FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 6 |

«Saudi Arabia HUMAN Denied Dignity RIGHTS Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward WATCH Saudi Shia Citizens Denied Dignity Systematic ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

3 Steinberg, “The Shiites in the Eastern Province,” p. 248. King Abd al-‘Aziz agreed to demands by the Ikhwan in 1927 to force the Shia to convert to “Islam,” to close all mosques and husseiniyyas of the Shia, and to prohibit public religious ceremonies.

4 Louer, Transnational Shia Politics, p. 22.

5 Human Rights Watch | September 2009 their areas.5 These demands were at the heart of Shiite protests in the “intifada of 1400,” a local uprising during ceremonies marking `Ashura’ (a major Shia holiday) in 1979,6 in which some Saudi Shia went further, voicing demands for independence.7 The 1979 Islamic revolution in Shia-dominated Iran both emboldened Saudi Shia (their public celebration of `Ashura’ that year being one example), and contributed to the Saudi government increasing support for propagating Sunni Islamic messages in public and in the education system.8 These messages followed the Saudi Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, which frequently portrays Shia as unbelievers.9 An incident of violence occurred during the Muslim annual pilgrimage to Mekka in 1987, when Iranian and Saudi Shia pilgrims staged a demonstration against US and Israeli policies which turned violent and resulted in the deaths of 400 pilgrims.10 In the 1980s some Saudi Shia emigrated to escape growing repression at home and expressed their views, including criticisms of the government, through the publication of books and magazines.11 In 1993 the Saudi government came to an understanding with representatives of the émigré Shia opposition whereby they would cease their publications, return to the kingdom, and become a loyal constituency. In return, the authorities promised to release political prisoners, lift travel bans on activists, curb anti-Shia teachings in the educational system, and work toward greater equality between Shia and Sunnis, especially in employment. Some Shia activists did return, but others remained abroad because they were distrustful that the government would honor its promises or because the compromise did not go far enough in their eyes. The government released some political prisoners and 5 Robert Vitalis, America's Kingdom. Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp.


6 Toby Jones, “Rebellion on the Saudi Periphery: Modernity, Marginalization, and the Shi’a Uprising of 1979,” International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 38 (2006), pp. 213-233.

7 Tim Niblock, Saudi Arabia: Power, Legitimacy, and Survival (Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 82-83. See also Jones, “Rebellion on the Saudi Periphery.” 8 Guido Steinberg, “The Wahhabi Ulama and the Saudi State,” in Paul Aarts and Gerd Nonneman, eds., Saudi Arabia in the Balance (London: C.Hurst & Co., 2005), pp. 28-29.

9 Natana J. Delong-Bas, Wahhabi Islam. From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 84-90.

10 Niblock, Saudi Arabia: Power, Legitimacy, and Survival, p. 81.

11 Human Rights Watch interviews with Hamza al-Hasan, Ja’far al-Shayib, and Sadiq Jubran, who were part of the Saudi Shia émigré opposition at the time, in London, March 2008, Qatif, Eastern Province, February 2006, and Hofuf, Eastern Province, February 2006, respectively.

Denied Dignity 6 lifted travel bans, but made no discernible progress toward curbing intolerant statements and discrimination.12 In 1995 the Saudi government arrested a large number of Shia in the Eastern Province on suspicion of involvement in the unrest taking place in neighboring Bahrain, whose population is majority Shia but whose government is Sunni-dominated.13 Saudi authorities again arrested scores of Eastern Province Shia following the Khobar bombings in June 1996, which killed 19 US soldiers. Authorities continue to hold nine Shia without trial in connection with the bombings following their arrests between 1996 and 1999.14 Since 2006, tensions between Shia and Sunni Saudis have increased, fuelled in part by developments in Iraq and the perceived growth of Iranian influence in the region.15 During the war between Israel and Lebanon’s Hezbollah in July and August 2006, the government suppressed demonstrations by Sunnis as well as Shia in solidarity with Lebanon’s Shia, and arrested Shia in the Eastern Province who put pictures or symbols of Hezbollah and Hassan Nasrallah, its leader, in their cars or on their mobile phones.16 Following the appearance of a video showing the execution of deposed president Saddam Hussein of Iraq in December 2006, with officials of the Shia-led Iraqi government taunting Saddam, media reports suggest some Sunnis in Saudi Arabia blamed the Shia in general, including Saudi Shia, for oppressing Iraqi Sunnis.17 Before external factors increased domestic tension between Sunnis and Shia in Saudi Arabia, the authorities had taken some measures to promote respect for the Shia religious minority. Then-Crown Prince Abdullah in 2003 began a series of National Dialogues, which 12 International Crisis Group (ICG), “The Shiite Question in Saudi Arabia,” Middle East Report No. 45, September 19, 2005, http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=3678 (accessed August 19, 2009), p. 4.

13 Human Rights Watch/Middle East, Routine Abuse, Routine Denial. Civil Rights and the Political Crisis in Bahrain, June 1997, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/1997/07/01/routine-abuse-routine-denial; and Human Rights Watch interview with two Saudi Shia men, Qatif, February 2006. The men from the Eastern Province were arrested in Bahrain, handed over to Saudi authorities, and severely beaten in Saudi custody in 1995.

14 Human Rights Watch interviews with family members of two detainees, Dammam and Qatif, December 18, 2006. See also Human Rights Watch, Precarious Justice, Arbitrary Detention and Unfair Trials in the Deficient Criminal Justice System of Saudi Arabia, vol. 20, no. 3(E), March 24, 2008, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/03/24/precarious-justice-0, pp. 125-128. The

involvement of Shia militants in the Khobar attacks has been questioned. See Gareth Porter, “Investigating Khobar Towers:

How a Saudi Deception Protected bin Laden,” Inter Press Service, http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=47312 (accessed July 4, 2009).

15 Megan K. Stack, “Iraqi Strife Seeping Into Saudi Kingdom,” Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2006, http://articles.latimes.com/2006/apr/26/world/fg-shiites26 (accessed August 19, 2009).

16 Human Rights Watch interviews with two young Shia in Tarut and Qatif, Eastern Province, December 2006.

17 Donna Abu-Nasr, “Sectarianism Casts Shadow Over Mideast,” Associated Press, January 29, 2007, reproduced at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/29/AR2007012900972_pf.html (accessed August 19, 2009).

7 Human Rights Watch | September 2009 brought together for the first time leading Saudi Shia and Sunni religious figures.

Furthermore, the authorities since 2005 eased the prohibition on festivities surrounding Ashura, allowing more public processions in Qatif (see also chapter III). Between February and April 2005 the authorities conducted municipal elections to half the seats of municipal councils, the first elections in most parts of the kingdom, and did not interfere when Shia won all six contested seats in Qatif, and five out of six in Ahsa’.18 Nevertheless, respect by many Saudi Sunnis for Shia identity and tolerance of their religious beliefs remains a distant goal. Saudi religious shaikhs have issued edicts suggesting Sunnis avoid greeting Shia, or eating with them.19 Even attempts to bridge Sunni-Shia divides sometimes face government sanction. In November 2006 the government pressured Shia religious scholars to disband a group they had formed to attempt, together with the national astronomical society, to unify diverse theological methods to detect the arrival of the new moon. The Islamic calendar is based on the lunar year, and differences over dating the new moon, which heralds the start of religious holidays, is a matter of frequent Sunni-Shia contention.20 On February 4, 2007, the Saudi secret police arrested Mukhlif bin Dahham al-Shammari, a Sunni human rights activist working toward greater Shia-Sunni understanding, and detained him for three months for having visited Shaikh Hasan al-Saffar, the top Shia cleric in Saudi Arabia.21 18 Human Rights Watch interviews with Ja’far al-Shayib, winner of a council seat in Qatif, and Sadiq Jubran, Ahsa’, February 2006.

19 See fatwas by Shaikh Abdullah bin Jibrin, member, Council of Senior Religious Scholars: Fatwa No. 12869, “Our Position on the Shia [‫ ”,] ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮاﻓﻀﺔ‬Fatwa No. 12461, “On The Way to Treat the Rejectionists [Shia][‫”,]ﻓﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮواﻓﺾ‬ Fatwa No. 8222: Ruling on Marriage by an Ismaili to a Sunni Woman [‫,]ﺣﻜﻢ ﺗﺰوﻳﺞ اﻹﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻣﺮأة ﺳﻨﻴﺔ‬and Fatwa No. 7827 “Prohibition on Shia to Pray in Mosques of Muslims [‫ ”,]ﻣﻨﻊ اﻟﺸﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﻼة ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺟﺪ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ‬all published, undated, on Ibn Jibrin’s website: Abdullah bin Jibrin, “Ibn Jibrin’s Fatwas,” http://ibn-jebreen.com/ftawa.php?view=subj&subid=1&parent=0 (accessed July 30, 2009). Ibn Jibrin died on July 13, 2009. The Council of Senior Religious Scholars is the kingdom’s highest organ for interpreting Islam. The king appoints its members, who are all Sunni.

20 Human Rights Watch email communication with a person close to Shaikh Faisal al-‘Awwami, a member of the proposed group, November 11, 2006. See also “Announcing the Establishment of the ‘Council for Legal Beginnings’ in Qatif and Dammam Cities [‫ ”,]»اﻹﻋﻼن ﻋﻦ اﻧﺸﺎء »ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼل اﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺘﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﻴﻒ واﻟﺪﻣﺎم‬Rasid News Network, http://www.rasid.com/artc.php?id=13227 (accessed July 30, 2009), and Human Rights Watch, The Ismailis of Najran: Secondclass Saudi Citizens, September 2008, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/09/22/ismailis-najran-0, p.22.

21 Human Rights First in Saudi Arabia, statement, February 15, 2007, and Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Mukhlif al-Shammari, July 30, 2009.

Denied Dignity 8 III. Underlying Discrimination Eastern Province Shia have accused the government for three decades of discriminating against them in two basic ways. First, they claim that the government is denying them religious and cultural space that they allow to Sunnis. Second, many Shia claim that the government discriminates against them in education, the administration of justice, and in employment.

The events since February 2009 discussed in the following chapters highlight the severe restrictions on freedom of religion for Saudi Shia. But the pattern of repression has a longer recent history. Government offices ban Shia religious observations and policemen prevent Shia from enjoying the same rights of worship as Sunnis do. Having banned `Ashura’ processions since taking control of what is now the Eastern Province in 1913, Saudi authorities since 2005 have allowed larger processions in Qatif, though none has been allowed in Ahsa’. The authorities recently built a large Sunni mosque in overwhelmingly Shia Qatif, while continuing to greatly restrict permits for Shia to build or renovate mosques (refusal extends to projects that would not be seeking financial support from the state, something that Sunni mosque projects frequently enjoy).22 The recent history of discrimination against the Shia includes the way in which official figures portray and treat them as persons of dubious faith, and hence, as second class citizens. The former grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, Shaikh Abd al-Aziz bin Baz, in 1993 declared the Shia Ramadhan festival of Qarqi’un a heretical “innovation.”23 The force of such religious pronouncements, and their consequences for denying Shia their religious freedom, can be seen in the actions by a local education official in the Eastern Province: Ahmad BilGhanaim, the director of education in Ahsa’, in September 2007 issued a directive to all schools to ban all Qarqi’un festivities.24 22 Scott Wilson, “Shiites See an Opening in Saudi Arabia. Municipal Vote in East Could Give Suppressed Minority Small Measure of Power,” Washington Post, February 28, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A58262Feb27.html (accessed August 3, 2009).

23 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The General Presidency of the Department for Scientific Research, Fatwas, Missionary Activity, and Guidance of the General Secretariat of the Council of Senior Religious Scholars, “Fatwa No 15532,” May 15, 1993. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

24 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education, (280) Ahsa’ Governorate Education Administration (Boys), Administration for Islamic Awareness, “Circular to All Units, Administrations, Divisions, Centers for Educational Supervision, Schools, and Institutes, No 34/27166,” September 25, 2007. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 6 |

Similar works:

«BAR Brazilian Administration Review E-ISSN: 1807-7692 bar@anpad.org.br Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Brasil Saito, Richard; Bandeira, Márcia Lima Empirical Evidence of Trade Credit Uses of Brazilian Publicly-Listed Companies BAR Brazilian Administration Review, vol. 7, núm. 3, julio-septiembre, 2010, pp. 242-259 Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Curritiva, Brasil Available in:...»

«Safety Guidelines for Commercial High-Speed / Thrill-Ride Vessel Experiences December 2014 Disclaimer Relevant legislation, including the Maritime Transport Act 1994, Maritime Rules and the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, is amended from time to time and we intend to update these safety guidelines to reflect such amendments if necessary. However, the onus is on operators to check that they are operating to the latest Maritime Rules and other legislation and they should not rely on...»

«Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch MA Thesis on Translation Studies (MA) Topic: Norms of Translating Taboo Words and Concepts from English into Persian after the Islamic Revolution in Iran Advisor: P. Birjandi, Ph.D.Reader: H. Vosoughi, Ph.D.Author: Zohre Etemad Hosseini Semester 2009-2010   2 Table of contents Page Contents Abstract..1 Chapter I: Introduction..2 1.1 Background of the problem..3 1.2 Statement of the problem..5 1.3 Significance and the purpose of the study.5...»

«MD Research News Issue 248 Monday 14 September, 2015 This free weekly bulletin lists the latest published research articles on macular degeneration (MD) and some other macular diseases as indexed in the NCBI, PubMed (Medline) and Entrez (GenBank) databases. If you have not already subscribed, please email Rob Cummins at research@mdfoundation.com.au with ‘Subscribe to MD Research News’ in the subject line, and your name and address in the body of the email. You may unsubscribe at any time by...»

«SHORTER MILKING SECRETS Mel Eden, Fox Eden and Associates, Hamilton Jenny Jago, DairyNZ Introduction Milking is the most labour intensive job on dairy farms. With larger herds and limitations on capital, it is inevitable that the time spent in the dairy is getting longer; milking is harder on people and harder on stock if they have to wait around. This paper gives a number of suggestions on how to improve milking efficiency and make milking a little easier. It focuses on cow flow, milking...»

«Forthcoming in Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 30, No.3, September, 2008. CYBERPUNK-WEB 1.0 “EGOISM” GREETS GROUP-WEB 2.0 “NARCISSISM”: CONVERGENCE, CONSUMPTION, AND SURVEILLANCE, IN THE DIGITAL DIVIDE Kym Thorne University of South Australia and Alexander Kouzmin Southern Cross University and University of South Australia ABSTRACT The question of paradigm “shift” or paradigm “continuity” in the virtual worlds of controllable, and exploitative, existence needs to be...»

«538 Collins Street, Melbourne, VIC. 3000 P: (03) 9614 8632 W: city.cyc.org.au E: citygroups@cyc.org.au Last updated Oct 2015 CAMP ORGANISER’S CHECKLIST ARRANGE TO VISIT CITY CYC If you haven’t already done so, come and have a look around City CYC. This will help you understand □ our location in the city, the venue layout, room allocations, dining room set-up, etc. Please contact us first to arrange a suitable time. If it is not possible to visit, please ring or email our Groups...»

«BOLETÍN DE SACHA INCHI Julio 2014 PATENTES EXTRANJERAS Número de publicación: CN102864185A Fecha de solicitud: 2012-09-19 Título: Solicitante: Anhui Fengyuan Fermentation Technology Engineering Research Co. Ltd., CN Abstract: The invention claims a method for producing citric acid by fermentation flour, wherein the production strain is aspergillus niger, wherein the interface as the main carbon source to flour of liquid fermentation culture medium for fermenting and producing citric acid,...»

«Viscoelastic properties of wood materials characterized by nanoindentation experiments Tian Zhang, Shu-Lin Bai, Fei Zhang Yang, Bernard Thibaut To cite this version: Tian Zhang, Shu-Lin Bai, Fei Zhang Yang, Bernard Thibaut. Viscoelastic properties of wood materials characterized by nanoindentation experiments. Wood Science and Technology, Springer Verlag, 2011, 46 (5), pp.1003-1016. 10.1007/s00226-011-0458-3. hal-00856969 HAL Id: hal-00856969 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00856969...»

«Episode 19: Item level profitability at Amazon (C.R.a.P) profitero.com/the-profitero-podcast Andrea Leigh Keith Anderson VP of Strategy and Insights, Profitero Keith Hello. Welcome to another episode of the Profitero podcast. I'm Keith Anderson, Anderson: head of strategy and insight for Profitero. We've got a great episode for you today. It's a little longer than most of our episodes, but that's because we cover two really interest topics. The first of which is profitability of Amazon, and...»

«Pico: No More Passwords! Hsing Ping Fu Thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, option Embedded Systems and Multimedia Thesis supervisor: Prof. dr. ir. Bart Preneel Assessors: Prof. dr. ir. Patrick Wambacq Dr. ir. Stefaan Seys Mentors: Dr. ir. Jens Hermans Dr. ir. Roel Peeters Academic year 2012 – 2013 c Copyright KU Leuven Without written permission of the thesis supervisor and the author it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means...»

«Sponsored By The Future of Reading Amazon's Jeff Bezos already built a better bookstore. Now he believes he can improve upon one of humankind's most divine creations: the book itself. By Steven Levy NEWSWEEK Updated: 12:53 PM ET Nov 17, 2007 Technology, computer pioneer Alan Kay once said, is anything that was invented after you were born. So it's not surprising, when making mental lists of the most whiz-bangy technological creations in our lives, that we may overlook an object that is superbly...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.