«feedthefuture.gov TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 1. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 1.1 CHALLENGES 1.2 OPPORTUNITIES 1.2.1 ...»
FY 2011–2015 Multi-Year Strategy
U.S. Government Document
The Feed the Future (FTF) Multi-Year Strategies
outline the five-year strategic planning for the
U.S. Government’s global hunger and food
security initiative. These documents represent
coordinated, whole-of-government approaches
to address food security that align in support of
partner country priorities. The strategies reflect
analysis and strategic choices made at the time
of writing and while interagency teams have formally approved these documents, they may be modified as appropriate.
Document approved May 24, 2011 feedthefuture.gov
TABLE OF CONTENTSABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
1. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
1.2.1 Geographic Focus
1.4 GOVERNMENT OF HAITI PRIORITIES
1.5 FEED THE FUTURE INTERVENTIONS
1.6 DONOR EFFORTS
1.7 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES
1.7.2 Political, Economic, and Social Instability
1.7.3 Climate Change and Environment
1.7.4 Private Sector and Partnerships
2. OBJECTIVES, PROGRAM STRUCTURE, AND IMPLEMENTATION
2.1 FEED THE FUTURE OBJECTIVE
2.1.1 Increase Agricultural Productivity
2.1.2 Stabilize Watersheds Above Selected Plains
2.1.3 Strengthen Agricultural Markets
2.1.4 Deliver Nutrition Messages and Services
2.2 FEED THE FUTURE IMPACT AND ALIGNMENT WITH COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT COOPERATIONSTRATEGY
3. CORE INVESTMENT AREA
3.1 PROCUREMENT REFORM
3.2 GOVERNMENT CAPACITY BUILDING AND DIRECT AWARDS
3.3 ONGOING ACTIVITIES
3.4 NEW MECHANISMS
3.5 ADDITIONAL INVESTMENTS NOT SPECIFICALLY IN TARGET CORRIDORS
4. MONITORING AND EVALUATION
5 FINANCIAL PLANNING
ANNEX A. HAITIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND THE ROLE OF IMPORTS
ANNEX B. CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF DONOR EFFORTS BY WATERSHED
ANNEX C. TARGET CORRIDORS AND EXPORT CROP LOCATIONS
ANNEX D. RURAL HOUSEHOLDS BY COMMUNE
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSACDI/VOCA Agricultural Cooperative Development International/Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance AECID Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development AED Academy for Educational Development ANEM National Association of Mango Exporters BEST Best Practices at Scale in the Home, Community, and Facilities CASU Cooperative Administrative Support Unit CBO Community Based Organization CF French Cooperation CHAMP Community Health and AIDS Mitigation Program CIDA Canadian International Development Authority CIP Country Investment Plan CRS Catholic Relief Services DAI Development Alternatives Inc.
DCA Development Credit Authority DEED Durable Economic and Environmental Development DHS Demographic Health Survey EID Early Infant Diagnosis EU European Union FANTA Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FSN Foreign Service National GAFSP Global Agriculture and Food Security Program GDP Gross Domestic Product GTZ German Development Service Ha Hectares HAP Hillside Agriculture Program HI-FIVE Haiti Integrated Financing for Value Chains and Enterprises ICASS International Cooperative Administrative Support Services ICT Information and Communication Technology IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDP Internally Displaced Person IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IHRC Interim Haiti Reconstruction Committee IICA Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture IYCN Infant and Young Child Nutrition MARNDR Ministry of Agriculture’s Natural Resources and Rural Development MFT Manufacture, Fabrication, and Transformation MOH Ministry of Health MSME Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise MYAP Multi-Year Assistance Program NAIP National Agricultural Investment Plan OMB Office of Management and Budget PASA Participating Agency Service Agreement PCNB Nutrition Counseling Points for Babies PEPFAR President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief PM2A Preventing Malnutrition in Children Under 2 Approach PMP Performance Management Plan PPP Public, Private, Partnership PSC Personal Services Contractor PVO Private Voluntary Organizations RSSA Resource Support Service Agreement SDSH Santé pour le Développement et la Stabilité d'Haïti SEG Stability and Economic Growth Office SRI System of Rice Intensification TCN Third Country National UNDP United Nations Development Program USDA United States Department of Agriculture WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WFP World Food Program WIF Watershed Investment Fund WINNER Watershed Initiatives for Natural Environmental Resources WVI World Vision International 4
1. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIESHaiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and one of the poorest countries in the world, with 55 percent of the population living below the poverty line of $1.25 per day. Agriculture is central to the Haitian economy, employing approximately 60 percent of the population and serving as the primary source of income in rural areas. As such, agricultural development will necessarily be central to Haiti’s long-term efforts to grow its economy, reduce poverty and hunger, and promote a healthy population.
Haitian agricultural production, processing and marketing has been stagnant or declining for 50 years, and it currently accounts for 25 percent of GDP—down from 40 percent in the 1990s despite the fact that other sectors have not grown substantially. Population growth has increased the annual demand for food by about 2 percent per year, but the supply of food has only grown by 0.4 percent, creating dependence on imports and causing a net reduction in per capita food consumption. The prolonged stagnation of the rural Haitian economy helps to explain Haiti’s entrenched poverty, food insecurity, rural to urban migration, malnutrition, and environmental degradation.
Haitian food security has consequently been declining at an alarming pace. Haiti imports more than 55 percent of its food needs (see Annex A). The average Haitian caloric intake is 73 percent of the daily minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. Before the devastating earthquake on January 12, 2010, Haiti already had one of the heaviest burdens of hunger and malnutrition in the Western Hemisphere: 40 percent of households were undernourished (3.8 million people) and 30 percent of children suffered from chronic malnutrition. Stunting affected 24 percent of children under five and acute malnutrition affected 9 percent of those under five years of age.1 In the country as a whole, the incidence of chronic and acute malnutrition among children worsened from 2000 to 2005, according to data from the most recent Demographic Health Surveys. 2 After the earthquake, several hundred thousand Haitians migrated from Port-au-Prince to rural areas, further straining the coping mechanisms of rural households. During this time the average number of meals per day fell from 2.48 to 1.58. Though this has been partly reversed as the situation has stabilized, there remains concern that the trend of malnourishment to increase will continue, and that without a comprehensive food and economic security strategy designed to increase availability, access, resilience and utilization of foods, more Haitians will suffer.
Opportunities do exist, however. Over the last decades, there are well-documented examples of increasing agricultural productivity and incomes. For example, technologies have been introduced that increased yields while decreasing environmental degradation. Farmer associations have learned to operate like businesses and as a result have strengthened their relationships with buyers. And, farmer field schools have been shown to be successful mediums for extending agricultural systems to riskaverse farmers.
1.1 CHALLENGES The challenges facing the agriculture sector in Haiti are significant and well-documented, and while they largely predate the January 12 earthquake, the earthquake further threatened the country’s food security.
1 CNSA, Analyse Comprehensive de la Securité Alimentaire et de la Vulnerabilité en Milieu Rural Haitien, Novembre 2007.
2 Enquête sur la mortalité, la morbidité et l’utilisation des services (EMMUS III) DHS 2000 and EMMUS IV 2005Haiti’s productivity and food security challenges are closely linked to a combination of mountainous topography, powerful storms, and severe environmental degradation. 60 percent of Haiti’s land has a slope of at least 20 percent, which means that productivity depends significantly on controlling and managing water run-off. Further, approximately 85 percent of the country’s watersheds3 are degraded, the result of deforestation and other erosive farming practices. This results in frequent flooding that causes the destruction of crops and life, as well as further erosion, reduced availability of ground water for irrigation in the fertile plains, and depletion of the basic nutrients required for increased production. As the impacts of climate change are realized through increased variability in rainfall, flooding will increase.
Figure 1. Typical Smallholder Haitian Farm Characteristics
Upper watersheds (hills and mountains) also provide a significant amount of water to Haiti’s fertile plains, the areas with the greatest potential for agricultural growth. Depending on how they are managed, Haitian watersheds can be the source of either wealth and food security or catastrophic 3 A watershed is the geographic area of land that drains water, including its rivers and accumulated rainwater, to a shared destination, such as the sea or a lake. Given the importance of properly managing waterways and associated irrigation and drainage systems to yields and rural incomes, agricultural production areas have traditionally been organized around watersheds in Haiti.
6 disasters. When managed well, they provide abundant and timely sources of water for agriculture, animals, and people. When managed poorly, they destroy agricultural crops, animals, people, and other productive assets such as soils, roads, irrigation infrastructure, storage structures and processing facilities. In addition, well-managed watersheds hold rainfall in the soil and let the water gradually enter the stream system making much of it available during the dry season for irrigation in the plains. By contrast, most of the rain that falls in poorly-managed watershed systems flows directly into streams;
little of it is available during the dry season when farmers in the plains need it for irrigation.
Though it is widely acknowledged that reversing watershed degradation is a necessity for protecting and raising production, especially in the plains, it will require widespread changes in attitudes and practices.
Farmers require hard and compelling evidence that investments in agricultural production and sound land management can reduce their risks and improve their livelihoods before changing their behavior.
Haitian farming is subject to other structural challenges as well. The vast majority of farmers have plots that are less than 1.5 Ha and are subject to many risks, including the flooding described above, hurricanes, and drought; these risks will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Farming on slopes requires additional investments to achieve similar results on level ground, such as anti-erosion infrastructure. In addition, Haitian hillsides have particularly depleted soils, which translate into both lower nutrient levels and severely reduced water infiltration potential.
To mitigate these risks, Haitian farmers cultivate a large variety of crops and livestock on very small plots. An average farm will generally produce some combination of root and tubers (cassava, yams, and sweet potatoes), grains (sorghum, maize, and rice), fruits (bananas, plantains, citrus, and other), vegetables, and legumes (peas, peanuts, beans) both concurrently and in different growing seasons.
Such diversity in crop production exists not only at the farm-level, but in the country as a whole. Haiti’s mountainous topography produces many microclimates. As a result, no single staple crop dominates Haitian production. Rather, certain regions might rely upon rice and sorghum as their staples, while others may heavily cultivate plantains and bananas, while still others may rely upon root crops.
Haiti is a country that consumes virtually all of what it produces. Only two percent of its food production was exported in 2007, representing a value of about $10 million. This lack of exportcompetitiveness reflects low levels of productivity as well as the many other institutional weakness and constraints to doing business.
Low levels of productivity are compounded by factors such as a lack of investment in agricultural research and technology, a lack of enforceable property rights, scarcity of credit, and poor or nonexistent rural infrastructure (roads, irrigation, and information technology), which have further constrained the efficient use of agricultural production areas. Limited access to water and disputes over water rights further constrain farmers.
Agricultural value chains are fragmented and inefficient. A lack of organization among smallholder farmers and limited investment in mechanization, storage, and processing result in post-harvest losses that reach 35 percent or more, depending on the crop. Further, the earthquake exacerbated the already significant challenges in the agricultural sector by damaging distribution centers, food processing facilities, warehouses, irrigation canals, and the Ministry of Agriculture’s Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) headquarters, with damage to the sector estimated at $31.3M.