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With water heating accounting for a large fraction of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, researchers have continued investigating methods for designing more efficient solar water heaters. The main issue with current solar heating technologies is designing a system that effectively transfers the energy obtained from the sun to the working fluid. To address this issue, a minichannel tube solar collector was designed, built, and tested. The new design was constructed in aluminum and shows improved performance with respect to traditional copper tubeand-fin configuration. To study the performance of the solar collector, a control logic was developed to operate the water heater system, which includes a closed water/glycol loop exchanging energy with the water inside a storage tank. The data acquisition system and control logic consists of input signals for temperature measurements at the inlets, outlets, and inside the water tank for 2 separate systems (minichannel and traditional configurations) operating simultaneously. Flow rates of the working fluid pumped through the system are also recorded when solar radiation is available. The control logic turns pumps on and off depending on the solar irradiance available and discharges water from the storage tanks when a threshold temperature of 55 °C is reached.
NAVAL ARCHITECTURE/MARINE ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING LOW COST OCEAN OBSERVATION SYSTEMS: THEIR POTENTIAL IN THE FIELD ANDEDUCATION Gritidach Manakitivipart1, James Manning2, Jennifer Troubetaris3, Colin Sage3.
Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, 2Ecosystem Processes Division: Oceanography Branch, National Oceanic 1 and Atmospheric Administration, Woods Hole, MA, 3Massasoit Community College, Brockton, MA.
Global climate change has emerged in recent years as one of the forefront international issues. In order to understand the far-reaching effects of climate change, a comprehensive, long-term record of oceanographic data is required. Data sets of ocean processes are commonly collected via sophisticated shipboard, moored, and drifting instrumentation.
While effective, these instruments are often too costly for smaller institutions to obtain. The financial barrier has prevented many capable institutions from joining the ocean-observing network. The objective of our project is to provide such institutions and scientists with reliable, low- cost alternatives to collect oceanic data. Presently, our project is focusing on designing and building surface drifters, moored bottom-current meters, tide gauges, and large marine animal tags. We designed the units in such a way that others can easily construct them using commonly available materials.Our drifters, for example, are fitted with bamboo frames, canvas sails, and commercially available GPS transmitters. Originally designed for trucking companies, the transmitters are more affordable than scientific models while offering a nearly equivalent level of accuracy. The instruments are subsequently tested to ensure their performance conforms to oceanographic standards. Completed instruments are deployed by volunteer vessels, namely, the local fishermen. Furthermore, blueprints of the low-cost instrument can be distributed to schools for use as a practical, yet functional, project in marine science courses. In addition to providing hands-on experience, our project will contribute new information to the ocean-observing system as well.
ARTIFICIAL ENZYME-POWERED MICROFISH FOR WATER-QUALITY TESTINGAllan Cortes, Jahir Orozco, Victor García-Gradilla, Mattia D’ Agostino, Wei Gao, and Joseph Wang.
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
We present a novel micromotor-based strategy for water-quality testing based on changes in the propulsion behavior of artificial, biocatalytic microswimmers in the presence of aquatic pollutants. The new micromotor toxicity testing concept mimics live-fish water testing and relies on the toxin-induced inhibition of the enzyme catalase, responsible for the biocatalytic bubble propulsion of tubular microengines. The locomotion and survival of the artificial microfish are thus impaired by exposure to a broad range of contaminants that lead to distinct time-dependent irreversible Engineering losses in the catalase activity and hence of the propulsion behavior. Such use of enzyme-powered biocompatible polymeric (PEDOT)/Au-catalase tubular microengines offers highly sensitive direct optical visualization of changes in the swimming behavior in the presence of common contaminants and hence to a direct, real-time assessment of the water quality. Quantitative data on the adverse effects of the various toxins on the swimming behavior of the enzymepowered artificial swimmer are obtained by estimating common ecotoxicological parameters, including the EC50 (exposure concentration causing 50% attenuation of the microfish locomotion) and the swimmer survival time (lifetime expectancy). Such novel use of artificial microfish addresses major standardization and reproducibility problems as well as ethical concerns associated with live-fish toxicity assays and hence offers an attractive alternative to the common use of aquatic organisms for water-quality testing.
PREPARATION OF POLY(Ε-CAPROLACTONE)-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITE NANOFIBER SCAFFOLDS
FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONSChristian Rogers1, Elijah Nyairo1, Derrick Dean2, Vinoy Thomas2, James Stokes1, Manoj Mishra1.
Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
1 Electrospinning is a unique method that produces fibers with diameters in the nanometer range using electric potential to initiate spinning of a charged polymer solution. Nanocomposite scaffolds based on nanofibrous poly(εcaprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with different compositions (wt %) were prepared by electrostatic cospinning to mimic the nano features of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). HA was found to be well-dispersed in polymers up to the addition of 10 wt %, after ultrasonication. The composite scaffolds were characterized for structure and morphology using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR confirmed the presence of HA in the fibers. DSC analysis revealed that as HA in the composite scaffolds increased, the melting point slightly increased due to the good dispersion and interface bonding between PCL and HA. The ability to grow cells on these scaffolds and the effect of incorporation of the cells on the toxicity of the scaffolds is under investigation. Preliminary studies were conducted on TRAMP-C1,
-C2, and -C3 cell lines derived from transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice seeded on neat PCL and PCL with different percentages of HA for 24 hours at 37 oC and 5% CO2. The scaffolds were analyzed by MTT assay at different times to verify cell toxicity/proliferation. The data suggests that the PCL is not toxic to TRAMP-C1 cells while PCL with 1% HA gives better proliferation of TRAMP-C1 cells. This suggests that electrospun PCL provides an environment that supports cell attachment and proliferation for bioengineering applications.
EFFECTS OF AUDIOVISUAL CUES ON SPEECH-IN-NOISE PERCEPTION IN SIMULTANEOUS AND
SEQUENTIAL SPANISH-ENGLISH BILINGUALSKathryn Curry, Bharath Chandrasekaran.
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Audiological tests are valuable for evaluating an individual’s hearing abilities. However, tests that involve a speechin-noise component may evaluate bilinguals unfairly due to a processing cost when navigating between two lexicons.
In speech-in-noise tests, fluent bilinguals have been shown to perform equally with monolinguals without background noise in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, but perform less well than monolinguals in masked settings. It has been shown that bilinguals incorporate more visual cues than monolinguals, which are thought to help confirm to Health the listener what the speaker is saying. Furthermore, since bilinguals differ in age of L2 acquisition, speech-in-noise processing and the incorporation of audiovisual cues may differ between simultaneous bilinguals (second language learned before age 5) and sequential bilinguals (second language learned after age 11). The purpose of this study is to assess how bilinguals and monolinguals differ in processing speech-in-noise with and without audiovisual cues.
To identify possible differences in processing speech-in-noise between sequential and simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals, we will use a 2-talker speech-in-noise test as well as the Spanish and English versions of the Hearing in Noise Test. It is predicted that bilinguals and monolinguals will perform equally in quiet, while monolinguals will perform better in noise relative to bilinguals in L1 and L2. Additionally, it is hypothesized that simultaneous bilinguals will perform less well in L1 and L2 than sequential bilinguals due to early age acquisition of both languages. The goal of this study is to help improve audiological testing for bilinguals.
HEALTH SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL CHARGES: COMPARING THREE SERVICES IN ILLINOISJavier Lopez, Stephen Notaro.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.
Prices of healthcare services can vary greatly throughout regions. Factors that can influence pricing are the location of the hospital, decisions of its administrative staff, or the role of the physician within the hospital network. The purpose of this research is to observe and compare the costs of several common procedures available in 35 hospitals located across the state of Illinois throughout 6 different geographical regions of the state. Procedures were categorized into inpatient and outpatient procedures. The Healthcarereportcard.illinois.gov website and countyhealhtrankings.
org were used to gather data on pricing for procedures, quality of care in county, the health of residents, and other factors. It was found that some hospitals charged several hundred to thousands of dollars less than other hospitals in nearby regions. The results have implications for families, patients, and insurance companies in locating the lowest cost procedures, thus saving thousands of dollars and in helping establish consistent pricing of procedures across the state.
MEDICINE (E.G., DENTISTRY, SURGERY, OPTOMETRY,VETERINARY) SAT-83
EFFECTS OF ALMOND CONSUMPTION ON THE POSTPRANDIAL METABOLIC RESPONSES IN HIGH-RISK
PREGNANT WOMENAdriana Martinez1, Lisa Sawrey-Kubicek2, Janet C. King2.
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 2Children’s Hospital, Oakland Research Institute, Berkeley, CA.
1 Currently, about 50% of women entering pregnancy are obese and at greater risk of developing gestational diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. During pregnancy, circulating levels of triglycerides stay elevated for a prolonged period following a meal for nutrient transfer to the fetus. Obese women, who often enter pregnancy with subclinical insulin resistance and elevated levels of triglycerides, can thus transfer an excessive amount of energy to the fetus, predisposing them to glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. While dietary interventions exist for the nonpregnant population, specific food plans for controlling weight gain among obese, pregnant women remain unavailable. In a cross-over, randomized-control trial, we will investigate the effects of almond consumption on satiety and the postprandial glucose and lipid metabolic response in obese, late-stage, pregnant, Latina women. The response to 2 different test meals is studied in the participants on 2 separate days. One meal contains almonds, the second contains dairy fat. Blood is then sampled over a 5-hour period to measure the response of hormones involved in hunger and satiety: ghrelin and leptin, respectively. The women will also complete a satiety questionnaire at fasting,
0.5 hours postprandial, and then every hour over a 5-hour period. The findings from this study will identify the effect of two different types of fat, a saturated dairy fat and an unsaturated nut fat, on postprandial metabolism and satiety in pregnancy.
HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND CORTISOL DIURNAL PROFILES IN PSYCHOGENIC MOVEMENT DISORDERPATIENTS Ryan Toledo, Kathrin Czarnecki-LaFaver, Carine Mauer, Mark Hallett.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.