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In particular, hyperactivity in the amygdala is found in a stop-signal task where external affective cues were dissonant from internal feelings. Additionally, preliminary results indicate hypoactivity in the medial frontal gyrus, as it fails to suppress the hyperactivity of the amygdala in depressed adolescents. These results expand on the current findings of depression research in adults. Hence, the study seeks to give additional support to current data suggesting that there is a connection between different regions of the brain. This is an important step to understanding how depression in adolescents can stem from their inability to self regulate negative emotions in anxiety-induced situations.
HEALTHY WOMEN: HEALTHY NATIVE NATION – LESSONS LEARNED IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA
NATIVE FASD PREVENTION PROJECTAlexandrea Camp-Mazzetti1, Christina Chambers2, Annika Montag3, John Clapp4, Liana Nelson1, Merina Ortega1, Dan Calac1, Marlene Dusek1.
Southern California Tribal Health Clinic, Pauma Valley, CA, 2University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 1 Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, 4Center for Alcohol and Drug Studies, 3 San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a spectrum of permanent disabilities called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). FASD rates vary among populations as a result of varying patterns of alcohol consumption and factors influencing these patterns. The present project seeks to obtain information useful to designing an effective intervention and to test the efficacy of a culturally targeted SBIRT (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment) intervention. In conducting our project we have encountered and overcome various hurdles including gaining the trust of the community, recruitment, and retention. A culturally targeted web-based SBIRT intervention will reduce risky alcohol consumption among AI/AN women of childbearing age. AI/AN women between 18 and 45 years of age were recruited from three AI/AN health clinics in Southern California. A web-based SBIRT intervention was culturally targeted using focus groups and key informants. Awareness raising events were held on local reservations. The tribal IRB approved all protocols. Participants were recruited, randomized into intervention or control, and followed up by telephone at 1, 3, and 6 months. At each step, input from local Native women and the community was crucial. Local AI/AN staff was hired and trained. A certificate of confidentiality was obtained. Project participation at local events increased trust and identification with the project. Recruitment locations and incentives were changed. Retention was improved by changing contact methods and incentives. Projects working with AI/AN communities may need to incorporate unconventional methods and may benefit from our experiences.
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF IMMUNODEFICIENCY-RELATED VACCINE DERIVED POLIOVIRUS CASESWORLDWIDE Sara Bolivar Wagers1, Jean Guo2, Marisa Holubar2, Nita Srinivas2, Yvonne Maldonado2.
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 2Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, 1 CA.
In 1988, the World Health Organization unveiled a plan to eradicate poliomyelitis. Worldwide vaccine strategies rely on oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) because it is cost-efficient, easy to deliver, and can increase herd immunity.
OPV has successfully decreased wild-type poliovirus, but as we near eradication, new problems related to OPV
212 UNDERGRADUATE POSTER ABSTRACTS
use are emerging. Patients with immunodeficiencies have a weak immune response to OPV, the live, attenuated polio vaccine. They can have prolonged intestinal replication of the vaccine virus to form new, mutated virulent strains known as vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can result in symptoms of acute flaccid paralysis that are normally caused by the wild-type virus. This phenomenon may prevent polio eradication as it can reintroduce paralysis-causing mutants into polio-free communities. Despite the recognition that immunodeficiency-related vaccine derived poliovirus (iVDPVs) jeopardizes eradication, its determinants are still not well understood. We conducted a systematic review of all recorded cases of iVDPVs from the 1960s to present. We developed search strings for scientific databases to detect all previously published iVDPV cases. We evaluated trends such as age, vaccine history, immune disorder, gender, and percent divergence of the virus. We hypothesized the patient’s type of immunodeficiency and location of residence will be the main risk factors for formation of iVDPVs. Additionally, we proposed that the increase in iVDPV cases recorded in the last decade, especially in middle and low income countries, may have been due to increased surveillance technologies. This study will help determine appropriate vaccine strategies and global policies needed after polio eradication.
A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF LATINA MOTHERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND BELIEFS ABOUT HEALTHY
EATING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND FACTORS THAT WOULD FACILITATE PARTICIPATION IN OBESITY
Center, City of Phoenix Parks and Recreation Department, Phoenix, AZ.
Little is known about the features of pediatric obesity prevention programs that would be appealing to Latina mothers and their children. The purpose was to gather qualitative data among Latina mothers regarding factors that would facilitate participation in obesity prevention programs. We conducted a focus group in Spanish with 4 Latina mothers of 6 -to 11-year-old children. Topics of discussion included healthy eating, physical activity, barriers for making healthier choices, and desirable factors for enrolling themselves and their children in programs. All mothers perceived that their children engaged in sufficient physical activity and followed a healthful diet. Barriers to making changes to food preparation included their child’s food preferences. All mothers indicated achieving their physical activity by walking, whereas their children’s was achieved through sports. The hot summer weather was viewed as a barrier to engaging in more physical activity and although they expressed preference for having access to indoor recreation space, the cost of a membership was a barrier given they wanted to enroll the entire family into programs. Mothers indicated preference for programs that allowed both parents and other family members to participate, and indicated wanting more information about nutrition and ways to motivate their children to eat healthier and participate in sports.
All parents stated they would participate if such programs existed and were close to their homes. The focus group data provided key recommendations to develop future childhood obesity prevention programs tailored to Latino families.
NATIVE COMIC BOOK PROJECTCorinna Tordillos, Dedra Buchwald.
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Tribal communities often lack access to high-quality healthcare, prevention programs, cancer education, cancer screening tests, and cancer clinical trials. As a result, American Indians and Alaska Natives experience the worst cancer-related disparities and the poorest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups in the US. Comic books have long been used as educational tools to improve public health. In 2008, the Native Comic Book Project was launched as a youth-focused community education project of Native People for Cancer Control, a community network program center funded by the National Cancer Institute. The purpose of this project is to use comic book creation as a way to educate Native youth about cancer, especially methods of cancer prevention. Along with basic art skills, participants learn about traditional foods and wellness, nonceremonial tobacco use, human papillomavirus, and obesity prevention. Modeled after Dr. Michael Bitz’s Comic Book Project, the Native Comic Book Project has been adapted for both urban and reservation-based youth by incorporating Native storytelling and traditional values. Its ultimate goal is to promote healthy decision making for Native youth and their communities. We are currently conducting a formal evaluation of this project by using pre and postintervention assessments to measure knowledge, habits, and decision making among youth participants regarding tobacco use, healthy eating, exercise, and human papillomavirus. Data
will be analyzed in winter 2013. The Native Comic Book Project has been implemented at 10 sites and has enrolled 55 participants. Future planned activities for research and education include developing more youth-oriented health interventions.
COMMUNITY-BASED CHILDHOOD OBESITY INTERVENTIONS: AN UPDATED LITERATURE REVIEW OF
SUCCESSFUL STUDIESMonica Gonzalez, Carly Labombard, Andrian McGhee, Curtis Ellsworth, Alberto Florez, Monica Gutierrez, Gabriel Shaibi, Sonia Vega-López, Noe C. Crespo.
Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ.
Childhood obesity is an important public health challenge. Interventions that focus on lifestyle changes (i.e., nutrition and physical activity behaviors) show promise for reversing the current obesity trends. A systematic literature review of intervention studies in children was conducted to identify the characteristics of study components/strategies that contribute to a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI). We conducted a systematic search of published studies in PubMed and other databases using several key terms to identify potential studies. Inclusion criteria were participants were 3 to 18 years old, studies were conducted within the United States or Canada, intervention was conducted outside regular school hours, and the intervention led to statistically significant reduction in child BMI or BMI percentile. Forty-eight studies were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria for further review. Intervention length ranged from 10 weeks to 2 years, the frequency ranged from 1 to 3 times per week, and the duration ranged from 1 hour to 2.5 hours per session. All of the intervention studies included a physical activity program, 8 of the studies involved a nutrition education component, 12 of the interventions had parental involvement, and 6 of the interventions had some type of behavioral modification component. The most common setting for implementing intervention activities involved school grounds (n = 9). This study has identified key features of successful interventions that may be used as best-practice recommendations for future interventions. Future research should also examine other community settings such as recreation centers.
HISTORY (EXCEPT HISTORY OF SCIENCE)SAT-198 BROWN BEFORE 42 Mariano Nava, Adrian Burgos.
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
This paper examines the 1942 and 1943 Major League Baseball (MLB) seasons, a period when the MLB maintained a restrictive color line system. During this time, black newspapers discussed differently than white newspapers the Latino pitcher/catcher duo of Hiram Bithorn and Salvador Hernandez of the Chicago Cubs. The Cubs’ hiring of the two Latinos as “temporary help” was quite similar to what significant components of the US economy were doing during World War II, as seen with the Bracero Program. Examining media coverage of Bithorn and Hernandez sheds light on a story that is rarely told: that of being “brown” in a seemingly black and white world. Books, newspaper articles, and online archives are used to gather contemporary coverage to examine this chaotic time period. Looking at the conditions in which these Latino players were incorporated into the Major Leagues will clarify why the Cubs, like other teams around the league, hired, then later released, them. This project contributes to the research in Latino/a studies regarding the blurring of the color line in the Midwest, the basis on which Latino labor is incorporated, and the impact
IDENTIFYING BARRIERS ASSOCIATED WITH ABORTION ACCESS AMONG LATINA WOMEN IN SOUTH TEXASAna Laura Rivera1, Kristine Hopkins2.
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 2Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
1 Currently, there is insufficient information to help characterize the barriers that exist in a Latina woman’s ability to access abortion and also insufficient data revealing the number of Latinas having abortions in South Texas. In our research, we plan to investigate the challenges women encounter in South Texas in obtaining an abortion. We want to examine how stigma plays a role in the Latino community as women seek an abortion. Lastly, we will analyze the impact of the only abortion clinic there is in the Valley serving four counties. In order to investigate the barriers to abortion experienced by Latinas in South Texas, our study will include in-depth interviews with Latinas who seek an abortion at Whole Women’s Health Clinic in McAllen, Texas, and an analysis of federal and state laws that restrict access to abortion. We hypothesize that our investigation will reveal that Latina women in South Texas face economic, cultural, and political obstacles when pursuing abortion. Examples of these obstacles include being unable to afford doctor visits, lack of transportation to see a doctor, difficulties in taking time off work, and lack of childcare assistance.
After our final observations, field study, and research, we will provide recommendations as to what is next for young women in Texas and what can be done to fight against the stigma of abortion. We will also discuss 21st century views of abortion among Latinos.