WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

«Discrimination of sexual and gender minorities in sports and exercise PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SPORTS COUNCIL 2014:1 English summary Marja ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Discrimination of sexual

and gender minorities

in sports and exercise

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SPORTS COUNCIL 2014:1

English summary

Marja Kokkonen

Discrimination of sexual

and gender minorities

in sports and exercise

Publications of the National Sports Council 2014:1

English summary

Marja Kokkonen

Ministry of Education and Culture/

National Sports Council

P.O. Box 29

FI - 00023 GOVERNMENT

www.liikuntaneuvosto.fi Layout: Mainostoimisto Poickeus Photography: Shutterstock Translation: Minna Kalajoki

VLN 2014:1

978-952-263-273-9 978-952-263-274-6 (PDF) ISSN 2242-4563 (Print) ISSN 2242-4571 (Online)

Publifications of National Sports Council 2014:1

4

DIS C RIMIN AT ION OF SE XUA L A ND GENDER PUBL IFIC AT IONS OF T HE N AT ION A L

MINORI T IE S IN SP ORT S A ND E XERC ISE SP ORT S COUNC IL 2014:1

1. INTRODUCTION In its resolution adopted in June 17th, 2011, the UN Human Rights Council expressed its great concern about the discriminatory practices and acts of violence against LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bi- sexual, transgender and intersex) people on the grounds of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Finnish researchers have studied this phenomenon already early this century, focussing on working life (1,2), career choices of young adults (3), schoolchildren’s experiences (4,5,) and sec- ondary level education, as well as free time (7). In a few other studies on discrimination in Finland in general (8,9), on discrimination experiences of children and young people (10) and in accounts on hate crime reported to the police (11,12,13), the perspective of sexual and gender minorities has also been touched upon.

According to the report “Discrimination in Finland 2008”(8), funded by the ”Follow-up on discrimination” project by the Ministry of the Interior, there has been very little coverage of any forms of action taken against discrimination in sports and exercise. Also, a recent account on gender equality in sports (14) only addresses equality issues from the point of view of gender equality, whereas equality and parity, or the discrimination experienced by competing and am- ateur LGBTI athletes, have not been focussed on in any study. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (15) has, in its report on homophobia and discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, manifestly concluded that such data in the area of sports and exercise is not available in Finland.

This report is a summary of my study (16) published in Finnish and funded by a grant awarded by the Ministry of Education and Culture. Its starting point was concern about whether LGBTI children, young people and adults have equal opportunities to adopt a physically active lifestyle.

First and foremost, I wanted to illustrate, using quantitative research methods, how frequent discrimination of sexual and gender minorities is in competitive and recreational sports, and in schools’ physical education (PE) classes. The summary includes discretionary quotations from the research data, selected after close reading, which describe the study participants’ lifeworld and illustrate what the LGBTI who practise physical exercise (and sport) have been confronted with. My warmest thanks go to all study participants – your positive attitude towards my study has generated unique knowledge on the discrimination of sexual and gender minorities in the context of sport and exercise in Finland.

–  –  –

2. CONDUCT OF THE STUDY

2.1 Research objective and research questions

2.2 Data collection and data analysis

2.3 Participants of the study

3. RESEARCH RESULTS

3.1 The exercise habits and preferred sports of LGBTI people

3.2 Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression

–  –  –

3.3 Experiences of structural discrimination

3.4 Consequences of discrimination

3.4.1 Effects of discrimination on the well-being of the discriminated

3.4.2 Effects of discrimination on engagement in sports

4. DISCUSSION

4.1 Summary of results

4.2 Areas of development and proposals for action

References

–  –  –

1. What were the exercise habits and preferred sports of the studied LGBTI sports practitioners?

2. How often had they experienced discrimination by their coaches, instructors, other team members or members in their exercise group, or by their PE teachers, on the grounds of their sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, over the past year?

3. What type of structural discrimination had LGBTI sports practitioners encountered?

4. What type of effects had this discrimination had on their well-being and engagement in sports?

2.2 Data collection and data analysis The research data was collected using an online survey between June and September 2011. The structured questions of a pre-tested questionnaire in Finnish covered the participants’ 1) background information, 2) engagement in sports and exercise, 3) resources and emotional well-being, 4) frequency and nature of perceived discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, 5) perceived discrimination in the sports association, sports team, instructed group exercise or during PE classes in school or other educational institutions, and 6) the effects of discrimination. The online survey also included open questions to map out discrimination, means to prevent it and intervene in it. The space for answering the open questions was limited to 1024 characters for technical reasons. The link leading to the online survey was published on websites, Facebook-pages and internal e-mail lists of more than 40 partner organisations, and it was sent directly to individuals, including general secretaries and other key people in sports associations and sports federations as well as some members of parliament.





The study complied with the principles of good scientific research. The respondents, participating in a strictly anonymous manner, were informed on the opening page of the online survey about the objective and the methodology of the study, the potential disadvantages of participating in the study, data retention and about the publishing methods and channels of the study results. On the basis of this information, the potential participants decided whether they wanted to participate or not – moving on from the opening page required voluntary and informed consent confirmed by ticking a box. The participants could, at any time, decline to participate, discontinue their participation without explanations or consequences or contact the principal investigator through the contact information given on the opening page. The responses were saved by identification numbers only in an electronic data file, located in the university network, and accessible only to the principal investigator with her personal user id and password. All collected data are stored and reported in all its formats in such a way that no single study partic

–  –  –

2.3 Participants of the study The online survey had been opened 1869 times. Of those individuals, 560 had given informed consent to use their answers for research purposes. Of them, 424 gave their age and their perceived (227 women, 179 men, 18 other) and legal (236 women, 188 men) gender. Answers such as ‘Santa Claus’, ‘lobster’, ‘dragon warrior’ and ‘apeman’ as the perceived gender of the respondent, and one answer stating that the respondent’s age was 1 year, were removed from the data.

Thus, the final research data was made of (at most) 419 participants belonging, as perceived by themselves, to a sexual or gender minority. All of them had given consent for the use of their answers for research purposes, and they gave their age as well as their perceived and legal gender. However, as not all respondents replied to all questions or items in the online survey, the data volume varies between different sections of the online survey.

In the final data, 226 (53.9%) of 419 study participants perceived themselves as women, 179 (42.7%) as men and 14 (3.3%) as something else; androgyne, genderqueen, gender neutral, transgender, transman, transvestite or as a transfeminine person who had been defined male at birth. As for their legal gender, 234 (55.8%) were women and 185 (44.2%) men. The respondents’ age varied between 11–64 years of age (average = 27.08 years, SD = 10.24). 61 were minors (14.7% of the participants), 232 (55.4%) were young adults between 18–29 years of age and 126 (30.1%) were adults between 30–64 years of age. The breakdown of respondents to different minorities is illustrated in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Breakdown on the basis of (the most dominant) sexual orientation (n = 394)

–  –  –

25 respondents (6%) did not specify their sexual orientation whereas 394 (94%) did so. Of those who did, 158 (40.1%) stated they were dominantly heterosexual and 236 (59.9%) said they were dominantly non-heterosexual. In addition to gays (17.5%), lesbians (20.8.%) and bisexuals (15.5%), 6.1% of the respondents specified something else as their sexual orientation (e.g. asexual, pansexual, sodomist, omnisexual, queer).

–  –  –

Of all respondents, 336 (80.2%) did not belong to any gender minority and 25 (6.0%) did not give this information about themselves. Of those belonging to minorities, (n = 58, 14.7% of the respondents to the question), transsexuals were the biggest single group (n = 18, 4.6%). The second biggest group (n = 14, 3.6%) was the “Other” group, where identities varied from ‘asexual’, ‘ladyboy’, ‘female gay’ and ‘man with a transbackground’ to ‘transsexual in the past’.

–  –  –

Slightly more than one third of the respondents (n = 122, 35.3%) were engaged in competitive sports and more than half (n = 206, 59.5%) in recreational sports. Their training frequency is illustrated in Table 4.

Table 4. Frequency of training; a minimum of 30 minutes of sport or physical exercise, either unorganised or organised, resulting in at least mild sweating and shortness of breath

–  –  –

10

DIS C RIMIN AT ION OF SE XUA L A ND GENDER PUBL IFIC AT IONS OF T HE N AT ION A L

MINORI T IE S IN SP ORT S A ND E XERC ISE SP ORT S COUNC IL 2014:1

The responses indicate that those who specified their training frequency were very active in sports and physical exercise; half of them (n = 174, 50.3%) trained at least four times as week, at least half an hour at a time, and so intensively that it made them experience breathlessness.

Of those who stated their training frequency, 188 respondents (54.3%) saw themselves as ones who practice individual performance sports and 107 (30. 9%) as team sports participants.

Not belonging to any of these groups was the choice of 51 (14.7%) respondents, and 73 respondents (17.4% of all research participants) did not indicate this at all. A wide variety of sports were represented. The sport groups referred to in the answers given to the question ”What are the sports you do most?” are listed in Table 5 so that the sport group mentioned most often in single answers is the last one in the Table, i.e. number 15.

Table 5. The study participants’ favourite sport groups, from least popular to the most popular

–  –  –

The perception that aesthetic sports are for girls and gay people was obvious in the open answers of the study participants:

When I hadn’t come out yet I used to hear a lot of comments on my dancing hobby ’So you must be gay, right? Dancing is for girls only’. Especially ballet provoked a lot of mockery. (man, 19 years) Because aesthetic sports cast doubt on the heterosexuality of the person wanting to engage in

such sports meant that in some cases they postponed their engagement in the sport:

I would have loved to start modern dance years ago but I experienced other people’s comments on ‘gay sport’ so oppressive that I finally started only years later. (man, 25 years)

3.2 Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression 3.2.1 Discriminatory encounters in the context of sport and exercise Table 6 illustrates how often study participants had observed discriminatory behaviour on the grounds of their sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression in the context of sport and exercise over the past year.

–  –  –

13

DIS C RIMIN AT ION OF SE XUA L A ND GENDER PUBL IFIC AT IONS OF T HE N AT ION A L

MINORI T IE S IN SP ORT S A ND E XERC ISE SP ORT S COUNC IL 2014:1

Of the 195 LGBTI people who answered the question, 44% had never noticed any form of discrimination, as listed in Table 6, in the context of sport and exercise within the past 12 months.

Slightly more than half of the respondents had noticed, at least a few times a year, that other people had been timid in their company or acted as if they were better than the respondent.

Nearly half of the respondents had noticed, at least a few times a year, that other people in their sport and exercise context had acted as if the respondent were not intelligent or were abnormal.

In addition, nearly half of the respondents reported having been treated more disrespectfully than others and had noticed other people avoiding their company. More than one fourth had noticed other people behaving, at least a few times a year, as if the respondent had chosen his/

her sport on the basis of his/her sexual orientation or gender identity:



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |


Similar works:

«D O C U M E N T D E T R AVA I L LE TRAVAIL : NORME ET SIGNIFICATION YOLANDE BENARROSH N° 04 octobre 2000 «LE DESCARTES I» 29, PROMENADE MICHEL SIMON 93166 NOISY-LE-GRAND CEDEX TÉL. 01 45 92 68 00 FAX 01 49 31 02 44 MÉL. cee@cee.enpc.fr http://www.cee-recherche.fr Le travail : norme et signification YOLANDE BENARROSH Centre d'études de l'emploi et Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications DOCUMENT DE TRAVAIL N° 04 octobre 2000 Ce texte a été soumis au comité éditorial...»

«Hibiscus International The Official Publication of the International Hibiscus Society www.internationalhibiscussociety.org Volume 8, Number 3, Issue No.36 July, August & September 2008 EDITOR: Richard Johnson, Tahiti, French Polynesia diveta@mail.pf INDEX From The Presidents by Richard Johnson.. 2 From The Editor: Richard Johnson.. 2 Secretary/Treasurers Report: Wayne Hall.. 3 Board Of Directors.. 3 Treasury.. 4 Committee Reports EIHF: Executive International Hibiscus Forum. 5 IHS...»

«Travail en hauteur Plan d’action : Document de support 2015 Réalisation : APSAM Rédaction : Pascal Gagnon Version originale : 29 octobre 2015 Crédits photo : sakhorn/Shutterstock.com Le générique masculin est utilisé sans discrimination et dans le seul but d’alléger le texte. © Association paritaire pour la santé et la sécurité du travail, secteur « affaires municipales », 2015 Nota : Bien que cette publication ait été élaborée avec soin, à partir de sources reconnues...»

«International Education Journal Vo1 l, No 3, 2000 201 http://www.flinders.edu.au/education/iej What the boys are saying An examination of the views of boys about declining rates of achievement and retention Malcolm Slade Flinders University, Adelaide Malcolm.Slade@flinders.edu.au Faith Trent Flinders University, Adelaide adfht@post.flinders.edu.au This paper summarises the views of 1800 Year 9 to 11 boys about declining rates of achievement and retention. The boys have been clear and largely...»

«Cebuano Defense Language Proficiency Test 5 Familiarization Guide Table of Contents Introduction Overview of the DLPT5 Description of the Lower-Range Cebuano DLPT5 Scoring Preparation for Taking the Cebuano DLPT5 Instructions for taking the Cebuano DLPT5 Test Procedures Sample Passages and Questions Listening Comprehension Appendix A: Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptions 26 3/26/2010 2 Introduction This Familiarization Guide is designed to provide prospective...»

«NEVADA REGIONAL HAZE 5-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT To Satisfy Sections 308(g), (h) and (i) of the Regional Haze Rule (40 CFR § 51.308) State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection 901 South Stewart Street, Suite 4001 Carson City, Nevada 89701 NOVEMBER 18, 2014 This page is intentionally blank. NOTE TO READERS Nevada’s Regional Haze 5-Year Progress Report was developed for submittal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 308 of the Regional Haze Rule (40 CFR § 51.308) as...»

«The Miscarriage Association Acknowledging Pregnancy Loss Men & Miscarriage “My wife Amanda and I have endured the devastation of miscarriage on four occasions. It is not something you ever recover from emotionally and the support of The Miscarriage Association has helped us both tremendously. Men often find it very hard to talk about their deep emotional feelings and subsequently the effect of miscarriage on men is often underestimated. Nigel Martyn, Patron of The Miscarriage Association...»

«David A. Wolfe Foreword by Anne Golden 21st Century Cities in Canada: The Geography of Innovation The 2009 CIBC SCholAr-In-reSIDenCe leCTure by David A. Wolfe Foreword by Anne Golden The Conference Board of Canada • Ottawa, Ontario • 2009 ©2009 The Conference Board of Canada* All rights reserved. ISBn-13: 978-0-88763-946-3 ISBn-10: 0-88763-946-1 Agreement no. 40063028 *Incorporated as AerIC Inc. The Conference Board of Canada 255 Smyth Road, Ottawa ON K1H 8M7 Canada Inquiries:...»

«2016 Magic Hat Mardi Gras Call for Floats Packet CALLING ALL REVELERS! Do you think you’ve got what it takes to have a float in the 21st Annual Magic Hat Mardi Gras Parade? It’s an exhilarating ride and it all takes place on Saturday, March 5, 2016. If you want to participate with a float, here’s what you need to do. 1. Read and Sign the Guidelines. There are several changes from year’s past, so please read the entire “Float Participation Guidelines” section of this packet, and sign...»

«355| A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil EMBRACING UNCERTAINTY IN DoD ACQUISITION 1SG David E. Frick, USA (Ret.) Uncertainty is an inherent, unavoidable aspect of life that has a significant impact on program or project management, and acquisition in general. The treatment of risk management within the Department of Defense (DoD) as a formal element of acquisition is a topic discussed extensively in the acquisition profession. DoD fares no better than industry...»

«Instructions & Applications for Van De Graff Generator Introduction: The Van de Graaff generator deposits a very large amount of positive electrical charge on the metal dome (oblate, globe). This massive volume of positive electrical charge produces a spectacular display of lightning and other phenomena. When two insulators are rubbed together, one loses electrons to the other and becomes electrically positive. It has acquired positive electrical charges. The other insulator, having gained...»

«1 When Two and Two is Not Equal to Four: Errors in Processing Multiple Percentage Changes HAIPENG (ALLAN) CHEN AKSHAY R. RAO* Forthcoming, Journal of Consumer Research. 2 * Haipeng (Allan) Chen is Assistant Professor, Marketing Department, 505 Kosar/Epstein Building, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (hchen@miami.edu). Akshay R. Rao is General Mills Professor of Marketing and Director, Institute for Research in Marketing, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.