WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 |

«STRUCTURE AND EXPERIENCE IN THE MAKING OFAPARTHEID 6-10 February 1990 AUTHOR: Iain Edwards and Tim Nuttall TITLE: Seizing the moment : the January ...»

-- [ Page 8 ] --

Indian buses were boycotted at Booth Road, the main Cato Manor terminus. African commuters used the emergency municipal buses, or packed into African-driven cars and small lorries which flourished as pirate taxis.1" Buses were also boycotted elsewhere. The Point dock workers insisted they would never use Indian buses again, and savings funds were started at the Bell Street hostel and elsewhere for residents to buy their own buses."8 There was a partial boycott on the Lamont route.'" Initially the bus boycott was a spontaneous consequence of the riots. By the end of February it had fizzled out, except at Booth Road where Indian buses were only carrying around 25% of their pre-riot traffic.'™ Here small groups of khaki-clad pickets, organized by taxi operators and aspirant bus owners, policed the boycott.121 The pickets used violence but this alone could not have ensured their success. The commuters who booed the Indian buses when they arrived at the terminus, or stoned them along the route, provided a groundswell of support.122 The temporary municipal bus certificates for Booth Road were due to expire at the end of February, leaving only Indian buses running on the route. As the end of the month approached, rumours circulated that

116. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579,323B, 1: Secretary, Cato Manor Ratepayers Association to TC, 9 February 1949, and NAD Manager's Report, 22 February 1949; Natal Mercury. 24 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579,323B, 1: Assistant Licensing Officer to TC, 15 February 1949.

117. Initially the municipality laid on 210 special buses, to clear the central city of crowds as quickly as possible. The Indian bus owners challenged the legality of this, and by the end of February there were 30 municipal buses on the Booth Road route. Torr, 'Lamont', 155; Natal Mercury. 21 January 1949, 22 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579,323B, 1: Liaison Officer report, 24 February 1949;

Sunday Tribune. 20 February 1949; Ilanga. 28 January 1949.

118. Riots Commission 1949, evidence, p.346; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1582, 323B, 4: Z.

Phungula to TC, 17 February 1949.

119. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580, 323B, 2: Native Locations Combined Advisory Board minutes, 8 March 1949.

120. Details in this paragraph are from NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580, 323B, 2: Durban transportation board hearing, 25 February 1949.

121. Guardian 3 February 1949.

122. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1581, 323B, 3: H.G. Stone's memo to mayor, 30 May 1949.

30 Africans would rise up against Indians again and destroy all Indian buses. These rumours spread like wild fire, driving over 500 Indians to seek safety in refugee camps, and signalling the continuing receptiveness of ordinary people to the spirit of the riots.121 Increased police patrols and the last minute renewal of the municipal bus certificates deflated the rumours, however, and the weekend was quiet.

Conservatives in the Durban ANC and Native Advisory Board agreed to set up a joint council with the Natal Indian Congress to 'promote mutual understanding'.1" With the other hand they used the riots to increase their bargaining power with the municipality, seeking specifically to advance the interests of an aspirant commercial middle class through segregation policies which excluded Indian interests from 'Native' areas.121 Unlike the less 'established' squatter leaders, who made similar demands but needed the backing of popular agitation to be heard by the authorities, the Advisory Board politicians already had influence with officials.126 They were supported by the NAD manager, E Havemann, who saw the political advantages of the controlled growth of larger scale African entrepreneurs.1" He was hostile to the uncontrolled petty trading at Booth Road, but initiated basic market facilities at Lamont and Chesterville, set up a wholesale trade for supplying African retailers, and supported African trade licences for Cato Manor and elsewhere. These initiatives yielded increased fees for Native Administration coffers, and enabled the riots to be remembered as an 'act of God' which launched a more prosperous African trading class.128 The Native Administration Department invited the Zulu paramount chief to address hostel and shack dwellers, a move designed to invoke respect for the municipal authorities and warn against further rioting.129 The major short-term concern of the municipality, however, was not political co-option and control but financing and managing the refugee camps and emergency buses.130 It was left to the police to consolidate the state's counter-attack against the rioters. All public meetings were banned until mid February. At least 100 Africans were charged with public violence and given to hard labour sentences. Liquor raids were stepped up; police searched widely for looted goods and prosecuted pirate taxis and illegal street traders."1 Armoured cars continued to patrol the city, and military units remained on standby. On numerous occasions the police dispersed African crowds which gathered outside Indian refugee

123. Natal Mercury. 24-26 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: Liaison Officer report, 24 February 1949 and 1 March 1949.

124. Karis and Carter, Protest, p.287.

125. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580,323B, 2: S Ngcobo to TC, 4 March 1949; Natal Mercury.

17 January 1949.

126. Natal Mercury. 21 January 1949.

127. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1581, 323B, 3: Native Administration manager's report to Native Administration Committee, 16 June 1949.





128. UNISA, Champion papers, AAS1, Box 1, 2.2.1 and 2.2.2. A W G Champion

interview by M W Swanson, 1 January 1973; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580, 323B, 2:

Native Administration manager to TC, 28 March 1949; L. Kuper, Bourgeoisie.

pp.289-309.

129. Natal Mercury. 26 February 1949; Ilanga. 22 January 1949 and 5 March 1949.

130. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: Town Clerk's diary, 30 January 1949.

131. Natal Mercury. 26 January 1949 and 19 February 1949; Ilanga. 12 February 1949.

31 camps or threatened to stone Indian buses.1" Any African crowd was seen to embody further rioting; the police called for the relocation of central city beer halls and bus depots, and insisted that emergency municipal buses should continue to run on the Booth Road route to minimise volatile commuter crowds.133 Between February and May there were four incidents of African-Indian scuffles in the centre of town, one of which disrupted the whole of the Warwick Avenue market area. The role of the police was far from unambiguous in these clashes."4 During April 1949 the aftermath of the riots took a new turn with plans for a general strike of African workers. The architect was the Dock Workers Union leader, Zulu Phungula. Aiming to direct the popular energy of the riots against capital, Phungula proposed a general strike to secure wage demands of one pound five shillings per day or thirty two pounds ten shillings per month.133 These amounted to increases of around 500%, a radical challenge to Durban's ultra-low African wage levels.

The Point dock workers were well known for their militancy. They were heirs to a long tradition of strike action; they had been prominent in the 1948 beer hall boycott and the January riots. Soon after the riots Dock Workers Union was renamed the Natal Zulu National Workers Union (NZNWU) and a large public meeting was held.136 This gathering was dispersed by the police and heavy patrols traversed the Point area. Under the shadow of this police action, the NZNWU launched an intriguing campaign which linked general strike plans to a co-operative scheme to buy buses. A widely distributed pamphlet called on all 'Zulu workers' to strike indefinitely on May Day 1949. Strikers were urged to gather at the Point, to boycott the beer halls and municipal buses, to 'divorce themselves from everything European', and to bring their money for the bus company. Native Administration officials believed that the workers were 'not sufficiently well organised' for a widescale strike. The police nevertheless arrested Phungula on 30 April, and heavily armed convoys of police roamed the city during the weekend. During 2-3 May an estimated 800 dock workers struck work; they were joined by pockets of workers in firms around the harbour. The strike was weakened, however, by poor organisation and over-reliance on Phungula's leadership, by the aggressive police presence, and by employer threats of prosecution or offers of concessions. By the third day it had fizzled out. The authorities nevertheless regarded the strike agitation as

132. Natal Mercury. 19 January 1949,31 January 1949,21 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: Liaison officer report, 8 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580, 323B, 2: Liaison officer report, 6 March 1949.

133. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: Deputy Town,Clerk to Registrar, Natal Supreme Court, 25 January 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1580, 323B, 2: Durban transportation board hearing, 25 February 1949, and South African Police to TC, 12 March 1949 and 17 March 1949.

134. Guardian 24 February 1949, 3 March 1949, 17 April 1949, and 19 May 1949.

135. The following account is based on D. Hemson, 'Class consciousness and migrant workers: dock workers of Durban', PhD, University of Warwick, 1979;

correspondence in Central Archives Depot (CAD), NTS 2222, 416/280, 2; CAD Industrial Legislation Commission K18, 34, NK3, file 37, evidence of Zulu Phungula, Durban, 21 April 1949, paras. 2950-2964; Guardian. 5 and 12 May 1949; Ilanga. 7 May 1949.

136. Phungula claimed that 20 000 attended, including workers 'from across the Umgeni'. Evidence has not been found to support this.

32 sufficiently threatening to re-banish Phungula from Durban, this time for ten years.

If the local state had been able to find the head of the strike and chop it off, this task was far more difficult in Booth Road where there was little explicit organisation. The bus boycott dragged on into the second half of 1949. Employers in industry and commerce began to complain that the continuing disruption of Cato Manor commuter traffic was affecting work attendance and productivity of African employees. The boycott had been seen by some members of the Durban Corporation as a useful pretext for introducing a municipal monopoly or utility company to run black bus transport.137 However when the central government refused to subsidise losses on the emergency buses these schemes were dropped. In May 1949 the National Transport Commission ruled that the emergency buses be withdrawn, and eleven certificates be given to African operators. Established African business interests, linked to the Native Advisory Board, jumped at this opportunity, excluding the more marginal squatter entrepreneurs, such as those gathered around the Zulu Hlanganani Association. The first African buses began running in July 1949.°" In the meantime the resilience of the illegal traders, pirate taxi drivers and bus boycotters had forced the police to take drastic action. In May 1949 the police tried to shut down street trading and illegal taxi transport at Booth Road.

This provoked widespread stoning of Indian buses, and running battles between police and residents in the area, with the police using 'frequent shows of armed force'.13* During the second half of 1949 the municipality grappled with longer-term policy responses to the riots. A common reaction of Durban's white citizens to the riots was that there were 'too many Natives' in the city. In December 1949 the city council instructed the Native Administration Department to tighten influx controls drastically.1" The focus of municipal concern during late 1949 was the future of Cato Manor."1 Apart from questions of health and housing control, Cato Manor was - as the riots and their aftermath had graphically shown - a volatile political threat to the rulers of the city. The municipality was at odds with itself over Cato Manor; some argued that all shack residents should be forcibly removed, while others proposed controlled site and service schemes on expropriated land in the district. The future of Cato Manor was to be a major policy issue during the 1950s.

137. Natal Provincial Administration, Report... Durban Passenger Transport (1946) (hereafter Scott/Baldwin report), pp. 2-3, 47-50; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: E. Havemann to TC, 18 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1581, 323B, 3:

Deputy Town Clerk to Chair, Electricity Committee, 19 May 1949.

138. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1579, 323B, 1: Secretary for Transport to TC, 28 February 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1582, 323B, 4: TC to Secretary for Transport, 7 July 1949; NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1581, 323B, 3: Electricity Committee minutes, 27 May 1949; Natal Mercury. 2 July 1949.

139. NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1582,323B, 4: Secretary, Cato Manor Ratepayers Association to Mayor, 11 July 1949; Ilanga. 21 May 1949; Natal Daily News. 12 May 1949;

NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1581,323B, 3: Mayor's telegram to Prime minister's secretary, 17 May 1949, and H.G. Stone's memo to mayor, 7 June 1949.

140. See correspondence in NA 3/DBN 4/1/3/1694, 467, 6.

141. I. Edwards, "The Durban City Council, M'Kumbane and the Cato Manor Emergency Camp, 1949-1952', in Natal 1909-1961 (University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg: Department of Historical and Political Studies, 1983).

33 The 'liberation' of Mkhumbane created enormous dilemmas for alliance politics. The shack dwellers wanted to keep the land. This view was supported and explained by

Congress Youth League journalist H I E Dhlomo:

The African mass-man agrees with the authorities that the races should be separated. Cato Manor is a predominantly African area these days.

The mass-man argues that here the Africans should live by himself and cater for his own interests...Let Indians and Europeans confine themselves to their own areas.' "2 But the issue was not so clearcut. In order to tap into squatter militancy the restructured ANC under Luthuli recognized the need to articulate grassroots demands. This meant supporting a call for taking land away from Indians. This was one of the major constraints on alliance politics in Natal. The Cato Manor branch of the NIC resisted all calls for expropriation of their land. The Durban NIC argued that Africans should be given land in Umlazi and areas north of the city."3 The ANC never fully confronted this dilemma.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 |


Similar works:

«REPORT NO. 1 Annual Report of the District Superintendent July 9, 2011 General Superintendent Dr. Jerry Pence, pastors, delegates and friends assembled for the 44th Annual Conference of the South Carolina District of The Wesleyan Church: Greetings in the strong name of our Risen Lord! This is my seventh report to you as District Superintendent. That simply does not seem possible. I continue to be amazed at our Lord’s faithfulness and empowering presence in our lives. I am humbled as I...»

«FEZA BASKAYA Simulating Search Sessions in Interactive Information Retrieval Evaluation ACADEMIC DISSERTATION To be presented, with the permission of the Board of the School of Information Sciences of the University of Tampere, for public discussion in the Auditorium Pinni B 3116, Kanslerinrinne 1, Tampere, on June 13th, 2014, at 12 o’clock. UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE FEZA BASKAYA Simulating Search Sessions in Interactive Information Retrieval Evaluation Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1949 Tampere...»

«Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19540-19555; doi:10.3390/ijms141019540 OPEN ACCESS International Journal of Molecular Sciences ISSN 1422-0067 www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Article Isolation and Characterization of Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-like Cells: Role in Tumor Formation Katiuscia Dallaglio 1,†, Tiziana Petrachi 1,†, Alessandra Marconi 1, Francesca Truzzi 1, Roberta Lotti 1, Annalisa Saltari 1, Paolo Morandi 1, Mario Puviani 2, Antonino Maiorana 3, Dennis R. Roop 4 and Carlo Pincelli...»

«Gyles Iannone 1 CURRICULUM VITAE NAM E: Gyles Iannone ADDRESS: Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, CANADA K9J 7B8. Phone: (705)-748-1011 (ext. 1453); FAX: (705)-748-1613; E-Mail: giannone@trentu.ca CURRENT POSITION(S): ! Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Trent University ! Anthropology Graduate Program Director, Trent University ! Research Fellow Trent University Archaeological Research Centre AREAS OF INTEREST: ! Archaeological Method and Theory,...»

«Original language: English CoP16 Prop. 46 (Rev. 2) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3-14 March 2013 CONSIDERATION OF PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENT OF APPENDICES I AND II A. Proposal Inclusion of the Genus Manta 1 (including Manta birostris, Manta alfredi and any other possible species of Manta) in Appendix II in accordance with Article II paragraph 2(a) of the convention and...»

«LAWS OF MALAYSIA ONLINE VERSION OF UPDATED TEXT OF REPRINT Act 574 PENAL CODE As at 1 January 2015 2 PENAL CODE.... 1936 (F.M.S. Cap. 45) First enacted..... 1997 (Act 574 w.e.f. Revised 7 August 1997) Latest amendment made by Act A1471 which came... into operation on 31 December 2014 PREVIOUS REPRINTS... First Reprint 2002... Second Reprint 2006... Third Reprint 2009 3 LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 574 PENAL CODE ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY Section 1. Short title...»

«HAZE AND CONVERGENCE MODELS: EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON Jessica El Khoury, Jean-Baptiste Thomas, Alamin Mansouri To cite this version: Jessica El Khoury, Jean-Baptiste Thomas, Alamin Mansouri. HAZE AND CONVERGENCE MODELS: EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON. AIC 2015, May 2015, Tokyo, Japan. hal01202989 HAL Id: hal-01202989 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01202989 Submitted on 22 Sep 2015 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est archive for the deposit and...»

«BOARD OF SELECTPERSON MEETING May 1, 2014, 7:00 p.m. Rumford Falls Auditorium PRESENT: Chairperson Gregory Buccina, Vice-Chairperson Jeffrey Sterling, Selectperson Bradford Adley, Selectperson Jolene Lovejoy, Selectperson Frank DiConzo, Town Manager John Madigan, Jr. ATTENDEES: Candice Casey, Chris DeSalle, Tonia DeSalle, Randall Smith, Bromley Cook, Maureen Cook, Thomas Fallon, Robert Chase, Amanda Houston, Bruce Farrin, Mia Purcell, Stacy Carter, Terry Karkos, Dieter Kreckel, Jennifer Kreckel...»

«1 Teens, Technology, and Trouble Our students are always online and always on their phones, and some of them are misusing technology in pretty bad ways. And it’s affecting what we’re trying to accomplish at our school. We’ve set numerous rules, and outlined a number of sanctions—some of which are severe. We’ve implemented blocks and filters. But I feel these strategies are piecemeal. There has got to be a better approach. There has got to be something else we can do. —educator from...»

«THREE DIMENSIONAL SHOCK WAVE/BOUNDARY LAYER INTERACTIONS Sean Mowatt A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Engineering Johannesburg 2011 Declaration I declare that this dissertation is my own unaided work. It is being submitted to the Degree of Master of Science to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. It has not been...»

«The Cooperation of Grimm Brothers, Jernej 231 Kopitar and Vuk Karadžić* Monika Kropej 215 2013, This article is focused on Kopitar’s work for oral tradition in the eras of the Enlightenment and Romanticism, and on his contribution to South Slavic publications of folk narrative and linguistics, especially from the perspective of his cooperation with Jacob Grimm and Vuk Stefanović Karadžić. Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844), Slovene linguist, censor, and scribe in Vienna, was one of the...»

«Common-Mode Chokes1 by Chuck Counselman, W1HIS Summary Your ability to hear weak MF and HF signals is limited by noise, generated mostly by solid-state electronic switches within your own house, conducted via the 60-Hz power line to your shack, and from there to your antenna by common-mode current on the feedline. Putting common-mode chokes on your feedline, power, and other cables will substantially reduce your received noise level. A good choke has 1 kΩ impedance for all MF and HF bands and...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.