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«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

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“Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice

in a Multicultural World”

Holiday Inn University of Miami

Coral Gables, Florida

March 10 – March 13, 2010

Edited by:

Melissa D. Dodd

Koichi Yamamura

University of Miami



Don W. Stacks, Ph.D., University of Miami, Conference Director Shannon Bowen, Ph.D., Syracuse University Marcia Watson DiStaso, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University Melissa D. Dodd, M.A., University of Miami Jack W. Felton, Institute for Public Relations (Emeritus) John Gilfeather, TNS Bob Grupp, Institute for Public Relations Michelle Hinson, Institute for Public Relations Dean Kruckeberg, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA, University of Northern Iowa Fraser Likely, Likely Communication Strategies, Ltd.

Tina Carroll McCorkindale, Ph.D., California State University at Pomona Rita Linjuan Men, M.Phil., University of Miami David Michaelson, Ph.D., Echo Research Douglas A. Newsom, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA, Texas Christian University Frank Ovaitt, Makovsky + Company and CEO Emeritus, Institute for Public Relations Katie D. Paine, KDPaine & Partners Robert S. Pritchard, M.A., University of Oklahoma Brad Rawlins, Ph.D., Brigham Young University Judy VanSlyke Turk, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA, Virginia Commonwealth University Lou Williams, L.C. Williams & Associates Donald K. Wright, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA, Boston University Koichi Yamamura, M.S, University of Miami Lynn M. Zoch, Ph.D., Radford University Educator Academy Liaison to Committee Betsy Ann Plank, APR, Fellow PRSA Past Conference Directors Melvin Sharpe, Ph.D., APR, Fellow PRSA

Special Thanks To:

Jennifer Moyer, Institute for Public Relations 3 We would like to thank the following for supporting socially beneficial public relations research that increases understanding, builds relationships, supports ethical socially responsible performance, and advances the

development of an increasingly democratic global society:

Arthur W. Page Society Brazilian Association for Business Communication Brigham Young University Department of Communications Echo Research Edelman FedEx General Motors IBM Institute for Public Relations ITT Corporation Jackson Jackson & Wagner Johnson & Johnson Ketchum Likely Communications Strategies University of Miami Peter

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Extremist groups throughout the world rely on sophisticated public relations campaigns to attract members and undermine their opponents. This study applied multiple ethical perspectives, including non-Western approaches, to determine if al Qa'ida public relations campaigns were unethical, and if so, what standards could be used to judge the ethics of a public relations campaign Do They Keep Their Promises?—Responsiveness Rates of Israeli Businesses and 30 Nonprofit Associations Ruthie Avidar, University of Haifa (Israel) This study embraces the co-creational perspective from public relations theory. It is based on a field experiment among 1200 businesses and nonprofit associations. The study reveals a gap between the dialogic potential of the Internet and its actual utilization by organizations, and calls for a distinction between a declarative symmetrical communication and actual responsiveness.

47 The state of environmental communication:A Survey of PRSA Members Denise S. Bortree, Pennsylvania State University This study takes the first step toward exploring how organizations communicate about their environmental policies and practices and the degree to which this communication is transparent. Findings from 320 surveys completed by PRSA members suggest that organizations with more knowledgeable practitioners tend to be more transparent in their communication.

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Building on previous framing and agenda-setting research in public relations, this study examines issue mentions in the speeches and political advertisements used by the Barack Obama and John McCain campaigns during the 2008 presidential election. Campaign speeches and political advertisements were content analyzed for issue and character mentions.

94 The Moral Exemplars of Public Relations: Who Are They?

Anesha Brown Liliya Velbovets, Brigham Young University The aim of this quantitative research is to identify which individual public relations professionals or scholars are considered to be the moral exemplars for the field. To answer these research questions, a convenience sample of public relations scholars and practitioners between the ages of 25-65 was selected and invited to complete a Web-based survey.

113 Public Relations in Ukraine: A Qualitative Profile of its Historical Development, Current State, and Emerging Trends Iryna Bugayova Alan R. Freitag, U of North Carolina at Charlotte Public relations practice in non-Western countries remains an under-researched area. This study explores public relations practice in Ukraine. The study begins by reviewing the existing research on public relations practice in the Central and Eastern Europe and on Ukraine in particular. The paper then presents the results of in-depth interviews conducted with practitioners in Ukraine

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This current qualitative research is focused on examining the stewardship model from the philosophy that it can be also used as a way to engage non-profit volunteers and community members, who donate their time and other resources, as opposed to solely focusing on those who make monetary contributions.

169 Exploring Key Messages as a Concept for Public Relations Evaluation: Case Studies of Nonprofit Organizations Craig E. Carroll Nell C.L. Huang Brooke Weberling, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Building upon the literature in framing, attribute agenda setting, agenda building, and mathematical theory of communication, the authors introduce and define the concept of ‘message integrity’ as a way to evaluate the processes of attribute salience transfer. The concept is then examined in the context of 18 national non-profit organizations.

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This study provides concrete suggestions into how to design effective student experiences in non-profits to maximize the opportunity of attracting quality public relations students to careers in the non-profit sector. Results of the study showed that there was a significant difference between career choice and personal values.

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With the onset of significant blogging and citizen journalism, Journalists and public relations practitioners are somewhat stymied by the lack of refereed information and credentials of new media outlets. This study investigates the ethical dilemmas of establishing appropriate media credentials as well as verifying the accuracy of citizen journalists as self-gatekeepers.

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This study reports data from a nationwide survey of Millennial Generation public relations agency employees that examined employer-organization relationships and factors affecting ethical decision making. This study extends relationship management theory, noting that it not only leads to good relationship outcomes with employers but also correlates with more ethical behavior on their part.

252 Who Really Cares about Ethics? Corporate Social Responsibility and Consumer Purchase Intention Melissa D. Dodd, University of Miami This study seeks to extend the existing body of literature related to CSR and financial performance with the inclusion of consumer’s perspectives. The current study concludes that a positive relationship exists between CSR and financial performance, or that consumers are more likely to purchase a product if they perceive the company that makes it as socially responsible.

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This study attempts to examine how selected Fortune 100 companies use Twitter to engage with their publics in order to build and/or maintain relationships with them. Using content analysis methodology, this study examines these corporations’ “tweets” to determine the extent to which they engaged with their “followers” to build trust, satisfaction and commitment.

299 U.S. and European Perspectives on Teaching Ethics to Public Relations Students Elina Erzikova, Central Michigan University To examine university teachers’ perceptions of ethics instruction in the PR curriculum, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 52 American and European educators. The study found that as PR practices reflect national specifics of the countries in which PR activities take place, PR educational philosophies reflect national PR practices and broader societal contexts.

320 The Licensed Ethical Conscience: A study of Public Relations Ethics in Brazil Angela Fischer, Boston University As the first country to license public relations, Brazil serves as a testing zone, where public relations practitioners can learn about the ethical effects of a licensed profession. This study expands the concept of public relations licensing addressed almost exclusively by Molleda and Athaydes (2003) to include ethical implications.

332 What Do Ads Buy? Daily Coverage of Listed Companies on the Italian Press Marco Gambaro, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy) Riccardo Publisi, Università di Pavia (Italy) This study analyzes the impact of advertising and public relation on media coverage, with a focus on listed companies. Newspaper coverage of 13 Italian companies listed on the stock market are analyzed. Newspapers appear to be reacting more strongly to companyspecific newsworthy events, the larger the purchases of ads by that company.

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Given the exponential growth of obesity in Black women and the use of the Internet as a health promotion medium, this study will examine the messages, visuals, and strategies used in two weight-loss websites, Jenny Craig and the 50 Million Pound Challenge, to investigate how the two online programs are targeting Black women.

Blogs vs. Online Newspapers: Analyzing Different Emotions and Perceptions of Crisis 392 Responsibility Displayed Online in the Samsung Oil Spill Bokyung Kim Joonghwa Lee, University of Missouri Little research has been conducted about “affected stakeholders.” This study seeks to fill this gap by focusing on the influence of stakeholders’ perceptions of a crisis on either journalists’ framing of news reports or an organization’s CRS and by comparing stakeholders’ and journalists’ anger, alertness, negative word-of-mouth, and perceptions of crisis responsibility exhibited online.

413 Technology: All the Talk, BUT is it All the Use?

Eunseong Kim Terri L. Johnson, Eastern Illinois University Through a survey of Indiana and Illinois practitioners conducted in February 2009, this study looks at exactly what parts of the new technology are becoming parts of the organization’s strategic plan and what parts are just hanging out there and what parts are used on a day-to-day basis to reach public relations goals and objectives.

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This paper traces student engagement in ethics and corporate social responsibility issues in public relations and corporate communication courses at several institutions over more than a decade. Its focus is on how students interpreted and applied theoretical concepts and readings to real-world situations and standards for ethical practice and CSR.

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To apply the conflict management theoretical framework to Chinese PR practice modeling and advance the knowledge of key PR practice issues in a multicultural setting, this study focuses on testing the contingency theory on Chinese PR practitioners’ strategic conflict management decision-making processes. Survey method is used to obtain Chinese practitioners’ evaluations of key components of the contingency theory.

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This study aims at offering a global crisis response strategy that was developed from the rhetorical analysis of the crisis response strategies employed by T-Mobile Germany to respond to accusations of disclosure of confidential data of 17 million customers and of hiring a detective company to spy on the T-Mobile top management.

Revisiting the Continuum of Types of Organization-Public Relationships: From a 505 Resource-based View Rita Linjuan Men, University of Miami

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This paper addressed the findings from two research projects related to how top business communicators measure the ROI of their organization’s corporate communication efforts.

The first part reported the results of an international survey of 265 experienced business communicators worldwide. The second, qualitative study used in-depth interviews with 16 diverse and experienced business communicators.

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A recent survey conducted among Brazil’s largest corporations (N=315) reveals the profiles and key challenges facing Brazilian Public Relations practitioners. The survey highlights the academic backgrounds, age, gender, years of experience and key areas of interest of today’s PR professionals and shows the key challenges and issues facing their organizations as they engage a wide range of stakeholders.

When Old Rules Don’t Apply and Standard Measures Fail – Defining New Ways to 546 Measure Investor Relations Katie D. Paine, KDPaine & Partners To determine if any of the elements of activities provided by a corporate IR department, an analytical methodology was designed. The methodology broke down each report into three discrete elements: Analyst metadata, report metadata, and concept metadata. Individual company messages were also tracked for their prominence and further categorized as to their integrity.

Contingency Theory of Strategic Conflict Management: Unearthing Factors that 554 Influence Ethical Elocution in Crisis Communication Augustine Pang, Nanyang Tech University Yan Jin, Virginia Commonwealth University Glen T. Cameron, U of Missouri-Columbia

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