMMENDATIONS

INTRODUCTION

1. PERFORMANCE





1.1. Lagging performance

1.2 Explanations for lagging performance

Maritime accessibility

Hinterlands

Competition

Efficiency

Environmental sustainability

1.3 Synergies between the ports in the Seine Axis

Ports in the Seine Axis have different roles

Ports in the Seine Axis have different specialisations

Forelands and hinterlands of ports in the Seine Axis

1.4 Possible trends influencing port performance

2. IMPACT

2.1 Economic impact

Economic impact of the spatial configuration of the Seine Axis

The case of advanced maritime services

Port clusters and innovation: the case of patents

2.2 Social impact

2.3 Environmental impact

External costs of freight traffic

Effects on house prices

3. POLICIES

3.1. Economic development

Business strategy

Diversification strategy (short sea shipping)

Attraction strategy and urban economic development

Regional embeddedness of the ports of Le Havre and Rouen

Promoting the Seine Axis

3.2. Transport

The CPER approach

Port infrastructure and modal shifts

3.3. Jobs and qualifications

5

3.4. Research and innovation

CPER, competitiveness clusters and the knowledge economy

Ports and R&D

3.5. Spatial planning

The city and the city-port interface

Spatial development and land reserves

3.6. The environment

Modal shift and levels of government

“Green ports”

3.7. Culture and tourism

3.8. Final observations

4. GOVERNANCE

4.1. Port governance: port organisation and activities located in the port

4.2. Governing the port-city interface

4.3. The outlook for regional governance

4.4. The role of the state in port governance

4.5. Potential roles for the private sector

4.6. Governance of the port hinterland

CONCLUSION

ANNEX 1: LIST OF INTERVIEW PARTNERS

ANNEX 2: METHODOLOGY FOR MULTI-REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

ANNEX 3: ECONOMIC SPECIALISATIONS OF PORT-REGIONS IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE.......92 ANNEX 4: CLASSIFICATIONS OF PORT METROPOLISES

ANNEX 5: METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL NETWORKS OF ADVANCED

MARITIME SERVICES

ANNEX 6: LOCALISATION AND GLOBAL NETWORKS OF ADVANCED MARITIME

SERVICES

ANNEX 7: THE SCIMAGO RANKING OF UNIVERSITIES

NOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Tables

Table 1. Average annual growth rate of throughput volumes per traffic category

Table 2. Appreciation of ports by port choice actors in northwest Europe

Table 3. Transport employment according to type (as a share of transport employment, 2005).

.......25 Table 4. Efficiency of northwest European ports

Table 5. Value added of port clusters in northwest Europe (2007)

Table 6. Value added multipliers in selected northwest European port clusters (2005-08).

...............37 Table 7. Value added multipliers for main economic sectors in the Le Havre/Rouen port cluster.....37 Table 8. Value added multipliers by sector and region for the Le Havre/Rouen port cluster.............38 Table 9. Specialisations of port regions in main economic sectors in 2008

Table 10. Specialisations of port regions in selected economic sub-sectors in 2008

Table 11. Port regions and their shares in high-tech and knowledge-intensive services employment.

.45 Table 12. Top 15 maritime service centres in terms of multi-office firms

6 Table 13. Shares of national population and patent applications (2007) in European port regions......49 Table 14. Patent applications in selected sectors of main port regions in northwest Europe................51 Table 15. The main OECD regions in terms of co-patents with Le Havre/Rouen (2005-07)...............52 Table 16. Total employment (direct and indirect) of port clusters in Seine Axis (2006-08).................52 Table 17. Employment of port clusters in northwest Europe

Table 18. Maritime activities in the CPER 2007-13 for Haute-Normandie

Table 19. Strongest links in advanced maritime services between cities

Table 20. Universities in different European port-cities

Figures

Figure 1. Map of Seine Axis and the maritime outlet of Paris

Figure 2. Throughput volume growth rates 2001-10

Figure 3. Port throughput growth, population growth and GDP growth in maritime EU nations.

.......17 Figure 4. Correlation between port growth and de-industrialisation

Figure 5. Number of direct port calls on intercontinental routes of major global shipping lines.

........20 Figure 6. Position of Le Havre in the main flows of containerised goods (2006)

Figure 7. The maritime forelands of Le Havre (1996 and 2006)

Figure 8. Modal shift for container traffic in the Hamburg-Le Havre range (2008)

Figure 9. Traffic categories (as share of total tonnage) in Seine Axis ports (2010)

Figure 10. Number of vessels in Seine Axis seaports (April-June 2010)

Figure 11. Commodity diversification index for northwest European seaports (2010)

Figure 12. Correlation between the port links of Le Havre and Rouen (2006)

Figure 13. Shares of value added by sector in different northwest European ports (2005-08).

..............36 Figure 14. Classification of port-cities and their relation with non-port metropolises

Figure 15. Port city weight and distance to core metropolitan region

Figure 16. Correlation between specialisations and value added activities in the Ile de France.

...........43 Figure 17. Correlation between specialisations and value-added activities in Haute-Normandie..........43 Figure 18. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Basse-Normandie............44 Figure 19. Location and connectivity of advanced maritime services in the Seine Axis

Figure 20. The global network of Paris in advanced maritime services

Figure 21. Correlation between distance between port-city/non-port metropolis and patent ratio.

........50 Figure 22. Weighed traffic volumes according to different weight rules

Figure 23. Employment creation potential according to different calculation methods

Figure 24. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Hamburg

Figure 25. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Bremen

Figure 26. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in West-Netherlands.

..........93 Figure 27. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in Flanders (Antwerp).........93 Figure 28. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in London

Figure 29. Correlation between specialisation and value-added activities in southeast England.

..........94 Figure 30. Localisation and connections in Thames Gateway

Figure 31. Global network of London for advanced maritime services

Figure 32. Localisation and connections in the Yangtze River Delta

Figure 33. Global network of Shanghai for advanced maritime services

Figure 34. Localisation and connections in the Pearl River Delta

Figure 35. Global network of Hong Kong for advanced maritime services

7Boxes

Box 1. French hinterlands of Seine Axis ports

Box 2. The Seine-Nord Europe Canal

Box 3. European transport policy

Box 4. Climate change policies in Rotterdam

Box 5. The diverging priorities of port and urban systems

Box 6. The rail/waterway modal shift in the port of Zeebrugge

Box 7. The port of Antwerp and its hinterland policy

Box 8. University initiatives on behalf of the port of Rotterdam

Box 9. Examples of programmes for greening ports

Box 10. Genoa Port Centre

Box 11. Governance and extended gateways at Antwerp and Rotterdam

Box 12. Regional port governance in the Yangtze River Delta

–  –  –



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