FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 120 | 121 || 123 | 124 |   ...   | 175 |

«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

-- [ Page 122 ] --

Stakeholders may not always expect companies to be proactive in their CSR activities but it is reasonable to surmise that many stakeholders do expect companies to rectify any societal wrongs they may have caused. Based on this finding, the results support the prediction that reactive initiatives are perceived to be more stakeholder-driven than proactive initiatives. As such (at 654 least in this context), the subjects in this study believed the company engaged in reactive CSR because of pressures from salient stakeholders. Table 2 contains the cell means and F-test scores for stakeholder-driven attributions.

–  –  –

Strategic-driven attributions. For Hypothesis 5, a one-way ANOVA with source as the between-subjects factor and strategic-driven attributions as the dependent variable was performed. The results of this analysis supported Hypothesis 5 in that, information source significantly affected strategic-driven attributions (F(1,228)=3.57, p.10). As predicted, the information contained in the internally published press release was perceived to be more strategic-driven (M=5.32) than the information contained in the externally published press release (M=5.02). Hypothesis 5 predicted the CSR action communicated via an internally published press release would be perceived to be more strategic-driven or “self-centered” compared to CSR action communicated via an externally published press release. This prediction was empirically supported. Individuals likely believe that the communication of a CSR initiative is an important strategic consideration made by a company involved in CSR activities. As such, individuals assigned strategic-driven attributions toward a CSR initiative that was communicated internally as opposed to that communicated coming from an external source.

For the final analysis, Hypothesis 6 was tested using the same method as noted above.

The effect of valence on strategic-driven attributions was significant (F(1,228)=39.72, p.001), thereby providing support for Hypothesis 6. Individuals in the proactive condition perceived the action to be more strategic (M=5.68) than those in the reactive condition (M=4.68). For this hypothesis we predicted that proactive CSR would be associated with strategic-driven attributions because of the important role corporate planning has in implementing a proactive CSR strategy (Wagner et al. 2009). Unlike reactive CSR, which is simply a response to some negative event, proactive CSR involves a firm engaging in CSR without any prior motive. As such, proactive CSR was perceived to be more strategic than the reactive form. Table 3 contains the cell means and F-test scores for strategic-driven attributions.

–  –  –

This study extends the literature by illustrating the practical importance of communicating CSR. We empirically demonstrated that the source and valence of a message can influence an individuals’ perception of a firm’s motives for engaging in CSR. While prior research has indicated consumer perceptions of CSR are important predictors of firm-level outcomes, the current study suggests that message characteristics may be important antecedents that influence perceptions of CSR. Public relations practitioners will find this information useful when creating and disseminating strategic CSR communication.

Practitioners have many options when structuring and deciding on the placement of CSR messages. Our finding that an internally published proactive initiative resulted in the perception of strategy is particularly noteworthy. While releasing information related to proactive CSR may maximize values-driven attributions, it may also exacerbate consumers’ strategic-driven attributions. This highlights the conflict that many managers face when electing to publish a proactive CSR initiative. In order to maximize the values-driven attributions consumers assign to CSR, managers also run the risk of maximizing the strategic-driven attributions.

Limitations and Future Research

Our findings extend the literature by applying source and valence as independent variables and demonstrating that the placement and source of a press release can affect their perceptions of an activity. In light of our reported findings, we do recognize several limitations to the analysis procedures used in this study. First, we utilized experimental design to empirically test the hypothesized manipulations. A substantial amount of research in the CSR arena has utilized this design to understand consumer responses to CSR (Du et al., 2007).

However, a criticism of the significance of hypothetical designs is questioned as it is difficult to gauge actual consumer reactions (Diamond & Hausman, 1994). Thus, future work should transpose our model to actual businesses to reinforce the importance of message characteristics and the attributions’ consumers assign to various CSR efforts. Second, communication strategies taken by a firm may differ from organizations’ actual ethical policies and practices. CSR communications may amplify the potential benefits of the initiative (i.e., internal communications) or undervalue the practices, reach, and performance of the initiative (i.e., external communications). Given the heightened visibility of many multinational firms and the increased scrutiny that goes along with it, careful selection and focused CSR communications may provide added benefits. Thirdly, based on our design we were unable to illustrate the potential tradeoffs for the different attributions. For example, while many respondents might regard a CSR initiative as largely strategic-driven (i.e., firm-serving), this information has the ability to resonate deeply with consumers. Thus the “any news is good news” saying may prove correct. As addition, there exists a potential conflict between maximizing the values-driven perceptions of proactive CSR and simultaneously running the risk of maximizing strategicdriven perceptions by publishing the information internally. Again, firm discretion and managerial influence on the placement of messages provides an area for future research.

In sum, our results suggest that firms engaging in CSR should carefully evaluate how they communicate their initiatives. Source and valence both influence consumers’ attributions of the action. Future research should continue to explore how varying message characteristics (i.e., location of action, timing, source credibility, different mediums) affect these attributions.



Artz, N., & Tybout, A. M. (1999). The moderating impact of quantitative information on the relationship between source credibility and persuasion: A persuasion knowledge model interpretation. Marketing Letters, 10(1), 51-63.

Becker-Olsen, K. L., Cudmore, A., & Hill, R. P. (2006). The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 59(1), 46-53.

Biehal, G. J., & Sheinin, D. A. (2007). The influence of corporate messages on the product portfolio. Journal of Marketing, 71(2), 12-25.

Birnbaum, M. H., & Stegner, S. E. (1979). Source credibility in social judgment: Bias, expertise, and the judge’s point of view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 48Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing, 61(1), 68-84.

Campbell, M. C., & Kirmani, A. (2000). Consumers’ use of persuasion knowledge: The effects of cognitive capacity on perceptions of an influence agent. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(1), 69-83.

Diamond, P. A., & Hausman, J. A. (1994). Contingent valuation: Is some number better than no number? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(4), 45-64 Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2007). Reaping relational rewards from corporate social responsibility: The role of competitive positioning. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24(3), 224-241.

Ellen, P. S., Webb, D. J., & Mohr, L. A. (2006). Building corporate associations: Consumer attributions for corporate socially responsible programs. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 147-157.

Franklin, D. (2008). Just good business: A special report on corporate social responsibility. The Economist, (January), 19.

Grewal, D., Gotlieb, J., & Marmorstein, H. (1994). The moderating effects of message framing and source credibility on the price-perceived risk relationship. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 145-153.

Gruning, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing Public Relations. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Hoeffler, S., & Keller, K. L. (2002). Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing.

Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 78-89.

Husted, B. W. (2000). A contingency theory of corporate social performance. Business & Society, 39(1), 24-48.

Hutton, J. G., Goodman, M. B., Alexander, J. B., & Genest, C. M. (2001). Reputation management: The new face of corporate public relations? Public Relations Review, 27, 247-261.

Jones, E. E., & Davis, K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2).

New York: Academic Press.

Klein, J., & Dawar, N. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and consumers’ attributions and brand evaluations in a product-harm crisis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 203-217.

657 Lance, C. E., Butts, M. M., & Michels, L. C. (2006). The sources of four commonly reported cutoff criteria. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 202-220.

Morsing, M., & Schultz, M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility communication: Stakeholder information, response and involvement strategies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(4), 323-338.

Murray, K. B., & Vogel, C. M. (1997). Using a hierarchy-of-effects approach to gauge the

effectiveness of corporate social responsibility to generate goodwill toward the firm:

Financial versus nonfinancial impacts. Journal of Business Research, 38(2), 141-159.

Nan, X., & Heo, K. (2007). Consumer responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives: Examining the role of brand-cause fit in cause-related marketing. Journal of Advertising, 36(2), 63-74.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56-68.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78-92.

Ricks, J. M. Jr. (2005). An assessment of strategic corporate philanthropy on perceptions of brand equity variables. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(3), 121-134.

Sawyer, A. G. (1975). Demand artifacts in laboratory experiments in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 1(4), 20-30.

Sen, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Korschun, D. (2006). The role of corporate social responsibility in strengthening multiple stakeholder relationships: A field experiment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 158-166.

Simmons, C. J., & Becker-Olsen, K. L. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing,70(4), 154-169.

Vlachos, P. A., Tsamakos, A., Vrechopoulos, A. P., & Avramidis, P. K. (2009). Corporate social responsibility: attributions, loyalty, and the mediating role of trust. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(2), 170-180.

Waddock, S. (2004). Parallel universes: Companies, academics and the progress of corporate citizenship. Business and Society Review, 109(1), 5-42.

Wagner, T., Lutz, R. J., & Weitz, B. A. (2009). Corporate hypocrisy: Overcoming the threat of inconsistent corporate social responsibility perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 73(6), 77Walker, M., Heere, B., Parent, M. M., & Drane, D. (in press). Social responsibility and the Olympic Games: The mediating role of consumer attributions. Journal of Business Ethics.

Walker, M., & Kent, A. (2009). Do fans care? Assessing the influence of corporate social responsibility on consumer attitudes in the sport industry. Journal of Sport Management, 23(6), 743-769.

Wigley, S. (2008). Gauging consumers’ responses to CSR activities: Does increased awareness make cents? Public Relations Review, 34(3), 306-308.

Wright, P. (1986). Schemer schema: consumers’ intuitive theories about marketers’ influence

tactics, in R. Lutz (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research (pp. 1-3). Provo, UT:

Association of Consumer Research.

658 Appendix. Dependent Measures

–  –  –

Abstract This study analyzes the degree to which image repair theory (IRT) and situation crisis communications theory (SSCT) apply to an industry-wide crisis, rather than simply a crisis faced by a single organization. Fundamentally, this content analysis study examines the news releases and national and local newspaper coverage of America’s 10 largest banks from July 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008, a six-month period during which Americans’ average net worth fell nearly 18 percent. Findings indicate that neither IRT nor SCCT adequately address the complexities of an industry-wide crisis. The lessons learned highlight the need for further crisis communications research, as well as awareness among corporate communication practitioners that not every crisis is created equal, particularly when an entire industry is affected.



Since the late 1970s, as many as 112 systemic banking crises have crippled economies in 93 countries around the world (Rochet, 2008). The United States is the latest country to experience a devastating banking crisis; in the second half of 2008, credit markets froze and the American economy went into a tailspin. Policy-makers, banking officials, journalists, and consumers scrambled to identify root causes and place blame. Indeed, a banking crisis can have devastating effects. Beyond the taxpayer money necessary to keep troubled institutions afloat, the significant effect of a banking crisis is the average 15 to 20 percent loss in annual gross domestic product (Rochet, 2008). Maintaining public confidence in the financial system is critical to a nation’s economic stability and growth. Banks and other financial institutions manage their relationships with news media, in part, to attempt to bolster public confidence.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 120 | 121 || 123 | 124 |   ...   | 175 |

Similar works:

«UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, DC 20549 FORM 10-Q QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 þ For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2013.o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the transition period from _ to _. Commission File Number 0-50481 AEOLUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter) Delaware 56-1953785 (State or...»

«Movement pathways and market chains of large ruminants in the Greater Mekong Sub-region FUNDED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF PR CHINA AND AUSTRALIAN STANDZ INITIATIVE Polly Smith, Nancy Bourgeois Lüthi, Li Huachun, Kyaw Naing Oo, Aloun Phonvisay, Sith Premashthira, Ronello Abila, Phillip Widders, Karan Kukreja and Corissa Miller 0 Table of Contents Executive Summary Purpose Background Methodology Snowball sampling Interview technique Constraints Results China Movement pathways Regulatory information...»

«Department of Education and Early Childhood Development College Newsletter Issue 13 September 7th 2012 FROM THE PRINCIPAL TEAM Contact us: McBride Office: INTERIM REPORTS AND PARENT/TEACHER/STUDENT INTERVIEW BOOKINGS 56713700 The year is flying by but a particularly important part of the term involves the upDudley Office: coming Parent /Teacher/Student interviews. 56720900 Please remember that we have a new online booking system for Parent/Teacher/ Email: Student interviews. Accompanying this...»

«University of Latvia Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences Department of Environmental Science Zane Vincēviča-Gaile IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON MICROAND MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN SELECTED FOOD FROM LATVIA Summary of doctoral thesis Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Chemistry, Environmental Science Subfield of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Rīga, 2014 1 The research for doctoral thesis was carried out at the Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Geography...»

«Stress Processing Sensitivity in Reading Korean and English Words * Yongsoon Kanga, Seunghyun Baeka, and Mira Yima a Department of English Language and Literature, Sungkyunkwan University 53 Myungryun 3-ga, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-745, Korea E-mail: yskang@skku.edu; sh3940@hanmail.net; yimmira@hanmail.net Abstract. The present study explored the sensitivity to stress patterns of sixty-four ninthgraders learning to speak and read in Korean as a first language (L1) and English as a second language...»

«Word & World Volume XVIII, Number 2 Spring 1998 The Portrayal of Missionaries in African Literature MBONGENI Z. MALABA University of Zimbabwe Harare, Zimbabwe C HRISTIANITY IS OFTEN REGARDED AMBIVALENTLY BY AFRICANS. ON THE ONE hand, some missionaries are or were highly regarded for challenging the discriminatory policies of the white settler governments that justified colonialism as a civilizing mission. On the other hand, some Africans regard(ed) missionaries as the spiritual arm of...»

«Praise for the Bad Girls of the Bible series “Liz Curtis Higgs’s unique use of fiction combined with Scripture and modern application helped me see myself, my past, and my future in a whole new light. A stunning, awesome book.” —ROBIN LEE HATCHER author of Whispers from Yesterday “In her creative, fun-loving way, Liz retells the stories of the Bible. She delivers a knock-out punch of conviction as she clearly illustrates the lessons of Scripture.” —LORNA DUECK former co-host of...»

«Sedimentary Geology, 39 (1984) 227-242 227 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Printed in The Netherlands PARALLEL LAMINATION DEVELOPED FROM UPPER-STAGE PLANE BEDS: A MODEL BASED ON THE LARGER COHERENT STRUCTURES OF THE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER J.R.L. ALLEN Department of Geology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AB (Great Britain) (Accepted for publication November 8, 1983) ABSTRACT Allen, J.R.L., 1984. Parallel lamination developed from upper-stage plane beds: a model...»

«ORNL/TM-2001/153 Energy Division Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration? John H. Sorensen Barbara M. Vogt Date Published—August 2001 Prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 ii...»


«A birthday present every eleven wallets? The security of customer-chosen banking PINs Joseph Bonneau, S¨ren Preibusch, Ross Anderson o Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge {jcb82,sdp36,rja14}@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract. We provide the first published estimates of the difficulty of guessing a human-chosen 4-digit PIN. We begin with two large sets of 4-digit sequences chosen outside banking for online passwords and smartphone unlock-codes. We use a regression model to identify a small number...»

«BPP PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION Based in Bucharest BPP Professional Education is right on your doorstep, although it is part of an established and successful worldwide organisation. During the past 35 years, BPP has grown considerably, and continues to develop a range of training and education programmes world-wide. BPP teaches thousands of students in 14 permanent training centres outside the UK, with our learning materials used in over 150 countries worldwide. Our state-of-the-art training centres...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.