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«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

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Although the respondents answered to the questionnaires that they were contributing to the strategic management, counseling the management in taking important decisions for the organization, conducting evaluative research and using two-way symmetry model in their practice, the findings from in-depth interviews contradicted to the findings from quantitative data. The discrepancy between the findings emanating from quantitative and qualitative data can be explained by the social desirability bias of the interviewees. The desire to portray themselves and the organization they represent in a more positive light might have prompted practitioners to indicate how public relations ought to be practiced rather than the way public relations is actually practiced in their organization.

The data indicated that the press agentry model was the most predominant model practiced in most organizations in Kyrgyzstan. However some governmental ministries and NGOs used also public information model. Two-way asymmetrical model was used mostly by international organizations and private corporations such as financial organizations, commercial banks, mobile phone operators. Two-way symmetry is not practiced by organizations in the country. Although practitioners answered to the questionnaires that they use it, in-depth interviews revealed that they do not use it and they even do not know what it is.

Public Relations practice in Kyrgyzstan can be described well by the personal influence model of public relations. Almost all respondents of this study used the personal influence model to a large extent when they conducted public relations.

Most respondents for this study reported that they made it a point to have personal friendships with important publics such as analysts, economists, industry experts, and government officials, which in turn contributed highly to their success as strategic managers. The use of personal influence model was most apparent in the area of media relations. Most interviewees articulated that good relations with representatives of the media are especially critical as practitioners could persuade these gatekeepers to generate publicity favorable to their organizations. According to practitioners, gift giving, media luncheons, cocktail receptions, and sponsored trips are some examples of building good relationships with the media and other stakeholders.

The presence of knowledge deficiencies among practitioners suggested the need for organizations to invest in training toward increasing the knowledge levels of their public relations practitioners.

For a more comprehensive picture of whether the public relations practice in Kyrgyzstan can be explained by the excellence theory, future studies could further examine whether the other five generic principles also contribute to public relations excellence in the Kyrgyz Republic. Future research should also link public relations in Kyrgyzstan with specific environmental factors such as culture, economic system, and political structure, level of development, media system, and extent of activism.

Future researchers could also explore cultural and societal values influencing public 819

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Alieva, N,. (2009). Public Relations: Where is the value?, Public Relations Conference, KyrgyzstanTurkey Manas University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 10 December, 2009;

Ataol, A., Turdubaeva, E., Mombekova N., (2005). Analysis of PR Model in Kyrgyzstan, Communication and Media Studies in the process of Social and Cultural Interaction, I International Communication Symposium, Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University Publications:73, Conference Series:9, June, 2005 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan;

Balakina, S., (2009). Realities of public relations industry in Kyrgyzstan, Public Relations Conference, Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan 10 December, 2009.

Clarke, T. M. (2000). An inside look at Russian public relations. Public Relations Quarterly, 45 (1);

Dozier, D. M., Grunig, L. A., & Grunig, J. E. (1995). Manager’s guide to excellence in public relations and communication management. In R. L. Heath (Ed.), Handbook of public relations (pp. 26–30). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Grunig, J. E. (1992). Excellence in public relations and communication management. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Guth, D. W. (2000). The emergence of public relations in the Russian Federation. Public Relations Review, 26 (2);

Lihosherstova, V., (2007). THE DIFFERENCE in COMMUNUCATION EFFECTIVENESS of

PUBLIC RELATIONS ARTICLES and PRINT ADVERTISMENTS in KYRGYZSTAN,

Unpublished Diploma Work, American University – Central Asia, Journalism Program, MMBishkek;

Masaulov, S. (2009). There are professional image makers and PR practitioners in Kyrgyzstan who work in other countries because of the lack of demand, http://www.bpc.kg/news/20MCA, (Marketing Communication Agency),(2008). There is a shortage of PR- agencies in Kyrgyzstan, Russian PR-portal;

Poletaev, E. (2009). This is such a specialization where it is very difficult to do rating or exam on the corresopondence to standards, http://www.bpc.kg/news/20-11-09

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Shikmambetov, A. (2009). We are PR practitioners, image makers, lawyers and even journalists for ourselves, when it is necessary to write the texts of public speaking, http://www.bpc.kg/news/19-11- 09 Sriramesh, K. (1992). Societal culture and public relations: Ethnographic evidence from South India. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.





Sriramesh, K., Lim, S., & Goh, J., (2005). Applicability of the Generic Principles of Excellent Public Relations in a Different Cultural Context: The Case Study of Singapore, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH, 17(4),315–340, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Temirbekova, A., (2008). Companies in Kyrgyzstan just started to understand the importance of PR for positioning products and services, BPC, 16 May, 2008, http://www.bpc.kg/news/3500-16-05-08 Terry, V. (2005). Postcard from the Steppes: a Snapshot of Public Relations and Culture in Kazakhstan. - Kazakhstan, Public Relations Review, 31, 31–36.

Tregubova, (2008). Online Interview of Belarus PR-community with Elena Tregubova, Institute PR, 2008;

Tsetsura, K. (2009). The development of public relations in Russia: A geopolitical approach, In K.

Sriramesh& D. Vercic (Eds.), The Global Public Relations Handbook, London, Routledge;

Tunca, E. (2009). Uluslar arası Halkla İlişkiler: Kırgızistan’da Halkla ilişkilerin Yapısı (International public relations: The structure of public relations in Kyrgyzstan), International Symposium on Public Relations-2009, April 15-17, 2009, Nicosia, T.R.N.C.

Turdubaeva, E. (2009). Profile of Public Relations Practice in Kyrgyzstan: Public Relations Purpose, Mission and Function, 12th International Public Relations Research Conference, IPR, Miami, Florida, USA.

Vercic, D., & Grunig, J. E. (2000). The origins of public relations theory in economics and strategic management. In. Moss,. Vercic, & Warnaby (Eds.), Perspectives on public relations research (pp. 9–83). London: Routledge.

Vercic, D., Grunig, L. A.,&Grunig, J. E. (1996). Global and specific principles of public relations:

Evidence from Slovenia. In H. Culbertson&N. Chen (Eds.) International public relations:

A comparative analysis (pp. 31–66). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

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APPENDIX Interview Guide

1. Please share with us a brief historical background of your PR/communications department.

•When was it set up? What is the staff strength of your PR department?

•What is the nature of your business?

•Who are your clients/stakeholders/the publics your organization’s policies will affect?

•Are you represented by any PR agency for your communications program or do you outsource projects to any agency? If so, please share which agency you work with (local or MNC).

2. What do you think is the chief purpose of public relations, i.e., what role can PR play?

3. Briefly describe how your organization would usually conduct a PR program or campaign. Also, describe what kind of public relations activities you conduct for your organization.

4. If you do perform extensive research prior and/or after a campaign, please State which kinds of research tools (e.g., surveys, focus groups, interviews) You use. If you don’t conduct research, perhaps explain which are the constraints (e.g., time, budget, etc.) you face.

5. How many years of experience do you have in PR? Do you have formal education in PR?

6. What forms of training does your organization provide to the PR staff? Are There opportunities for PR practitioners to advance further into postgraduate PR courses/degrees?

7. Do you consider yourself as part of the senior management/dominant coalition? Who do you report to? How much support do you receive from the top management?

8. How does senior management rate the value of your PR work?

9. What do you think are some of the challenges facing PR practitioners in Kyrgyzstan on an organizational and industry level? (e.g., image of the profession/industry, common misconceptions about what PR is, lack of support from top management in PR, etc.)

10. Are there any cultural, economic, or political factors that affect the way PR is practiced in Kyrgyzstan?

11. What are some of the particular characteristics of the local PR industry that you would like to highlight? If you have practiced PR in other markets, please feel free to make industry comparisons.

12. What is the current image and status of PR professionals?

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The Impact of Public Relationship Outcomes on the Reputation After an Organizational Change: A Case Study of a Public Hospital in Instanbul, Turkey

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We are in a century of change. Whatever the circumstances are organizations need to keep up with these changes in order to survive in 21st century. As mentioned by Bursalıoglu (1987), the job of developing a new system in an organization is a very difficult and dangerous operation whose success is doubtful. During this tough and uncertain period, by the help of well planned and managed public relationships, organizations can go thru this stage not only smoothly but also successfully. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of public relations outcomes on the reputation of one of the biggest hospital in Istanbul, Turkey after having applied Total Quality Management. The model was applied to 176 patients and the results of the analyses showed that public relations outcomes have a significant impact on corporate reputation with an explanatory power of 51%. The results are discussed by emphasizing the significance of public relations and reputation for organizations in today’s highly competitive business world.

824

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Organizational change In today’s turbulent environment of organizations, change has become synonymous with standard business practices as long-term organizational ends have to be reformulated on an ongoing business. With this mind, if anything has remained constant in the history of organizations, it has been change. The first decade of the new millennium has been forecasted to be a period of tremendous change in the workplace (Gordon et al., 2000).

Changes occur within the organization and in the environment outside the organization that force an organization to alter the way its affairs are managed (Zener, 1991). In literature, at least four general environmental trends have been recognized and discussed as bringing about today’s organizational change: increasing competition; technological development; legal circumstances of organizations and changing expectations of stakeholders. Within the organization, organizational change is comprised of those processes that break down existing structures and create new structures--often new organizations, cultures, business strategies and ways of working (Hutchison, 2001). Clearly, it will not be sufficient to operate with traditional organizational structures in this complex and fast changing global market (Aksu and Özdemir, 2005, 422). Therefore, in today’s business environment, an organizational change is one reality with which individuals, groups and organizations must constantly cope in order to survive.

In global arena, Turkey is one of the rapidly growing countries in its region; therefore, business environment is changing. Recently, main sectors in the economy such as health care have been under construction to function more efficiently and effectively. After the Ministry of Health implemented a national health policy to attract private sector investment in health services, government incentives for private hospital investment have resulted in the building of many private hospitals in the last 15 years and providing by public, quasi-public, and private organizations (Savas et a., 2002). Health care organizations are constantly undergoing major changes to innovate and improve their technical/clinical and service aspects like never before and making sincere efforts to establish quality management practices. In this high competitiveness, public hospitals not only have been developing new public relationship strategies in order to stay rivalry and protect /develop their reputation in health care sector, but also trying to do everything in their power to build long term relationships with their key constituencies. During this process, they strengthen their ethic values such as honesty, openness, respect and forthright communication with all their stakeholders. Following this path, S. B.



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