«feedthefuture.gov TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 1. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 1.1 CHALLENGES 1.2 OPPORTUNITIES 1.2.1 ...»
The plan was generated through a highly iterative and collaborative process, reflecting the concerns of stakeholders at local, national, and international levels. Early iterations that included a state-driven approach were revised, shifting the focus towards a market-oriented strategy. The final product was endorsed at an international donor conference for Haiti on June 2, 2010 in Punta Cana, Dominican 13 Republic. Investment activities under the Plan are organized around 30 watersheds in the country. The strategic approach has three axes agreed upon by major donors, civil society, and the private sector: 1) development of rural areas/infrastructure, including watershed management, irrigation, and rural infrastructure; 2) production and development of competitive value chains; and 3) the strengthening of research, education, land tenure, and the agricultural services and institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture.
The GOH’s Action Plan summarizes well the strategic approach to which FTF/Haiti plans to align:
Increase local production of staples to ensure food security Increase farmer’s income and create jobs in rural areas Increase foreign exchange earnings agricultural exports Reduce post-harvest losses by 50 percent in priority watersheds Improve health and nutrition of the Haitian population, especially the vulnerable Reduce vulnerability to natural disasters.
Additionally, the Nutrition Directorate of the MOH is planning to realize its National Policy on Nutrition shortly. Increased use of locally produced food, reduction of micronutrient deficiencies through supplementation, and food fortification will be an important component of that policy, the objective of which is to reduce nationwide chronic and acute malnutrition. Those points have already been outlined in the Nutrition Technical Working Group under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and are in line with the FTF/Haiti Strategy.
1.5 FEED THE FUTURE INTERVENTIONS
As discussed above, Haiti’s agriculture sector is characterized by small plots, highly diversified polyculture, and many micro-climates. As such, and in order to have a significant impact on the large number of beneficiaries that the Feed the Future Initiative demands, FTF/Haiti will focus on different value chains in the three USG development corridors. Crop selection has undertaken/will undertake a extensive level of dialogue with local communities, farmers, farmer associations, businesses, and other relevant stakeholders to ensure community buy-in and long-term sustainability.
In the Port-au-Prince Corridor, the focus crops that have been identified through analysis and community consultation are corn, rice, and beans. In the St. Marc Corridor, they are plantain, corn, and beans. These crops have the potential for significant increases in productivity and reaching a large number of Haitian households. They are also calorie and nutrient dense foods that can help improve nutrition outcomes. These crops will be targeted for production in the plains. In the Northern corridor, preliminary analysis has indicated that focusing on rice, plantains, and corn would reach the desired number of Haitian households.
FTF/Haiti will invest to a lesser extent in non-focus crops that complement Haiti’s polycultural systems, for example, intercropping yams among cocoa trees, or rotating beans and plantain on the same field to ensure soil nutrients do not become overly depleted. Support related to non-focus crops will advance income and nutritional objectives among households targeted for focus crop interventions as well as potential partnerships with the private sector.
This approach will be supported by ongoing data-driven analysis and monitoring. Should market, physical, or other relevant conditions change, FTF/Haiti will be sure alter its investments to take advantages of new opportunities and avoid continuing to put resources into activities with low returns.
14 FTF will also focus on the export crops of mango and cocoa. These tree crops present the opportunities to increase incomes for a large number of households, stabilize hillsides above targeted plains, and, in the case of mangoes, improve nutrition outcomes through spillovers into the domestic market. FTF will also support other tree crops and interventions for the express purpose of stabilizing hillsides above vulnerable plains that are specifically targeted within the three USG development corridors.
Finally, FTF will support nutrition education, food fortification, and provision of nutrition health services to reduce both chronic and acute malnutrition through health systems strengthening.
Nutrition messages will be delivered through agricultural extension agents and community health workers. Nutrition services—diagnosis, treatment, and referral—will be augmented through strengthening and adding to Haiti’s system and rural health services centers. School de-worming programs, malnutrition treatment centers, and a new national nutrition surveillance system will complement efforts in diagnosis and treatment. Finally, the MOH, with the support of USAID, the World Food Program, UNICEF, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization will continue exploring approaches to food fortification.
The FTF program will be implemented in three priority development corridors: Port-au-Prince/Cul-deSac, St. Marc, and the Northern (Cap Haitien) Corridor. These corridors were identified for USG investment based upon their agricultural potential, number of beneficiaries that can be reached, distance to markets, availability of rural credit, alignment with other USG investments, USAID’s prior experience in the area, whether the area has been identified as a priority by the GOH, and related criteria.
Figure 5. The Three Development Corridors Source: Haiti FTF Strategic Review Presentation, August 2010
The USG will also engage with food insecure populations outside of the growth corridors through USAID Multi-Year Assistance Programs (MYAPs) funded under the PL 480 Title II program as well as USDA Food for Progress and McGovern Dole programs. Title II programs are currently being implemented in the Grand Anse, the South, the Southeast, the West (La Gonave) and the Central Plateau Departments. The current 5-year MYAP cycles will end in FY 2012 and 2013. New MYAPs are envisaged. However, it is expected that the criteria to determine where these new programs will be implemented will be based on vulnerability to food insecurity and on the use of food as a development tool. Although consideration will be given to whether or not established FTF corridors fit this criterion, it is unlikely that this will be the case given that the FTF corridors were selected based on potential for agriculture-led growth and tend to be less food insecure than other parts of the country.
Regardless of the geographic focus areas for the next round of MYAPs, there will be opportunities for collaboration and integration. There are commonalities of approach between FTF and Title II programs and there is much room for collaboration between implementing partners. Title II institutional experience in the areas of watershed stabilization and value added production techniques are important areas where information can be shared and built upon. With regards to nutrition, PM2A, which is a Title II model approach that was developed in Haiti and that focuses on the first 1,000 days of life, is an already proven intervention that, given FTF’s limited nutritional resources, can be readily adopted in FTF areas. This, as well as the experience Title II implementing partners have with integrating agriculture and nutrition programming will be shared with FTF implementers. USAID/Haiti staff implementing both FTF and FFP programs will collaborate when it comes to developing strategies and activities and reviewing proposals from potential implementing partners. Where applicable, food aid programs will also utilize FTF indicators and link in to FTF M&E plans.
1.6 DONOR EFFORTS
Significant goodwill currently exists by international donors toward Haiti, and substantial investment in the agriculture sector is planned. In Haiti’s Country Investment Plan for agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture has estimated financial requirements of $224M in the first 18 months and $567M in next five years, totaling $790M for improvements along the three axes. Major donors such as the governments of Canada and France, as well as multilaterals including the IDB, International Fund for Agricultural Development, and the World Bank’s Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), have already committed $369M.
In general, donors are following the lead of the GOH in prioritizing food security, social protection, and watershed restoration as the focal areas of post-disaster recovery. The agriculture sector working group is led by IDB and the agriculture sector table is led by the Ministry of Agriculture. The Nutrition Technical Working Group was put together by the Nutrition Directorate of MOH about two years ago and helped to create the Nutrition Cluster right after the earthquake. USAID, the World Food Program, UNICEF, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization meet regularly with the MOH Nutrition Directorate through these forums. Regular meetings by these groups serve to coordinate donor activities. In addition, a new entity established after the earthquake, the Interim Haiti Reconstruction Committee (IHRC), is currently coordinating donor activities at the highest level.
The map in Annex B gives a detailed breakdown of donors by watershed.
1.7 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES 1.7.1 Gender The following are based on a gender analysis commissioned by the USAID Mission for the PostEarthquake Strategy.
In the agricultural sector, men and women have quite specific roles with limited intermingling. Specific
gender vulnerabilities of women include:
1. Unequal economic opportunities for women and girls versus men and boys: Poor women face multiple layers of inequality from high levels of socioeconomic disparities between
the rich and poor and urban/rural divides, to discrimination by race, skin color and Frenchspeaking language abilities. Some manifestations of this inequality include:
However, women make up a large proportion of the MSME workforce and play an active role in local community groups to enhance their local communities. As such, they already play a significant role in economic growth.
Madam Saras: Madam Saras—women who traditionally work as small-scale transporters and wholesalers and thereby form a key segment agricultural value chains—face significant security risks traveling unpaved roads between farms and markets, selling produce in urban markets, and carrying cash after sale. Madam Saras not only provide input to farmers in the form of seeds and fertilizers, they are also key to transmitting knowledge on market prices and demand. In addition Madam Saras touch more than 90 percent of all domestic crops and operate domestic markets in rural and urban Haiti. Madam Saras currently buy, effect the transportation of, and retail the vast majority of agricultural production in Haiti.
Given this, it is clear that women will play a key role in all of the focus and support crops selected under Feed the Future (with the exception of export crops as noted above). As such, FTF/Haiti’s investments along these value chains will strengthen those roles already traditionally performed by women and ensure that women operating as transporters, wholesalers, retailers have equal access to investments and services provided by USG implementing partners.
Additionally, three specific opportunities have been identified and will be explored for Madam Saras:
3. Nutrition: The availability and preparation of food in the Haitian household is often a shared responsibility between men and women. USAID will promote essential nutrition actions among both fathers and mothers, through mother’s groups, farmer’s associations, etc., to ensure proper infant and young child feeding, reduce stigma and other barriers to exclusive breastfeeding, and promote maternal and child nutrition supplementation during pregnancy and lactation.
1.7.2 Political, Economic, and Social Instability
Food insecurity has been a powerful driver of conflict in Haiti’s past. The April 2008 riots that led to the removal of the Prime Minister began with food price riots in secondary cities. Currently, food insecurity threatens broad swaths of the population. Following the January 12, 2010 earthquake, several hundred thousand internally displaced persons (IDPs) migrated from Port au Prince to rural areas, placing increasing strain on extended families and communities. IDPs have exacerbated food insecurity in rural zones and increased the risk of conflict as increasing numbers of people compete for limited resources. Boosting agricultural growth will reduce pressure on the most vulnerable, alleviate the immediate strain on rural families, and reduce the potential for future conflict by creating opportunities and improving livelihoods.
181.7.3 Climate Change and Environment
Climate change and other environmental concerns are of central importance to Haiti, which, as noted earlier, is already subject to extensive environmental degradation and environment-related risks.