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In recent years, the number of homeless women in the United States has increased dramatically. Up until recently, the large majority of homeless were men, with single men being overrepresented. As women become a larger percentage of the homeless population, a better understanding of their needs is required in order to formulate solutions for this specific group. This project will assess the needs of homeless women in downtown Los Angeles and examine the differences between the needs of homeless men. It is hypothesized that the needs of homeless women will be significantly different from the needs of homeless men. Furthermore, it is estimated that homeless women will use the LAC+USC Medical Center more frequently than their male counterparts. Participants included homeless men (n = 45) and homeless women (n = 25) who were surveyed in areas surrounding the Medical Center. Women reported a greater need for health care services, basic resource services, housing services, and childcare services. Men reported a greater need for employment services, legal services, and substance prevention services. These findings suggest that the 2 groups are unique and may benefit from tailored prevention and treatment approaches. Thus, treating the distinctive needs of different populations may aid in the continuous process to end chronic homelessness.
AN EXAMINATION OF THE CHALLENGES, STRESSORS, AND COPING MECHANISMS IN MEXICANAMERICAN WOMEN
San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
Compared to the rest of the US population, Mexican-American women have an increased risk of developing health problems (e.g., obesity, heart disease). Research suggests that stress plays a significant role in health outcomes.
The current qualitative study seeks to provide an in-depth understanding of the challenges, stressors, and coping mechanisms that Mexican-American women experience to inform future studies aimed at improving Latina health. An exploratory, descriptive study consisting of 8 key informant interviews facilitated by qualitatively trained and bilingual project staff members were conducted. Participants were Latina, 18 years and older, and working or residing in the South Bay area. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and, if necessary, translated for content analysis of common themes and patterns through qualitative methodology to address the aims of the study. In terms of personal stressors, participants most often mentioned experiencing multiple role conflict, unfair treatment, and stress adjusting to the American lifestyle. The coping mechanisms most cited by participants included having a positive outlook on life, social support, social activities, and faith. Findings reveal that there is a unique set of stressors that MexicanAmerican women experience including multiple role conflicts, unfair treatment, and adjustment to the American lifestyle. In response to these particular stressors, participants reported several coping mechanisms which consisted of having a positive outlook on life, social support, social activities, and faith. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the unique stressors that Mexican-American women face as these stressors may have a negative impact on their health.
RELATION BETWEEN CHILDREN’S INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS AND PARENTS’ PERCEIVED LEVEL OF
STRESS: RACE AS A MODERATORCarl Bolano, Katherine Korelitz2, Judy Garber.
San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, 2Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
1 A strong link has been found between stress and psychopathology in both children and adults. The current study examined whether the relation between parents’ level of life stress and children’s internalizing problems varied by race. Participants were parents (n = 1,379) of children (mean age = 11.34, range: 4 to 18) receiving services for mental health problems. At intake, parents reported how stressful their life was currently, using a 5-point Likert scale
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(1 = not stressful; 5 = extremely stressful). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the interaction between parents’ race (minority vs. nonminority) and child internalizing problems (yes or no) significantly predicted parents’ reported levels of stress. For minority parents (n = 279), levels of stress were significantly higher for parents of children with, as compared to without, internalizing problems (t = -3.936, p.001); similarly for nonminority parents (n = 1,100), the relation between child internalizing problems and parental stress level was significant (t = -2.697, p =.007). Among parents of children with internalizing problems, minority parents reported significantly higher levels of stress than nonminority parents (t = -2.052, p =.041), whereas, among parents of children without internalizing problems, there was a nonsignificant trend for nonminority parents to report higher levels of stress than minority parents (t = 1.956, p =.051). Overall, child internalizing problems and parents’ perceived levels of stress were significantly related, and this was especially true for minority families. We also found that minority parents reported less favorable attitudes toward seeking professional help than nonminority parents (t = 3.050, p =.05). Thus, it may take higher levels of perceived stress for minority parents to seek help for their children with internalizing problems.
EXPLORING ETHNIC MATCH, ACCULTURATION MATCH, AND PARENTAL ACCULTURATION AS
CORRELATES OF PARENTAL AGREEMENT WITH THERAPISTS ON THE CAUSES OF CHILD PROBLEMSDuyen Trang, May Yeh.
San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
Due to the low participation of ethnic minority clients in psychotherapy treatment, cognitive match, agreement, or shared understanding between therapists and clients have been proposed as important in providing culturally competent mental health services. This preliminary study examined different factors (i.e., parent-therapist ethnic match, degree of parent-therapist match on acculturation to mainstream American culture, and parent acculturation to mainstream American culture) that may be associated with parental agreement with therapists on biopsychosocial beliefs and total parental agreement with therapists on the causes of child problems. Data were collected from a diverse sample of parents of youths receiving outpatient mental health services (approximate n = 277) and associated therapists (approximate n = 48). Parental agreement was assessed using separate parent and therapist reports on the Beliefs about the Causes of Child Problems Questionnaire (BAC). Acculturation was measured using the PAN acculturation scale. For both total parental agreement with therapists and parental agreement with therapists on biopsychosocial beliefs, results indicated parent-therapist ethnic match was unrelated (p.05), degree of parenttherapist acculturation match on mainstream American culture demonstrated a borderline relationship (p =.05), and parent acculturation to mainstream American culture was significantly correlated with parental agreement with therapists (p.05). This preliminary study highlights the potential importance of parent acculturation levels in relationship to cognitive match in psychotherapy treatment. Hopefully with greater cognitive match or agreement, parents and therapists will cooperate effectively to improve children’s conditions.
ENCULTURATION: A POTENTIAL PROTECTIVE FACTOR AGAINST SUICIDAL IDEATION IN AMERICAN
INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE YOUNG ADULTS, A PROPOSED STUDYAdam Nordwall, Victoria O’Keefe, LaRicka Wingate.
Behavioral Social & Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.
Suicide rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities continue to exceed most other ethnic groups. Research has begun to identify risk and protective factors to better understand AI/AN suicide. Empirical studies have investigated acculturation (the degree of assimilation to the majority or dominate culture) into the dominant society as a potential risk factor for suicidal ideation. However, few studies have examined enculturation (the degree of maintaining and practicing your own culture) as a combatant against suicidal ideation, specifically in AI/ AN young adults. The current proposed study will examine whether enculturation and participation in cultural activities are negatively associated with suicidal ideation in a sample of AI/AN college students. Information gained about the role of enculturation on suicidal ideation may lead to program development that can focus on instilling culture as a potential protective factor against suicidal ideation among AI/AN young adults. Implementing enculturation strategies may not only reduce the risk of suicide, but it may increase cultural identity and pride for AI/AN young adults.
SYSTEMS JUSTIFICATIONCarol Villanueva-Perez, Andrei Cimpian.
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL.
There is proclivity in the societal system that, even among disadvantage groups, there is a need to defend authority and justice. This can be explained by the systems justification theory. According to this theory, people have a motivational need to defend the status quo to preserve order in their life. If society is fair, there is no reason to be frustrated about one’s position in it. We propose that system justification emerges from a broad cognitive bias to interpret status differences and other patterns in the world in terms of their inherent features. Thinking inherently about socio political patterns might direct people to interpret status differences as fair and legitimate, taking into consideration the inherent characteristics. We present evidence showing that systems justification arises even when there is arguably no motivation to certain social patterns. In one study, adult participants defended the social status quo, even when it occurred in a context far removed from their own inherent explanations of status differences. In the second study, 5 to 8 year old children, who are too young to experience anxiety in society, also showed a preference for inherent explanations of status differences.
ETHNIC AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HEAD START CHILDREN’S SCIENCE LEARNINGHaley Edwards, Daryl Greenfield.
University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL.
In recent years, science and science education have been at the forefront of policy debates, receiving state and national attention. Amid the policy debates and growing concerns over science education is the recognized underrepresentation of women and minorities in the sciences. There is evidence that children as young as preschool age have a substantial knowledge base about the natural world and thus the ability to begin learning science. Using an ethnically and linguistically diverse sample of Head Start children, the current study seeks to examine the gender and ethnic differences in preschool children’s science learning in order to better understand the relationship between early science education and later trends that disfavor women and minority participation in the sciences. The study also aims to test the theory that ethnic matches between teachers and students in the preschool years will enhance student performance. The students and teachers in the current study served as participants in an Early Childhood Hands-On Science (ECHOS) curriculum and professional development program. The results from this study are expected to have useful implications for the ECHOS Program as well as similar early science education programs.
INVESTIGATING ORIENTATION DEPENDENCE IN VISUAL OBJECT RECOGNITIONAspen Yoo1, George Alvarez.
California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, 2Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
1 Understanding the relationship between individual aspects of object recognition and representation is vital to understanding the visual system as a whole. Previous research has supported the idea that the identity and location representation of objects are independently processed in the brain. However, a recent study by Kravitz, Kriegeskorte, and Baker supports the position-dependent hypothesis of visual object representation which states that visually recognizing an object’s identity depends on its location in your visual field. The current study uses the behavioral methods outlined in Kravitz et al. to investigate other aspects of visual object recognition, particularly whether recognition is dependent on orientation. The experiment involves participants being exposed to the same image twice, either in the same orientation or in differing orientations each time. For the objects viewed in the same orientation twice, the ability to recognize the objects should be higher for the second viewing (i.e., indicating a priming effect). If
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visual object recognition is invariant to orientation, this increased recognition rate should also be observed when the objects appear at different orientations the second time. However, if this priming effect depends on an orientationspecific object representation, the priming effect will be dampened for objects that appear at a different orientation the second time. The current study will provide insight into how visual object recognition is affected by the relationship between object identity and orientation.
DO ANABOLIC STEROIDS IMPACT COGNITION? AN EVALUATION OF ANDROSTENEDIONE’S IMPACT ON
COGNITION IN YOUNG MALE RODENTSBryan Camp, Laura Torres, Sheri Hiroi, Heather Bimonte-Nelson.
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.