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tzacatl. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hummingbird behavior in 2 separate patches of H. tortuosa in 20-minute periods, comparing early morning, mid-morning, and late morning. Then, we recorded hummingbird behavior in the same 2 separate patches of H. tortuosa in 20-minute periods, comparing afternoon, mid-afternoon, and late afternoon. Behavioral recordings included interspecific and intraspecific displacing, chasing, perching, and calling. We also recorded the proportion of time spent in the H. tortuosa patch for each species. Finally, we manipulated nectar concentrations in the H. tortuosa patches to determine if there were changes in hummingbird behavior. We expected that increasing concentrations of H. tortuosa nectar would increase displacing and chasing behaviors. Evolution of temporal niches in closely related species may explain how species with similar morphology and general ecological requirements coexist.
EGG PRODUCTION IN THE RACCOON ROUNDWORM, BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONISGabriel Ruelas1, Sara Weinstein2.
Ventura College, Ventura, CA, 2University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA.
1 The raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, is a parasitic nematode that matures in raccoons (Procyon lotor). The larval stage of this parasite is capable of infecting humans, causing a potentially fatal disease known as baylisascariasis, which has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonosis. In raccoons, individual worms can produce extraordinary quantities of eggs and it is these eggs that are infectious to humans and other wildlife. A variety of factors may lead to variation in the number of eggs produced by an individual worm. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between female B. procyonis size, uterus size and egg production. Worms were removed from the intestines of raccoons and measured. Then, the uteri were removed from the worms and measured as well. The uteri were homogenized in a known quantity of water and filtered. We then counted the number of eggs in a one milliliter aliquot of well-mixed solution and used this value to calculate the total number of eggs per worm. Our work shows that there is a correlation between female B. procyonis size, uterus size, and egg quantities produced.
Understanding the factors that control egg production in this parasite will help determine the potential for roundworm infection among animals as well as humans and ultimately increase our understanding of transmission and spillover of zoonotic disease agents.
THE IMPACT OF THE INVASIVE PLANT DELAIREA ODORATA ON CARBON CYCLINGRonnette Biancah Naungayan, Jaimelynn Bordner Alvarez, Christine Case.
Skyline College, San Bruno, CA.
Cape Ivy (Delairea odorata) is an invasive plant from South Africa, introduced to the United States in the mids. The vine out-competes native species and has created large monocultures along California’s central coast,
ASSESSING LONG-TERM CHANGES IN ESTUARINE BIVALVE COMMUNITIES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA,
UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICORosa Calvario4, Anai Novoa1, Theresa Sinicrope2, Drew Talley1, Lindsay Goodwin3.
University of San Diego, San Diego, CA, 2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, 3Ocean Discovery 1 Institute, San Diego, CA, 4University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA.
Sporadic studies of the estuarine bivalve communities of California and northern Baja California over the past 50 years indicate dramatic localized changes in community structure that likely result in reductions in the ecosystem functions that these species provide (e.g., water filtration, bioturbation, substrate provision). In order to predict further changes in these communities and their functions, we need to better understand the causes of those changes throughout the region. Our project, therefore, uses a combination of historical data and newly collected data to examine the local and regional patterns and likely controls on bivalve community structure over the past 50 years.
Despite differences in local community structure related to wetland tidal prism and flow energy, we see regional patterns of fluctuations in total bivalve abundances and taxonomic diversity. We also note continued declines in large, edible species and in native surface dwelling taxa related to booms and busts of introduced species, changing substrate types, and water quality. Understanding the patterns and processes behind shifts in bivalve community structure can inform ecosystem restoration plans and climate change adaptation plans by reducing the uncertainty in bivalve community outcomes.
UTILIZING THE MITOCHONDRIAL NDI GENE TO SHOW SPECIATION WITHIN THE SPRINGSNAIL
POPULATION ON THE GILA RIVER IN NEW MEXICOVictoria Ratcliffe, Hsiu-Ping Liu.
Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO.
The small springsnail, Pyrgulopsis gilae, is currently recognized as a sensitive species by the United States Forest Service and as a threatened species by the State of New Mexico. This species can be found along forks of the upper Gila River. A previous study used the mitochondrial NDI gene to show previously unknown lineages within the Pygulopsis gilae species. However, despite redesign, 2 sample populations did not replicate. We suggest that with the design of more specific NDI primers, sequencing of the 2 populations would reveal 2 more distinct lineages of the Pyrgulopsis species. This study offers evidence that with the redesign of current NDI primers, the 2 previously unsequenced Pyrgulopsis gilae populations can be successfully sequenced, which may warrant the continuation of study into the possibility of 2 new taxonomically significant species.
DEVELOPING A SOLUTION TO REDUCE BYCATCH IN SMALL-SCALE, COMMERCIAL GILLNET FISHERIESShana Thang, Joel Barkan2, Shara Fisler2, Daniela Irazabal2, Blanka Lederer2.
Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR), University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, 2Ocean 1 Discovery Institute, San Diego, CA.
Bycatch in gillnet fisheries has resulted in population declines, ecosystem impacts, and economic loss, but few bycatch reduction strategies exist. Identifying strategies to increase selectivity in gillnets is a global fisheriesmanagement priority. Our previous work examined illuminated nets as visual alerts to reduce sea turtle bycatch in gillnets. Green and ultraviolet LED-illuminated nets were tested as bycatch deterrents. Ultraviolet illumination also
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affected catch rates of target and bycatch fish species. However, the effects of orange illumination are unknown.
Understanding how different wavelengths of light affect catch composition can potentially improve selectivity in gillnets. Sound cues may also potentially affect sea turtle behavior. Acoustic deterrent devices have not been tested with sea turtles but could improve gillnet selectivity. In this study we test the effects of orange LED-illumination on green sea turtle catch rates and on fish species in a coastal gillnet fishery. We pilot test the effects of auditory deterrents on green sea turtle catch rates and survey fishermen to obtain perceptions of viability. Green and ultraviolet illuminated nets reduced sea turtle catch rates up to 60% with no effect on overall target fish catch. Ultraviolet illumination increased halibut catch, a valuable target species, by 45% and reduced shark bycatch by 41%. Results from tests of orange illumination will provide fishermen and managers a “toolbox” of options to improve selectivity for gillnet fisheries. These techniques can be transferred to global gillnet fisheries to potentially reduce sea turtle and shark bycatch.
USING RAD MARKERS TO GENERATE A SURFPERCH PHYLOGENY WITHIN THE MARINE FISH FAMILY
EMBIOTOCIDAEJennifer Liberto1, Gary Longo2, Giacomo Bernardi2.
University of California, Merced, Merced, CA, 2University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA.
1 Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) markers are short fragments of DNA that are obtained by sequencing flanking regions of genome-wide restriction sites. RAD sequences thus provide a reduced representation of an entire genome and are evolutionarily conserved within species and among closely related taxonomic groups. This allows for comprehensive comparative analyses without the burden of data-heavy whole genomes. Our project will use an illumina-platform sequenced RAD library from 35 individuals to build a phylogeny for the marine fish family Embiotocidae (surfperch). To accomplish this goal, we will use custom Perl scripts and the software program Stacks v. 1.02 to identify informative markers that contain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RAD markers containing SNPs are distributed randomly throughout the genome, resulting in markers from many independent loci. These genome-wide SNPs should allow for robust phylogenetic inference into the evolutionary history of surfperches.
Additionally, we will then repeat this project with UCLUST v. 1.2.22, which will cluster RAD sequences into putative orthologous sequences based on percent similarity. These clusters will then be filtered so that any one species is not over-represented in a cluster and then aligned and concatenated into a supermatrix for phylogenetic analysis. Lastly, we will compare the Stacks and UCLUST methods for building an Embiotocoids phylogeny using RAD markers. This study will represent a significant portion of the ongoing project to build a robust surfperch phylogeny and will add insight into the usefulness of RAD markers for phylogenetic inference.
ACOUSTIC SIGNALING IN A NEW SPECIES OF SHRUB FROG FROM NEW BRITAIN ISLANDTaylor Broadhead, Rafe Brown.
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
We studied the acoustic advertisement call of a new species of shrub frog from New Britain Island. Together with the data from morphology and DNA sequences, the study of the new species’ mating call informs us of the primary materecognition differences between the species. The purpose of this research is to determine whether call characters are similar or different among closely related species of frogs. The advertisement call of the new species is compared to the advertisement call of a closely related species, Platymantis macrosceles. We preformed the acoustic analysis using prerecorded calls from 5 different individuals of the new species and 2 recording segments of P. macrosceles.
The new species possesses unique advertisement call characteristics that distinguish them from P. macrosceles.
The defining characteristics of the advertisement call of the new species are the high frequency, slower rate of note repetition, and lack of a rapid introductory pulse series. Our study of the advertisement call of this new species of shrub frog reinforces data from morphology and DNA sequences and confirms the validity of the new taxon because acoustic signals are the primary mechanism for mate recognition in anurans.
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Biological Sciences SAT-525
WATER STRESS IN QUERCUS AGRIFOLIA (COASTAL LIVE OAK) IN RELATION TO DISTANCE AND
ELEVATION FROM A STREAMBED IN THE SUMMERFrank Campos, Alexis Bueno, Velvet Parker, Emily Sanchez, Matt Scanlon, H. Jochen Schenk, William Hoese.
California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA.
Investigations of plant water stress during the arid summer in a Mediterranean climate provide information on patterns and mechanisms of drought resistance. We examined how deeply-rooted, evergreen, California-coast live oak trees (Quercus agrifolia) respond to varying access to water during the summer. We hypothesized that increasing distance and elevation from a streambed would increase water stress on individual trees. We used 4 different measures (leaf water potential, wood water content, leaf vein density, and sap flow) as indicators of water stress and compared them across three sites (0 m, 14 m and 36 m above the streambed). Leaf water potential indicates the amount of water available to a plant, wood water content estimates the volumetric water content stored in wood, total leaf vein density correlates with leaf hydraulic conductance, and sap flow indicates the rate at which sap is moving through the plant. Leaf water potentials were higher during predawn than during the day and trees at 0 m above streambed had significantly higher water potential than the other two sites at predawn and midday. A nocturnal increase in wood water content was observed only at 0 m and not at higher elevations. There was no significant difference in leaf vein density among the sites. Q. agrifolia farther from the streambed were more water conservative and potentially more vulnerable to drought than trees next to the streambed.
IDENTIFYING GENES UNDER SELECTION IN THE INVASIVE GREEN CRAB, CARCINUS MAENASTimothy Fuller1, Carolyn Tepolt2.
California State University, Monterey Bay, Hollister, CA, 2Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA.