WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 82 | 83 || 85 | 86 |   ...   | 175 |

«13TH INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE “Ethical Issues for Public Relations Practice in a Multicultural World” Holiday Inn ...»

-- [ Page 84 ] --

This paper traces student how students identified, evaluated, extrapolated, and applied norms for ethics and corporate social responsibility issues in public relations and corporate communication courses at several institutions over more than a decade. It explicates the curricula taught by the professor and focuses on how students integrated these norms into their planning of real and hypothetical campaigns. It will discuss class exercises and homework assignments meant to strengthen students' understanding of ethics, review term projects and the guidelines that drove them, and consider student project evaluations. It begins with a review of academic and professional writings about the place of ethics and CSR in the curriculum. It also refers to professional and industry bars for ethics and CSR, some of which were tapped for her teaching.

–  –  –

which emerged from the same 1998 NCA Summer Conference, explicitly recommended teaching ethics in the public relations curriculum. Recommendations included "that a consideration of ethics pervade all content of public relations professional education.,,, the Commission urges that every public relations course begin its syllabus and its first class with the statement that every true profession recognizes that a fundamental priority of any profession is its responsibility toward society at large." (Commission on Public Relations Education, 1999).

Of the four core competencies recommended by Van Leuven (1999) and the others at the 1998 NCA Summer Conference, ethics topped the list. Hutchison (2002) noted that a separate course in ethics may not be feasible, given pressures on lone professors of public relations who may have advising and other responsibilities. The bigger issue for this professor is: What would lead us as educators to think that even a dedicated course in ethics would be an adequate immersion for a lifetime of challenges?

Academics and practitioners across disciplines stressed the need to shift professional

emphases and recalibrate what students need to learn. As Wooldridge (2009) aptly noted:

THIS has been a year of sackcloth and ashes for the world's business schools.

Critics have accused them of churning out jargon-spewing economic vandals.

Many professors have accepted at least some of the blame for the global catastrophe. Deans have drawn up blueprints for reform…The result? Precious little….The giants of management education have laboured mightily to bring forth a molehill…That is too bad. You cannot both claim that your mission is "to educate leaders who make a difference in the world", as HBS does, and then wash your hands of your alumni when the difference they make is malign.

Wooldridge's heavy-duty rebuke stopped short of decrying a lack of ethics and CSR education.

This author will not deny the existence of such an education or a consensus among academics and professionals as to its importance—but ethics and CSR should top the teaching agenda.

What follows tracks one professor's attempt to give such agenda a higher classroom profile, hoping that students will critically evaluate companies' practices and act according to norms.

Public relations courses in which ethics have been taught. The author has taught introduction to public relations (which she taught, in other institution, as principles of public relations), public relations campaigns, public relations cases, research methods (focused on public relations projects), managing public relations for the modern corporation, corporate communications, organizational communication, team-based independent studies (one graduate [research] and one undergraduate [Bateman Competition]) and a professional communication class in which applying the PRSA Code and ethics scenarios played a significant role.

How ethics fit into the larger public relations curriculum. In my upper-level classes, the first few weeks, and in introductory public relations, the first half of the semester, are spent reviewing the evolution of excellent, ethical communication behaviors during the last 150-plus years. In our contemporary media-saturated environment, the organizational exemplars most frequently recalled by students, and thus, those that become front-of-mind realities for them, reflect misdeed, obfuscation, deceit, and abuse of power. Negative examples thus often become a starting point for any conversation about ethics and CSR. While few of these reach the nadir of the Enron/Arthur Andersen debacle, most students can recall a multitude of scandals.

The Tylenol case seems to be the rare positive model to which students consistently refer.

So I have learned that one acceptable, though not ideal, way to help students identify the positives is by analyzing and extrapolating the good from amidst abundantly negative corporate behaviors, the ones for which there is never a shortage of media coverage. Thus, case studies, 448 even some of the abbreviated studies available in the undergraduate textbooks (see below for citations), serve a valuable purpose in helping students identify those organizational behaviors worth emulating. The chapter case studies, supplemented by those in handouts (e.g., PR Reporter on the Hyundai case, often catalyzed students choices of semester projects and papers.

Sources illustrating ethical and CSR behaviors Theoretical frameworks explicated in texts used in and to prepare for my classes and for professional development from 1998 onwards (e.g., Center & Jackson, 2008; Cutlip, Center, & Broom, 1994; Grunig & Hunt, 1984; Grunig, Grunig, & Dozier, 1992, 2006). MacElreath, 1992, Newsom, Turk, & Kruckeberg, 2004) provided grounding and case studies in ethics). Texts were supplemented by handouts on generic and specific principles of excellent public relations practices (Grunig & Grunig, 1993), the PRSA Code of Practice (2009), PRSA ethics scenarios and case studies. Also included were other relevant files, standards, and global bars for corporate behaviors, aas set by professional associations such as the Global Alliance (2010), global CSR reporting agencies such as Business for Social Responsibility (2010) and organizations such as the Global Compact (2010), whose members agree to comply with basic principles of CSR. In addition, guest speakers (i.e., several public information officers from a foreign consulate and the National Guard, a former senior partner at Ketchum, a vice president for investor relations of a top public relations firm, PRSA public relations practitioners from the Connecticut Valley Chapter, PRSA, the head of an online advertising sales agency and others, shared their perspectives on appropriate and ethically-sound communication strategies with students.





Applied Classroom Exercises and Projects in Ethics and CSR The first weeks' grounding in ethical principles and social responsibility supported and set the bar for public relations and corporate communication for the remainder of the semester. Students analyzed the PRSA Code of Practice, worked out solutions to ethics scenarios, and reviewed case studies in social responsibility or lack of it. They honed critical skills by means of individual assignments, small group in-class and take-home exercises, journal responses to audiovisual materials, listening to and questioning guest speakers, and undertaking term projects that they critically evaluated. One example of a class exercise follows.

Conceptualizing and articulating ethics and CSR. This was one of the most recent classroom exercises, initiated systematically for the first time in spring 2010. I asked my class to type answers to five questions that conceptualized and articulated, through synonyms, relevant organizations, and/or behavioral patterns, ethics and corporate social responsibility. I was trying to see if students could "connect" ethics and CSR as highly significant for study and practice.

Teasing out ethical dilemmas and social responsibility from news stories.

Early in the semester, in order to challenge students to identify situations faced by organizations or individuals who required effective public relations, I often divided The New York Times or other major daily newspaper, literally page by page, distributed it among students, whom I separated into groups, and asked each group to pick out one story that 1) demonstrated a compelling need for public relations and 2) contained a strong ethical or social responsibility component or issue. Sometimes, I would cut out a variety of stories and put them into a box, hat, or other receptacle and ask students to pick out stories with viable public relations, public interest, and ethical issues at their core. If students doubted whether a story truly involved public relations problems, they could select another story from the receptacle or from another source.

Following their selection of stories, each group would assess and present to the class as a whole the public relations and ethical issues involved. Members of other groups were free to 449 contribute to the discussions. Nevertheless, as the exercise was to jog students' thinking about public relations' role, the public interest, and ethics, we did not always delve, in depth, into all possible solutions. It made sense, at that point in the semester, to stress problem recognition/ situation analysis. More of the curriculum, particularly the research module, needed to be covered before students would have the requisite planning skills to be prepared to effective responses to the ethics and CSR problems inherent in each of their project topics.

Some, but not all, of the stories chosen were later developed more fully as term project topics. My pedagogical goals at that time were that: 1) students could recognize situations that posed clear ethical dilemmas, for which public relations was imperative and 2) they could extrapolate from these more clear cut cases and navigate through ethically ambiguous situations.

This introductory exercise gave students some control over case study/ project content (they could select a topic of interest to them) and developed critical and creative thinking skills. They also saw how public relations problems were manifest even in "ordinary news," plucked "straight from the headlines." Below, I discuss the Bridgestone Firestone ethics exercise used in my classes, in conjunction with the PRSA Code.

Bridgestone-Firestone Exercise Students had already reviewed and discussed in small groups the PRSA Code (2000) and worked through a number of PRSA's ethics scenarios (PRSA, 2010). Subsequent classes broke into small groups and PRSA-generated case studies (PRSA, 2010) and discussed James Lucaczewski's (2000) piece on ethics. The Bridgestone-Firestone (BF) exercise, which I created, reads as follows: "Based on our discussions concerning ethics and the principles upon which ethical, excellent public relations is practices, decide a strategy that will best help you communicate effectively and develop relationships with your publics."

The exercise listed eight publics, including Ford Motors, and other fictitious entities, a national consumer safety organization and a grassroots advocacy group. Students were to first decide which core values/principles of the PRSA Code directly related to the BF case from the group's perspective and to write a short statement that outlined the group's position. Referring to core values in the Code, one student (representing Ford) cited the Code's Advocacy, Independence, and Honesty values, and noted that public relations practitioners must be responsible advocates for those they represent. They must provide a "voice for the marketplace

of ideas, facts, and viewpoints to aid informed public debate"(Ford, 2010) She said:

Ford did not act in the interest of the public, instead acted in their own financial interest…(Re:) Independence (is another value of the Code which) states, "We are accountable..." Ford did not want to take responsibility for their actions. They, as well as Bridgestone Firestone, were too busy pointing fingers to see the damage they were doing...Last but not least…you must at all times, be honest.

Honesty is defined as such "…highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of those we represent"… Withholding any information that may be …public interest is detrimental to public relations professionals.

Similar comments were made by others working on this BF exercise. Term projects follow.

Term Projects: Public Relations Campaigns and Corporate Communication Case Studies The most substantive vehicle to assess students' grasp of ethics and CSR was clearly through their term projects. Although the project guidelines varied somewhat from semester to semester and the corporate communication projects demanded the most careful analysis of organizational frameworks for ethics and CSR, all the projects explored diverse organizations' responses to significant internal or external challenges. In most of the public relations classes, students 450 constructed hypothetical campaigns for a range of organizations faced with potential consequences from latent, aware, and active publics.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 82 | 83 || 85 | 86 |   ...   | 175 |


Similar works:

«Pamphlet No. 3 MINORITIES AND THE UNITED NATIONS: THE CHARTER-BASED SYSTEM OF THE UN AND HOW TO USE IT Summary: The most important UN bodies for minorities are the SubCommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and the Commission on Human Rights. (The Working Group on Minorities of the Sub-Commission is discussed in Pamphlet No. 2). Each of these bodies has a number of avenues through which minority concerns may be made known to UN experts and government representatives. In...»

«A Portrait of the African Grey by Pamela Clark, CVT December 2001 Revised October 2011 Although each of my parrots is a cherished companion, I must admit that I am biased. I enjoy the unique qualities of each species and their company without reservation, but I find African Greys particularly fascinating. This has been true for 28 years, from the moment I saw my first African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). He perched on a simple T-stand in a local strip-mall pet store, and met my...»

«ECC REPORT 125 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) GUIDELINES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN RELATION TO SPECTRUM MATTERS Liége, September 2008 ECC REPORT 125 Page 2 Table of contents 1 INTRODUCTION 2 PRINCIPLES OF IMPACT ASSESSMENTS 3 ADDRESSING SOME MISAPPREHENSIONS ABOUT IMPACT ASSESSMENTS 4 WHY IS IMPACT ASSESSMENT IMPORTANT? 5 WHAT IS AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT? 6 HOW DOES IMPACT...»

«RWANDAN HUTU REBELS IN CONGO/ZAÏRE, 1994-2006: AN EXTRA-TERRITORIAL CIVIL WAR IN A WEAK STATE? by Marina Rafti Résumé La crise de L’Etat congolais, son absence de facto de ses provinces orientales, et la présence prolongée des réfugiés hutu rwandais dans la région ont apporté une série de rébellions des guerriers réfugiés contre le régime dirigé par le Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR) à Kigali. Les réfugiés se convertissent en guerriers quand ils ont des aspirations...»

«A STUDY OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY AND THE IMAGE OF THE FINE DINING RESTAURANT By RASHA ALI ELIWA Bachelor of Tourism and Hotel Administration Helwan University Cairo, Egypt 1993 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December, 2006 A STUDY OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY AND THE IMAGE OF THE FINE DINING RESTAURANT Thesis Approved: Dr Hailin Qu Thesis Adviser Dr Hu Boo Dr Radeesh Palakurthi...»

«Q: Does the use of a UV sterilizer in the system have other benefits besides killing off free algae? In addition, is it really a necessity?A: Ultraviolet light has an effective wavelength between 190 to 300 nm (1900 to 3000 Å) produces energy that kills bacteria, viruses, fungi, and small protozoans. The most effective wavelengths are in the 2500 to 2600 Angstrom range. UV light kills these organisms by interrupting the genetic chemistry (DNA) of the cell. However, some of the oxidants...»

«ORGANIZING SUPPORT GROUPS Support groups can serve as a valuable adjunct to individual advocacy or counseling. These groups provide opportunities for participants to discuss their daily struggle with the multiple issues affecting their safety, sobriety, wellness and empowerment. Much of the power in support groups comes from the personal stories. People share their experience, strength and hope with each other. When one person breaks the silence about personal experiences that are uncomfortable...»

«Confidential EUROPACORP SA (incorporated in the Republic of France as a société anonyme, or limited liability corporation) 4,516,129 Ordinary Shares This international offering is part of a global offering of 4,516,129 ordinary shares, with a par value of A0.34 each, of EuropaCorp SA. The global offering of 4,516,129 ordinary shares includes a public offering to retail investors in France and this international offering, which is a private placement to certain institutional investors inside...»

«TALKING TOILETS TALKING TOILETS Assessing the accessibility of public toilet provision in Ottawa, Ontario A report for the GottaGo! Campaign Ottawa With funding assistance SSHRC and iCureus August 30, 2014 By: Rachel Canham1 (rachel.canham@carleton.ca) Supervisors: Bessa Whitmore, Patricia Ballamingie & Joan Kuyek 1 Undergraduate student at Carleton University, majoring in Environmental Studies 1 TALKING TOILETS “[.] a lot of people just can’t wait, and it stops people from really...»

«ANNUAL REPORT APRIL 2013 MARCH 2014 INTRODUCTION The Singapore Hockey Federation (“ the Federation “) is a society registered in Singapore with the Registrar of Societies (“ROS”) under the Societies Act (Chapter 311) and has its registered office at 57 Anchorvale Road, #02-08 Seng Kang Sports & Recreation Centre, Singapore 544964. The mission of the Federation is to encourage, promote, develop and manage the game of Hockey in Singapore. The Federation was registered as a Charity under...»

«Recipes from Asian Dumplings by Andrea Nguyen. Published by Ten Speed Press, an imprint of Crown Publishing, New York, NY. Copyright 2009. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved. Pork and Napa Cabbage Water Dumplings Shuijiao Makes 32 dumplings, serving 4 as a main course, 6 to 8 as a snack or starter Bursting with flavor, these northern Chinese dumplings are a specialty of Beijing. Dating as far back as the late Han Dynasty (25 to 220C.E.), plump boiled morsels such as...»

«Axel Kreienbrink Voluntary and Forced Return of Third Country Nationals from Germany Research Study 2006 in the framework of the European Migration Network German National Contact Point Table of contents Summary 1 Introduction 2 Definitions, Categorization of Returnees and available Data 2.1 Definitions 2.2 Categorization of Returnees 2.3 Data on forced and voluntary return 2.3.1 Data on forced return 2.3.2 Data on voluntary return 3 The political and legal framework 3.1 The political and legal...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.