FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 49 | 50 || 52 | 53 |   ...   | 175 |

«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

-- [ Page 51 ] --

This study could also be taken a step further using the weighting of attitudes and subjective norms, as many studies using the theory of reasoned action have done (see literature review). Also, it could easily be further analyzed from differences within the final results: It is interesting to note the significant differences that occur within the final products of these variables. For example, within the single v. married comparison, the majority of married individuals were strongly motivated to comply with family, while the majority of single individuals were only moderately motivated. More significantly, the normative beliefs about church for the majority of single individuals were that church was neutral (0) on wanting them to purchase products from socially responsible businesses;

however, married individuals believed strongly (3) that church wanted them to purchase products from socially responsible businesses. Likewise, significant differences could be identified throughout this data. Analyzing the differences within final products could contribute to the understanding of the underlying reasons consumers make purchases in relation to CSR and to the understanding of CSR as a strategic management function overall.

In conclusion, this study should result in future scholarly research and analyses on this important topic. It could also be replicated in applied settings to determine key publics to target communications about businesses’ participation in socially responsible activities, i.e. those publics that will be more likely to purchase products based on this information, and to enhance the demand of public relations practitioners. From the results of this study and the implications of these results, it seems that organizational participation in CSR programs and activities results in a win-win situation for everyone affected: consumers, organizations, the public relations profession and society, in general.

Acknowledgement Special thanks to Dr. Dustin Supa, Assistant Professor of Journalism at Ball State University in Muncie, Ind., for his assistance as the thesis chair for this paper.



Abouzied, Kamal and Weaver, Charles. “Social Responsibility in the Corporate Goal Hierarchy.” Business Horizons 21 (June 1978): 29-35.

Ajzen, Icek. Attitudes, personality and behavior. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1988.

Ajzen, Icek and Fishbein, Martin. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviors. New Jersey:

Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980.

Allport, G.W. “Attitudes.” A handbook of social psychology. Worchester, MA: Clark University Press, 1935.

Armitage, Christopher J. and Christian, Julie eds., Planned Behavior. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004.

Auger, Pat, Timothy M. Devinney, and Jordan J. Louviere. “The Importance of Intangible Social Attributes in Individual Purchasing Decisions: A Multi-Country Comparative Study.” in Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management, Philadelphia, 2007, by Australian Graduate School of Management.

Bagozzi, Richard. “Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior: A Test of Some Key Hypotheses.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 41 (1981): 607-627.

Baron, Reuben M. and Kenny, David A. “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (1986): 1173-1182.

Belkaoui, A. “The Impact of the Disclosure of the Environmental Effects of Organizational Behavior on the Market.” Financial Management 5 (winter 1976): 26-31.

Bowman, Edward H. and Haire, Mason. “A Strategic Posture Toward Corporate Social Responsibility.” California Management Review 18 (winter 1975): 49-58.

Bragdon, J.H. and Marlin, J.A.T. “Is Pollution Profitable?” Risk Management 19 (1972): 9-18.

Burnkrant, Robert E. and Page, Thomas J. Jr. “An Examination of the Convergent, Discriminant, and Predictive Validity of Fishbein’s Behavioral Intention Model.” Journal of Marketing Research 19 (November 1982): 550-561.

Cochran, Philip L. and Wood, Robert A. “Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 27 (1984): 42-56.

Corey, Stephen M. “Professed Attitudes and Actual Behavior.” The Journal of Educational Psychology 28 (1937): 271-280.

Cotrill, M.T. “Corporate Social Responsibility and the Marketplace.” Journal of Business Ethics 9 (1990):


Creyer, Elizabeth H. and Ross, William T. “The Influence of Firm Behavior on Purchase Intention: Do Consumers Really Care about Business Ethics?” Journal of Consumer Marketing 14 (1997): 421Davidson, Andrew R. and Jaccard, James J. “Population Psychology: A New Look at an Old Problem.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31 (1975): 1073-1082.

Davidson, Andrew R. and Jaccard, James J. “Variables That Moderate the Attitude-Behavior Relation:

Results of a Longitudinal Survey.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (1979): 1364Fishbein, M. “A behavior theory approach to the relations between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward the object.” Readings in attitude theory and measurement. New York: Wiley (1967): 389Guttman, L. “A basis for scaling quantitative data.” American Sociological Review 9 (1944): 139-150.

Harrison, Rob. “Corporate Social Responsibility and the Consumer Movement.” Consumer Policy Review 13 (2003): 127-131.


Holmes, Sandra. “Executive Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Business Horizons 3 (1976):


Kotler, Philip and Lee, Nancy. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2005.

LaPiere, R. T. “Attitudes versus Actions.” Social Forces 13 (1934): 230-237.

Likert, R. A. “A technique for the measurement of attitudes.” Archives of Psychology 140 (1932).

McGuire, Jean B., Alison Sundgren, and Thomas Schneeweis. “Corporate Social Responsibiltiy and Firm Financial Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988): 854-872.

Osgood, C.E., G.J. Suci and T.D. Wilson. The measurement of meaning. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1957.

Pava, Moses L. and Krausz, Joshua. Corporate Responsibility and Financial Performance: The Paradox of Social Cost. London: Quorum Books, 1995.

Roberts, R.W. “Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: An Application of Stakeholder Theory.” Accounting, Organizations and Society 6 (1992): 595-612.

Ryan, Michael J. and Bonfield, E. H. “The Fishbein Extended Model and Consumer Behavior” The Journal of Consumer Research 2 (September 1975): 118-136.

Ryan, Michael J. and Bonfield, E. H. “Fishbein’s Intention’s Model: A Test of External and Pragmatic Validity” The Journal of Marketing 44 (Spring 1980): 82-95.

Sheppard, Blair H., Jon Hartwick and Paul R. Warshaw. “The Theory of Reasoned Action: A Meta-Analysis of Past Research with Recommendations for Modifications and Future Research.” Journal of Consumer Research 15 (December 1988): 325-343.

Thurstone, L. L. “The measurement of attitudes.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 26 (1931):


Triandis, H.C. “Toward and analysis of the components of interpersonal attitudes.” Attitudes, ego involvement, and change. New York: John Wiley (1967): 227-270.

Tuck, Mary. “Fishbein Theory and the Bass-Talarzk Problem.” Journal of Marketing Research 10 (August 1973): 345-348.

Vance, S.C. “Are Socially Responsible Corporations Good Investment Risks?” Management Review 64 (1975): 18-24.

Whitlow, C.M. “Attitude and Behavior of High-School Students.” The American Journal of Sociology 40 (January 1935): 489-494.

Wilson, David T., H. Lee Mathews and James W. Harvey. “An Empirical Test of the Fishbein Behavioral Intention Model.” The Journal of Consumer Research 1 (March 1975): 39-48.

273 The Influence of Cultures on SNS Usage: Comparing Mixi in Japan and Facebook in the U.S.

–  –  –


The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the cultural influence on people’s Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage. Using Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism and Hall’s high/low context cultural values, this study examines the content of comments on online communities in Mixi, a SNS in Japan, and Facebook. A content analysis of comments that appeared on the SNS communities of three car brands (Lexus, Cadillac, and BMW) revealed that Mixi users and Facebook users differ in the use of visually oriented information and in the types of comments they wrote.

Specifically, Mixi users used significantly more visually oriented information in comments than Facebook users. In addition, comments by Mixi users were more likely to ask for and provide advice and information, while comments by Facebook users were more likely to express their feeling towards the brands.



Social networking sites (SNS) have been getting increasing attention from public relations practitioners. One of the reasons is that SNS represent a great opportunity to facilitate two-way communication between companies and their publics. Although other online communication tools, such as websites and blogs, have been used for establishing two-way communication with their publics, the nature of SNS as a sphere for building and maintaining relationships makes itself much more attractive for public relations practitioners than any other online communication tool.

According to a study by Wright and Hinson (2009), 72% of public relations practitioners feel that social media have enhanced their public relations activities, and 84% of them believe social media (including blogs) offer organizations a low-cost way to develop relationships with members of various strategic publics. Both of these numbers increased from the study in 2008, and this illustrates the increasing importance of social media in public relations field.

Recently, several studies showed that the popularity of SNS became a worldwide phenomenon. As of June 2008, there are more than 580 million SNS users worldwide and 78% of them are living outside of the U.S. (comScore, 2008). The number of users increased 23% in Asia Pacific and 35% in Europe from 2007 compared to an increase of 9% in North America. Given the increasing popularity of SNS around the world, SNS hold a lot of potential benefits for companies in international public relations. By utilizing SNS and facilitating two-way communication with their publics outside the country, companies could have better understanding about their international publics and their images among international markets. This will help companies to exercise appropriate crisis management and build brand equity among their international markets.

Facing the popularity of SNS in public relations, a number of studies about SNS have been conducted recently (e.g., Bortree & Seltzer, 2009; Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels, 2009; Sweetser & Lariscy, 2008). However most of the studies have been designed to investigate SNS in the U.S.

context and little is known about what SNS look like and how SNS have been used in other countries. This study, therefore, is designed to fill in this gap by comparing Mixi, the most popular SNS in Japan, and Facebook in the U.S. The findings of this study will contribute to answer the questions how SNS are used differently as a socializing media in the two countries and how cultures shape these differences.

Mixi, Facebook, and the reasons to compare them Mixi started its service in 2004 and soon became the most popular SNS in Japan. In March 2009, Mixi had more than 16.3 million members, and 88.5% of Japanese SNS users had joined Mixi (Internet Association Japan, 2007). Currently, Mixi is open to people over 15 who have an invitation from a current member of the service, although people who are over 18 are only allowed to join Mixi before December 2008. Mixi is especially popular among teens and 20-year olds who account for more than 60% of total Mixi users (Mixi, 2007).

The founders of Mixi were influenced by the American SNS Friendstar, and decided to provide the same service in Japan. However, instead of using the same function and layout that Friendstar did at that time, they “glocalized” Friendstar in order to make Mixi fit into the Japanese society (E-Business Laboratory, 2005). Mixi has been constantly adding or deleting some of its services according to Japanese users’ needs. For example, Mixi started Mixi Mobile from 2006 given the increasing number of mobile internet users at that time. From those facts, we can say that Mixi is the SNS which reflects Japanese culture.

Facebook, a popular SNS in the U.S., started its service in 2004. Despite the presence of many other strong competitors such as Myspace, Facebook increased its users in a rapid pace, and has more than 60 million active users in the U.S. and 300 million active users worldwide in 2009 (Facebook, 2009; Inside Facebook, 2009). Facebook is especially popular among college students in the U.S., and people between 18 to 25 years old accounts for 44% of its total number of U.S. users (Inside Facebook, 2009).

275 There are some advantages to compare those two SNS in this study. One is the similarity of main users’ age group. Both of them are especially popular among teens and 20-year olds, and this will reduce the influence of age variable in the study. Another reason is that both of them are used for more general reasons compared with other SNS such as Myspace which is more for niches who enjoy sharing information about music with others. The last one is that they become a very popular SNS in their countries by reflecting users’ needs to its service as I mentioned above. Those fundamental similarities of the two SNS will provide more reliability to the study, and make the cultural influence on SNS more salient.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 49 | 50 || 52 | 53 |   ...   | 175 |

Similar works:

«All Hands on Everest Challenge Participant Information Packet Updated February 17, 2016 Table of Contents All Hands Volunteers’ Mission Preparing for your Trip: Packing List Language Cultural Cues Visas Trek Itinerary Pricing and Payments Important Tidbits Travel to Kathmandu, Nepal Safety and Security Health High Altitude Physical Training Guide Frequently Asked Questions The All Hands Story Past All Hands Deployments 2 All Hands Volunteers is thrilled to announce our first ever All Hands On...»

«NATIONAL AUDITING BEATS PARLIAMENTARY ACCOUNTING Mervyn Stone November 2014 Foreword by Joan Davis, Chairman of The Community Voice The Community Voice is a lay organisation representing patients and the public. It is exclusively focused on NHS issues impacting on North West London and South West Hertfordshire. The views of its members on statistical issues range from absolute bafflement, through partial comprehension, to professional expertise. However, for many years, we have been united in...»

«Yonsei GSIS Newsletter June 2016 Volume XX In This Issue Upcoming Events May Events Recap Academia After GSIS In the Public Eye Jobs and Opportunities Dear Yonsei Community, We've reached the end of another semester at GSIS, and have had a busy past month to show for it. Below you can see recaps on the many guest lectures in the month of May, along with the Alumni Homecoming and Joint Academic Conference with SNU. June will see all our current students finishing up the semester with finals...»

«WORLD ASSOCIATION OF GIRL GUIDES AND GIRL SCOUTS, AFRICA REGION The Anaemia Prevention Badge Guiders’ Training Manual  Anaemia Prevention Badge: Guiders’ Training Manual WORLD ASSOCIATION OF GIRL GUIDES AND GIRL SCOUTS, AFRICA REGION The Anaemia Prevention Badge Guiders’ Training Manual This is a publication of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, Africa Region World Bureau Olave Centre, 12c Lyndhurst Road London, NW3 5PQ England E-mail: wagggs@wagggsworld.org...»


«Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 2746-2762; doi:10.3390/rs5062746 OPEN ACCESS Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing Article Remotely Sensed Empirical Modeling of Bathymetry in the Southeastern Caspian Sea Mehdi Gholamalifard 1,*, Tiit Kutser 2, Abbas Esmaili-Sari 1, Ali A. Abkar 3 and Babak Naimi 4 1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 46414-356, Noor, Mazandaran 46417-76489, Iran; E-Mail: abbasesmailisari@yahoo.com 2...»

«SALARJUNG MUSEUM Situated on the southern bank of the river Musi, the Salarjung Museum is the third largest museum in India housing the biggest one-man collections of antiques in the world. It is well known throughout India for its prized collections belonging to different civilizations dating back to the 1st century. Nawab Mir Yousuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III (1889-1949), former Prime Minister of the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad, spent a substantial amount of his income over thirty five years to...»

«Les Misérables An Overview A HomeschoolRadioShows Listening Guide by Cindy Horton Introduction This set of listening guides is meant to be used in conjunction with the seven part radio dramatization of Les Miserables, written and directed by Orson Welles for the Mutual Network in 1937. Welles' production of Les Misérables aired on seven Friday evenings beginning July 23, 1937, and continuing to the first week of September. Orson Welles played the role of Jean Valjean and also read the...»

«Asset Misappropriation Research White Paper for the Institute for Fraud Prevention by Chad Albrecht, Mary-Jo Kranacher & Steve Albrecht Abstract In this paper we provide a general overview of asset misappropriation. We discuss the current state of academic and practical knowledge as it relates to asset misappropriation, including what we currently know about asset misappropriation, what research has been done in this area, what is currently missing from the research, and what additional...»

«WP/04/53 Sovereign Debt Defaults and Financing Needs Mark Kruger and Miguel Messmacher © 2004 International Monetary Fund WP/04/53 IMF Working Paper IMF Executive Director for Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Ireland, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and IMF Institute Sovereign Debt Defaults and Financing Needs Prepared by Mark Kruger and Miguel Messmacher1 Authorized for distribution by Ian E. Bennett...»

«Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Introduction SODAS SMOOTHIES SHAKES OTHER SIPS SPIRITS : SCHNAPPS & LIQUEURS SPIRITS : COCKTAILS SPIRITS: MIXERS TRADEMARKS BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX ACCLAIM FOR TODD WILBUR’S TOP SECRET RECIPES SERIES “There’s something almost magically compelling about the idea of making such foods at home...The allure is undeniable, and [the books are] stuffed with tidbits and lore you’re unlikely to find anywhere else.” —Boston Herald “The...»

«05-01-15 SECTION 09 66 13 PORTLAND CEMENT TERRAZZO FLOORING SPEC WRITER NOTE: Delete between // // if not applicable to project. Also delete any other items or paragraphs not applicable in the section and renumber the paragraphs. PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION: A. This section covers the requirements for poured-in-place cementitious terrazzo including adhesively bonded monolithic terrazzo.1.2 RELATED WORK: //A. Sustainable Design Requirements: Section 01 81 13, SUSTAINABLE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS....»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.