FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 15 | 16 || 18 | 19 |   ...   | 175 |

«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

-- [ Page 17 ] --

While the study of the 2008 presidential general election adds to the agenda-setting literature, the study is limited to the data analyzed. While campaign messages between candidates may have an influence on other politicians and pundits, future researchers should consider campaign messages and their relationship to the media agenda simultaneously with 90 intercandidate analysis. In addition, data should be collected to gauge public attitudes of which issues are important to the agenda of voters who ultimately interact with candidate messages.



Bescova, A. A., & Cooley, S. C. (2009). Foreign news and public opinion: attribute agendasetting theory revisited. African Journalism Studies, 30(2), 219-242.

Boyle, T. P. (1998). Intermedia agenda setting during the 1996 presidential election.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Boyle, T. P. (2001). Intermedia agenda setting in the 1996 presidential election. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(1), 26-44.

Chang, C. (2007). The interplay of candidate-initiated and journalist-initiated agendas in the 1996 and 2004 Taiwan presidential elections. Asian Journal of Communication, 17(1), 1Dunn, S. W. (2009). Candidate and media agenda setting in the 2005 Virginia gubernatorial election. Journal of Communication, 59, 635-652.

Entman, R. M. (2004). Projections of power, Framing news, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Evatt, D., & Bell, T. (1995, August). The political dance: A test of agenda-setting effects in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Washington, D.C.

Hallahan, K. (1999). Seven models of framing: Implications for public relations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 11(3), 205-242.

Gandy, O. H. (1982). Beyond agenda setting: information subsidies and public policy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Hardy, B. W., & Jamieson, K. H. (2005). Can a poll affect perception of character traits? Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(5), 725-743.

Hendricks, J. A., & Denton, R. E. (Eds.). (2010). Communicator-in-chief, How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the White House. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

Hollihan, T. A. (2009). Uncivil wars, Political campaigns in a media age (2nd ed.). Boston:

Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Kiousis, S., Kim, S-Y., McDevitt, M., & Ostrowski, A. (2009). Competing for attention:

information subsidy influence in agenda building during election campaigns. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(3), 545-562.

Kiousis, S. & Shields, A. (2008). Intercandidate agenda-setting in presidential elections: Issue and attribute agendas in the 2004 campaign. Public Relations Review, 34, 325-330.

Kiousis, S., Mitrook, M., X. Wu, & Seltzer, T. (2006) First- and second-level agenda-building and agenda-setting effects: exploring the linkages among candidate news releases, media coverage, and public opinion during the 2002 Florida gubernatorial election. Journal of Public Relations Research, 18(3), 265-285.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis, An introduction to its methodology. (2nd ed.).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

92 McCombs, M., & Min, Y. (2006). Campaign agenda formation: the intermedia agenda-setting process in a state primary election. Paper presented for the International Communication Association Annual Meeting.

McCombs, M. (2005). A look at agenda-setting: past, present and future. Journalism Studies, 6(4), 543-557.

McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-187.

Miller, W. E., Kinder, D. R., Rosenstone, R. J., & the National Election Studies. (1993).

American National Election Study, 1992: Pre- and post-election survey [enhanced with 1990 and 1991 data]. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.

Moreno, A., Kiousis, S., Humanes, M. L. (2009). Spanish 2004 elections and the March 11 Madrid attacks: an intercandidate agenda-setting approach to the strategic campaigns of the parties and its impact on electoral outcomes. Paper presented for the International Communication Association Annual Meeting.

Murphree, V., Reber, B. H., & Blevens, F. (2009). Superhero, instructor, optimist: FEMA and the frames of disaster in hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(3), 273-294.

Nacos, B. L., Shapiro, R. Y., Young, J. T., Fan, D. P., Kjellstrand, T., & McCaa, C. (2009).

Comparing human coding and a computer-assisted method. In K. Krippendorff & M. A.

Bock (Eds.). The content analysis reader (pp. 243-252). Los Angeles: Sage.

Political Communication Lab. Campaigns. Retrieved September 1-28, 2009, from http://pcl.standford.edu Reber, B. H. & Berger, B. K. (2005). Framing analysis of activist rhetoric: How the Sierra Club succeeds or fails at creating salient messages. Public Relations Review, 31, 185-195.

Roberts, M., & McCombs, M. (1994). Agenda setting and political advertising: Origins of the news agenda. Political Communication, 11, 249-262.

Sweetser, K. D., Golan, G., & Wanta, W. (2008). Intermedia agenda setting in television, advertising, and blogs during the 2004 election. Mass Communication & Society, 11, 197-216.

Tai, Z. (2009). The structure of knowledge and dynamics of scholarly communication in agenda setting research, 1996-2005. Journal of Communication, 59, 481-513.

Tedesco, J. (2005). Issue and strategy agenda setting in the 2004 presidential election: Exploring the candidate-journalist relationship. Journalism Studies, 6(2), 187-201.

Tipton, L., Haney, R. D., & Baseheart, J. R. (1975). Media agenda-setting in city and state election campaign. Journalism Quarterly, 52(1), 15-22.

Weaver, D. H. (2007). Thoughts on agenda-setting, framing, and priming. Journal of Communication, 57, 142-147.

Weaver, D. H., Graber, D. A., McCombs, M. E., & Eyal, C. H. (1981). Media agenda-setting in a presidential election, Issues, images, and interest. New York: Praeger.


–  –  –


Who are the moral exemplars of public relations? Why is their existence not only significant to the universal standards that determine sound ethical practices performed personally, but also to those that are made professionally? Baker’s (2008) recent research, which examines those traits that embody the model of the “Principled Advocate,” suggests that a PR professional’s adherence to the virtues that frame this model will paint a clearer picture of their role in advocating sound ethical practices. Specifically, Baker (2008) called for further research in this area stating, “Journalists have moral heroes… But who are the moral heroes in public relations and advertising? Moral exemplars in these fields should be identified, and their virtues and principled practices should be identified, recognized, and lauded among professionals and students so they can serve as role model for others” (p. 248). To date, there has been no such research identifying moral exemplars in public relations.

As human beings we have always looked to others for points of reference or imitation.

There has always been a handful of individuals that stand in a position to guide others by their everyday actions. For those of us that turn to these guides, our identity and place in this world is often shaped by our longing to become like them. Nevertheless, one must ask what makes a moral exemplar? What makes an individual stand above the rest and be deemed a hero or moral exemplar? What gives these individuals the innate ability to consistently perform good deeds no matter the circumstance they are faced with? Why are they so few in number? And why are there so few that dot the professional world? Or are they so few?

The present study seeks to find out who the moral exemplars of public relations are and attempt to establish the set of guidelines and criteria that address the make-up thereof. Since the PR professional functions in a role serving both their client and society, who they look to as a reference in their decision-making is significant. Additionally, this study will address if the moral reasoning of public relations practitioners is grounded in those individuals that they consider to be their moral exemplars.

Literature Review

Who and what is a moral exemplar?

Rugeley and Van Mart (2006) stated, “Moral exemplars are stereotypically portrayed as heroes or heroines who perform acts of great courage” (p. 381). Hart (1992) suggested that there are three critical criteria essential to identifying a moral exemplar, which are good or high character; consistent and intentional actions that are most often perfect; and the contributions made by them are of an important manner (as cited in Rugeley and Van Mart, 2006).

Additionally, Rugeley and Van Mart (2006) stated, All moral exemplars do their jobs with such extraordinary integrity and moral clarity that their strength of character is readily recognized. Some exemplars rebuild their agencies to serve a new mission, become more professional, and function with increased levels of transparency and citizen input. They achieve consensus in ways that appeal to the moral values of followers in an attempt to raise their consciousness about ethical issues and to mobilize their energy and resources to reform institutions. (p. 383) This posits a fourth criterion in which the exemplar is engaged in self-evaluation. While the moral exemplar may possess a level of perfection that encompasses good character, flawless and intentional actions, and offers significant contributions, they are constantly looking to evolve or 96 improve. It is here that the moral exemplar’s actions determine and predict the ethical behaviors that not only they will perform but also determine the actions of those that follow. Pojman (2002) stated, “Moral agents who go beyond minimal morality are necessary for a society if it is to overcome evil and produce a high degree of flourishing” (p. 164). The livelihood of society depends on the good actions made by moral agents.

Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi, and Damon (2001) discuss the actions of moral agents in their discourse on “good works,” defining good work as, “[the] work of expert quality that benefits the broader society…. work that is both excellent in quality and socially responsible – at a time of constant change” (p. xi). It is not only one’s good character that deems the makings of a moral exemplar, as earlier noted, but it is the actions performed that truly determine and identify the moral exemplar. However, to completely evolve to the full status of a moral exemplar one must recognize and take responsibility for how their actions, even if good, will affect society as a whole. Gardner et. al (2001) continued by stating, “When these conditions are present, we have a chance to experience work as “good” – that is, as something that allows the full expression of what is best in us” (p. 5). Thus, it is the design of good character, good actions/works, continued improvement, and recognition and responsibility to society that a moral exemplar is therefore created.

Gardner et. al, (2001) also suggested that “good works” are habit-formed (Baker, 2008) and require a consistent and repetitious effort. Beyond this aspect of a moral exemplar lies the hallmark of a true moral exemplar, which becomes the driving force of all other criteria, which is one’s disposition, genuine desire, and motivation. This underscores not only the passion that most exemplars display but also explains why common individuals are enamored, drawn to them, and seeks to imitate them.

While this blueprint provides the most basic criteria that define one as a moral exemplar, it does not completely explain the complex nature that encompasses why a moral exemplar is able to act in such a way that makes them more notable and distinguished above others in everyday life. Colby and Damon (1992) give three common premises that explains this nature, stating, First, moral exemplars were found to possess a sense of certainty in their beliefs and actions. Second, even during the difficult periods, they continued to have a positive outlook. Third, the moral goals of exemplars were found to be united with their sense of self, and that the ‘‘relation of self and morality... provides the most central key to understanding the unwavering commitment shown by the moral exemplars. (p. 277, as cited in Matsuba and Walker, 2005) When an individual can clearly identify those characteristics related to self and develop a standard of morality to reference, then the actions and choices that arise are predicated by one’s ability to be loyal and authentic to self. It is here that the focus is directed to the character of the moral agent and not so much on the actions performed. If an individual is of a good character then they will coherently act or perform in the same manner.

An individual’s good character is at the heart of virtue ethics. Pojman (2002) stated, “ Virtue ethics is not only about action but about emotions, character, and moral habit…. It calls us to aspire to be an ideal person” (p. 160). Baker (2008) stated, “In virtue ethics, then, while it is important to do the right thing – it also is important to have the right dispositions, motivations, and emotions” (p. 237). One’s disposition, motivation, and emotion are at the foundation of their character. Cabot (2005) suggested that moral motivation involves the individual prioritizing moral values over others and taking responsibility for their own actions.

97 Hardy and Carlo (2005) further posited that there is a correlation between one’s moral identity and moral motivation, stating, “that individuals highly committed to moral causes seem to experience unity between their self and moral goals” (p. 252). Thus, most actions performed are congruent with the character of the person acting and uniformly morally motivated. Walker and Frimer (2007) stated, “moral exemplars in general tended to have stronger motivational themes of both agency and communion in their life narratives than ordinary individuals” (p.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 15 | 16 || 18 | 19 |   ...   | 175 |

Similar works:

«Longstanding adduction-related groin pain in athletes Jaap Jansen Longstanding adduction-related groin pain in athletes Jaap Jansen The printing of this thesis was financially supported by: • Vereniging voor SportGeneeskunde • Wetenschappelijk College Fysiotherapie, Koninklijk Nederlands Genootschap voor Fysiotherapie • Dynamic BV, Almelo • Biometrics BV, Almere • Stichting Steunfonds Faculteit Gezondheidszorg Hogeschool Utrecht • Erasmus Medisch Centrum Rotterdam • Universitair...»

«Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 18, no. 6 (2012), 857-873 submitted: 15/10/11, accepted: 15/2/12, appeared: 28/3/12 © J.UCS Countermeasures to Prevent Misbehaviour in VANETs Jezabel Molina-Gil, Pino Caballero-Gil, C´ndido Caballero-Gil a (University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain jmmolina@ull.es, pcaballe@ull.es, ccabgil@ull.es) Abstract: A key aspect to ensure that Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETS) work properly is the provision of reliable and real time information to users. In...»

«Improving Indwelling Glucose Sensor Performance: Porous, Dexamethasone-Releasing Coatings that Modulate the Foreign Body Response by Suzana Gabriela Vallejo-Heligon Department of Biomedical Engineering Duke University Date: _Approved: _ William “Monty” Reichert, Co-Supervisor _ Bruce Klitzman, Co-Supervisor _ Natalie A. Wisniewski _ Fan Yuan _ Howard Levinson Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of...»

«DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD OF PASCO COUNTY, FLORIDA March 3, 2009 The District School Board of Pasco County met in regular session at 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, March 3, 2009, in the Board Room, District Office Complex, Building 3, 7205 Land O' Lakes Boulevard, Land O' Lakes, Florida. Present were Chairman Frank Parker, Vice Chairman Allen Altman and Board Members Joanne Hurley and Kathryn Starkey. Cathi Martin was absent due to personal reasons. Also present were Heather Fiorentino, Superintendent, and...»

«2016 Top Gun Baseball GENERAL RULES Play Top Gun Sports 579 Union Cemetery Road Concord NC 2827 Office 704-786-4754 www.playtopgunsports.com All team participating must be registered with Top Gun Sports office for the period of August 1 of each year until July 31. All roistered personnel including the coaches, players, bat boys, and scorekeepers must be registered as a Top Gun member for each year and before the start of a tournament. ALL TEAMS SHOULD BRING XEROX COPIES OF THE FOLLOWING FOR...»

«No. 15-1103 IN THE Supreme Court of the United States ———— DONALD THOMAS SCHOLZ, ET AL., Petitioners, v. MICKI DELP, ET AL., Respondents. ———— On Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ———— RESPONDENT BOSTON HERALD’S BRIEF IN OPPOSITION TO PETITION FOR WRIT OF CERTIORARI ———— JEFFREY S. ROBBINS Counsel of Record JOSEPH D. LIPCHITZ MINTZ, LEVIN, COHN, FERRIS, GLOVSKY AND POPEO, P.C. One Financial Center Boston, MA 02111...»

«rent With Kemper Keeping Cur Supported by the William T. Kemper Foundation Commerce Bank Trustee Spring Semester 2011 Helen Hagen, Editor Comments from William T. Kemper Fellow. “One’s own self is well hidden from one’s own self. Of all mines of treasure, one’s own is the last to be dug up. “ Friedrich Nietzche Historical Westlake Hall A beautiful spring day with tulip trees, daffodils, hyacinths and cardinals reminds us College of Education and of how are connected to the environment...»

«Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS 100/2014 Thermodynamic stabilities of complex phases and their assemblages in Ag-Te, Ag-Bi-S and Ag-Cu-S systems Fiseha Tesfaye A doctoral dissertation completed for the degree of Doctor of Science (Technology) to be defended, with the permission of the Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, at a public examination held at the lecture hall V1 of the school (Espoo, Finland) on August 15th 2014 at noon. Aalto University School of...»

«39 fédérations et associations nationales de lutte contre la pauvreté et l’exclusion membres de la Commission lutte contre la pauvreté de l’UNIOPSS 30 collectifs locaux répartis dans 14 régions. BILAN DE TROIS ANS DU PLAN DE LUTTE CONTRE LA PAUVRETE ET D’UN AN DE LA FEUILLE DE ROUTE « La force de la communauté se mesure au bien-être du plus faible de ses membres » (Préambule de la Constitution Suisse) 17 février 2016 SOMMAIRE I. Deux principes non respectés II. L’accès aux...»

«Antidegradation Significance Determination for New or Increased Water Quality Impacts Procedural Guidance Version 1.0 December 2001 Antidegradation Significance Determination Guidance Version 1.0 This page intentionally left blank December 2001 Colorado WQCD Assessment Unit i Antidegradation Significance Determination Guidance Version 1.0 Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Central Concepts of Antidegradation A. New or Increased Water Quality Impacts “Significant” Degradation B. C....»

«1 DOI: 10.1590/TEM-1980-542X2015v213702 Revista Tempo | 20150000 The East India Company and the Portuguese loss of the Província do Norte Pedro Nobre[1] Abstract The Anglo-Portuguese relationship in Asia was marked by cooperation and antagonism, in a connection that can be entitled as pragmatic, flexible and adaptable to the circumstances. This complex and multifaced interaction had in the Portuguese-Maratha wars of the 1730s a paradigmatic example of how it was managed the frontier proximity...»

«CURRICULUM VITAE Hugh Burns, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of English & Rhetoric [Texas Woman’s University] The Holland H. Coors Endowed Chair [USAF Academy] Education Ph.D. English Education (1979), University of Texas, Austin, TX M.A. English (1973), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA A.B. English (1968), San Diego State University, San Diego, CA A.A. Liberal Arts (1965), Southwestern Community College, Chula Vista, CA Dissertation Stimulating Rhetorical Invention in English...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.