«Strengthening the Nation through Diversity, Innovation & Leadership in STEM San Antonio,Texas · October 3-6, 2013 Get Connected! Connect with the ...»
RESEARCH PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS
Strengthening the Nation
through Diversity, Innovation
& Leadership in STEM
San Antonio,Texas · October 3-6, 2013
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SACNAS gratefully acknowledges the generous contributions of the following partners, whose support allows the organization to provide its programs, embark on new initiatives, and enhance the future of the minority scientific community.
CONFERENCE GRANT FUNDERSDepartment of Health and Human Services National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) National Science Foundation National Security Agency
ELITE SPONSORSPlatinum Gold The SACNAS conference and this publication are supported in part by grants from the Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and the National Bronze Science Foundation.
Accuedit 2013 STUDENT PRESENTATION AWARD SPONSORS Graphic Design:
Blue Heron Design Group and Omnipress American Chemical Society American Society for Biochemistry and Mo
GRADUATE STUDENT SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA PRESENTERS CHECK-INAll graduate presenters are required to check in and receive their presentation ribbons during the registration process at the Registration & Information Area in the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center.
GRADUATE STUDENT SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA PRESENTATION SETUPGraduate presenters must arrive between 3:30 and 4:00 pm on Thursday, October 3, at their assigned presentation room.
Bring all PowerPoint materials at this time to be loaded onto presentation equipment.
POSTER PRESENTERS’ CHECK-IN All poster presenters are required to check in and receive their presentation ribbons during the registration process at the Registration & Information Area in the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center. Ribbons are required for entry into Exhibit Hall C for poster setup.
POSTER PRESENTATION SETUPAll poster presentations are designated by poster board number and date. Presenters may set up poster materials in Exhibit Hall C ONLY during the setup times corresponding to their presentation day.
POSTER PRESENTATION TAKE DOWNAll Friday posters must be taken down by 3:45 pm on Friday, October 4. Saturday posters must be taken down by 11:30 am on Saturday, October 5. SACNAS is not responsible for posters that have not been taken down at the designated time;
unclaimed posters will be discarded.
GRADUATE STUDENT & POSTDOC RESOURCE FAIRAll graduate student poster presenters and postdoc poster research presentations will take place during the Graduate Student & Postdoc Resource Fair inside the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in Ballroom C on Friday, October 4, from 4:00 to 6:00 pm
FLOOR PLANS Please refer to the Exhibit Hall floor plan on the inside back cover of this publication, and to the floor plans on pages 130– 134 of the conference program to help you navigate the conference.
Lastly, we would love to thank SACNAS Program Manager Asis Lopez for his dutiful work with the Student Presentations Committee over the year.
Congratulations, Asis, on your one year research fellowship at UC Santa Cruz and the best of luck in all your endeavors.
Sincerely, 2013 SACNAS Student Presentations Committee 4
SACNAS STUDENT PRESENTATIONS
REVIEWERSIf you are interested in participating in the SACNAS student presentations program as a mentor, please visit sacnas.org, log in, and update your profile by selecting “Volunteer Interests” to enroll yourself as a conference judge, conference mentor, or a preconference abstract reviewer.
SACNAS appreciates the many dedicated individuals who work to mentor and develop the next generation of SACNAS talent.
Tenure-Track Assistant Professorship in Chemistry (Inorganic) — Harvard University — Candidates are invited to apply for a tenure-track assistant professorship in inorganic chemistry, broadly defined to include catalysis, synthesis, mechanism, materials, and energy-related research. The appointment is expected to begin on July 1, 2014. The tenuretrack professor will be responsible for teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. We are seeking candidates who have an outstanding research record and a strong commitment to undergraduate and graduate teaching. Doctorate required by expected start date. Candidates should arrange to have three letters of recommendation sent independently and provide a curriculum vitae, statement of teaching philosophy, list of publications, and outline of their future research plans. All applications and supporting materials must be submitted via the ARIeS portal (https://academicpositions.harvard.edu/postings/4913) no later than October 15, 2013. Harvard is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Applications from women and minorities are strongly encouraged.
BIO/AGR/ENV LIFE SCIENCES
CARBON-13 BREATH TESTING CAN BE USED TO CHARACTERIZE SEQUENTIAL CHANGES IN
ENDOGENOUS SUBSTRATE OXIDATION DURING ACUTE NUTRITIONAL STRESS: A CASE STUDY USING
JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)Alice Yang, James Amaya, Marshall McCue.
St. Mary’s University, San Antonio, TX.
Most fasting animals undergo a sequential process of switching from the preferential oxidation of one metabolic substrate to another, i.e., from glucose, to lipids, to proteins. Here we show that changes in metabolic substrate oxidation can be characterized using stable isotope enrichment of the body nutrient pools and subsequent 13CO2breath testing. Eighteen Coturnix japonica were raised from age 2 weeks to adulthood (10 weeks) on balanced diets enriched with either 13C-1-L-leucine, 13C-1-palmitic acid, or 13C-U-D-glucose. Quail were then fasted for 72 hours during which VO2, VCO2, δ13 C of exhaled CO2, body mass, and blood metabolites (i.e., glucose, ketone bodies, and triacylglycerides) were continually measured. The fasting quail exhibited expected reductions in body mass mb (20%), Tb (0.6 °C), and metabolic rate (55%), but blood metabolites exhibited varied responses. Plasma glucose remained at prefasting levels throughout the fasting period. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate increased, peaking at 72 hours of fasting, and remained elevated thereafter. Triacylglyceride values were highly variable and showed no clear trends. The production of 13CO2 was useful in differentiating between nutrient oxidations during fasting. By 8 hours, lipids became the predominant oxidative fuel, continuing for the remainder of the fasting trial. Protein oxidation reduced in 8 hours and continued to fall until 24 hours of fasting, thereafter leveling off. The 13CO2 production of the birds raised on the glucose tracer was nearly identical to the birds raised on the 13C-palmitic acid tracer suggesting that they were able to convert most of the exogenous glucose carbon into lipids that were later oxidized during fasting.
THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON TROPICAL FOREST BIRD ECOLOGY
AND INTERSPECIES INTERACTIONConor Handley1, Jessie Knowlton2.
Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, 2Organization for Tropical Studies, Las Cruces, Costa Rica 1 Tropical forests are undergoing rapid change caused by factors such as clear cutting, global warming, and invasive species. Some of the methods we will use to measure birds’ responses to changes in their habitats include examining their genetic structure, demography (e.g., nest success, adult survival), movement patterns, and behavior (e.g., foraging, social interactions). One key factor we will explore is how habitat disturbance affects interactions between species. A large proportion of tropical birds spend all or part of their foraging time in mixed-species flocks, strongly suggesting that this behavior increases their fitness. The increase in fitness may come from enhanced protection from predators due to earlier warning calls or lower probability of being singled out by a predator, greater foraging efficiency due to the flushing of insects as the flock moves through an area or learning new methods of food capture by watching other flock participants; or some combination of these factors. Our research will be an attempt to understand how forest birds respond to human induced changes so we can predict and enhance species long-term survival. This research will help shed light on the vast importance of avian biodiversity in tropical habitats and how it effects the greater forest ecosystem.
ASSESSING HYPOXIC STRESS IN HIGH-ANDEAN BIRDS BASED ON RIGHT VENTRICULAR MORPHOLOGYAshley Smiley, Geneva Williams, Natalie Wright, Christopher Witt.
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
Birds whose ranges span the entire elevational gradient of the Andes defy ideas about niche limitations: they experience huge ranges in abiotic factors including differential partial pressures of oxygen and temperature and
13 UNDERGRADUATE POSTER ABSTRACTS
precipitation variations. How do these environmental factors affect avian physiology? The House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) and the Pied-Crested Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes reguloides) are two passerine songbirds that occur from sea level to over 4,000 m elevation in the Peruvian Andes. Exposure to hypoxia has led to pulmonary hypertension in lowaltitude mammals followed by right-ventricular hypertrophy. However, it is unknown whether birds employ the same compensatory response. We tested whether high-altitude populations of widespread Andean bird species exhibit the enlarged right ventricles suggestive of chronic pulmonary hypertension. The right ventricles of high-altitude House Wrens were significantly enlarged, indicating that House Wren populations in the high Andes are not optimally adapted to hypoxia. Right ventricular enlargement represents a plastic developmental response to hypoxic stress as opposed to a genetic adaptation to hypoxic environments. Inter-family relative heart mass comparisons in Andean birds indicate species-specific patterns of high-altitude adaptation that likely reflect unique biogeographic histories.
HEMODYNAMIC ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING ATRIAL TACHYPACING IN THE SWINEEvymarie Prado1, Bari Olivier2.
University of Puerto Rico, at Mayagüez, Mayagüez, PR, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 1 East Lansing, MI.
Hemodynamics is the study of the forces in the circulation of the blood through the body. Our focus is the after effects of abnormal rhythms on blood pressure and heart rate, specifically in fast arrhythmias. Heart rate and blood pressure are differentially altered following the termination of fixed, sinusoidal (sine) and randomly varying atrial tachycardia.
Through the swine model, cardiovascular experimentation was done to perform atrial overdrive pacing in order to achieve a pacing effect. Three sequences were performed on the swine: fixed, random and sinusoidal for 1 hour with 10 minutes of post pacing data collection. Data analysis is by measure of post pacing divided in thirty-second intervals with averages. For initial observations, heart rate shows sine lower that other pacings. In end systolic pressure, random pacing appears lower than others. No apparent difference was observed in mean pressure, systolic pressure and contractility (dP/dt).
OUTDOOR WEATHER CHARACTERIZATION FOR A SWINE TRANSPORT ASSESSMENTDana Anderson1, Angela Green2.
Northeastern Illinois Univeristy, Chicago, IL, 2University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
1 Transportation of animals has potential impacts on the humane treatment of animals and the safety of both the animals and the people involved. The swine industry recognizes that problems occur during transport that result in dead or down pigs, most commonly during extreme weather conditions, and supports research focused on trailer management to improve challenging environmental conditions. A year-long monitoring study was completed for assessing the thermal environment during pig transportation over a wide range of outdoor weather conditions.