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«His Majesty's Government Ministry of Population and Environment Kathmandu, Nepal June 2000 Ministry of Population and Environment 1 State of the ...»

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Devkota, S.R., 1999. Environment Management in Nepal: Unmanaging the Manageable, Ecological Economics. Vol. 28 (1) 31-40.

DPR, 1999. Working Guidelines (draft). Department of Plant Resources, Kathmandu DPTC, 1997. Annual Disaster Review – 1996. Water Induced Disaster Prevention Center. Lalitpur.

ENPHO, 1993. Water Quality Monitoring in Kathmandu. Environment and Public Health Organization. Kathmandu.

EPC, 1993. Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan : Integrating Environment and Development, Environment Protection Council. Kathmandu.

ESCAP/FAO/UNIDO, 1998. Fertilizer Consumption and Food Grain Production in Nepal. Agrochemicals News in Brief. November 1998.

Fort, M. and Freytel, 1982. The Quaternary Sedimentary Evolution of the IntraMontane Basin of Pokhara in Relation to the Himalayan Midlands and their Hinterland. Contemporary Geoscientific Research in Himalaya. Vol. 2, Dehradun, India Ghimire, G.P.S. and B. K. Uprety, 1990., Causes and Effects of Siltation on the Environment of Nepal, The Environmentalist, 10(1) 55-65.

Hall, C.A.S., and J. Uhlig, 1991. Refining Estimates of Carbon Released form Land Use Change. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21, 118-131.

Haughton, R.A. et al., 1987. The Flux of Carbon From Terrestrial Ecosystem to the Atmosphere 1980 due to Change in Land Use: Geographic Distribution of the Global Fluxes. Tellus, 39 (2) 122-139.

HMG, 1992. National Report, Prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development. HMG. Kathmandu.

HMG/ADB/FINNIDA, 1988. Master Plan for the Forestry Sector: Main Report.

Kathmandu.

ICIMOD and CRT, 1997. Manual of Rural Technology with Implications for Mountain Tourism, International Center for Integrated Mountain Development and Center for Rural Technology. Kathmandu.

IIDS, 1997. Report on Health and Environmental Impact of Hospital Wastes.

Institute for Integrated Development Studies. Kathmandu.

JICA/DHM, 1993. The Study on Nation wide Hydro Meteorological Data Management Project: Final Main Report, HMG Department of Hydrology and Meteorology. Kathmandu.

Joshi, D., S. P. Pandey and R. B. Maskey, 1997. Status of Land Degradation in Nepal. In Combating Desertification: Report of the National Seminar on Desertification and Land Improvement. (Eds. M. P. Ghimire and B.K.

Uprety). Ministry of Population and Environment. Kathmandu.

Laban, P., 1979. Landslide Occurrence in Nepal. Phewatal Project Report # SP/13, Integrated Watershed Management Project, Kathmandu.

Leaders -Nepal, 1998. A Citizen Report on Air Pollution in Kathmandu: Children's Health at Risk. Kathmandu.

Ministry of Population and Environment 98 State of the Environment Report, 2000 Manandhar, L. and K. L. Shrestha, 1994. In Safeguarding Wetlands in Nepal, B., Bhandari, Shrestha T.B. and J. McEachern (Eds.), Proceedings of the National Workshop on Wetlands Management in Nepal. 3 -5 March 1993, Kathmandu.

MFSC, 1997. National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. Kathmandu.

MFSC, 1999. Forest and Shrub Cover of Nepal (1989-1994). Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Department of Forest Survey and Research, Kathmandu.

MHPP, 1996. National Plan of Action Nepal. Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning Presented in City Summit (Habitat II). Istanbul, Kathmandu.

Miyoshi, Y., 1987. Report on Industrial Pollution control. Industrial Service Center.

Kathmandu.

MOF, 1999. Economic Survey (FY 1998/99). Ministry of Finance, Kathmandu.

MOF, 2000. Budget Speech (FY 2000/2001). Ministry of Finance, Kathmandu.

MOH, 1996. Family Health Survey. Department of Health Services. Kathmandu.

MOPE, 1996. Scope of Work. Ministry of Population and Environment, Kathmandu.

MOPE, 1997. Environment Protection Act, 1996 and the Environment Protection Rules, 1997. Ministry of Population and Environment. Kathmandu.

MOPE, 1998. State of the Environment : Nepal. Ministry of Population and Environment, Kathmandu MOPE, 1999. Status of Population in Nepal. Ministry of Population and Environment, Kathmandu.

MOTCA, 1997. Plan of Action, Secretariat of the Visit Nepal Year '98. Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Kathmandu.

NAA, 1995. Plant Genetic Resources Profiles Study, Nepal Agricultural Association and Japan International Co-operation Agency. Kathmandu.

NECG, 1991. Industrial Pollution Survey in Nepal. Nepal Environmental Conservation Group with NPC/IUCN. Kathmandu.

NESS, 1995. Research on Environmental Pollution and Management. Nepal Environment & Scientific Services. Kathmandu.

NPC, 1985. Seventh Plan (1985-'90), National Planning Commission. Kathmandu.

NPC, 1992. Eight Plan (1992-'97), National Planning Commission. Kathmandu.

NPC, 1998. Ninth Plan (1997-2002), National Planning Commission. Kathmandu.

Pandey, M. R. et. al., 1985. Domestic Smoke Pollution and Respiratory Function in Rural Nepal. Yokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 10,471-481.

Rana, K.N., 1986. Country Paper of Nepal. In SAARC Workshop on Renewable Energy Resources. in Mufti A. (Ed.). Ministry of Science and Technology.

Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Sapkota, B.K., B. Pokhrel, and K. Poudyal and B. Bhattarai, 1997. Noise Pollution in Kathmandu. A Journal of Environment. MOPE, Kathmandu, 56-64.





Sharma, A.P., 1986. Status of Pollution in Nepal, in Nepal's Man and Biosphere Bulletin. 8, 53-61. Kathmandu.

Sharma, C. K., 1988. Natural Hazards and Man Made Impacts in the Nepal Himalaya Kathmandu, Mrs. Pushpa Sharma, Kathmandu.

Ministry of Population and Environment 99 State of the Environment Report, 2000 Sharma, C.K, 1997. A Treaties on Water Resources in Nepal. Kathmandu.

Shrestha, B., 1993. Final Report. Kathmandu Valley Vehicular Emission Control Project (UNDP/92-034). Vol. II. Kathmandu.

Shrestha, C. B., and Shrestha, B. B. 1985. Survey of Noise Levels in Kathmandu City, Report submitted to MAB/Nepal Committee. Kathmandu.

Shrestha, J. J., 1995. Fishes, Fishing Implements and Methods in Nepal. India.

Shrestha, T. B. and Joshi, R. M. 1996. Rare, Endemic and Endangered Plants of Nepal. WWF - Nepal Programme. Kathmandu.

Stainton, J.D. A., 1972. Forests of Nepal. John Murray, UK.

Thapa, G.B and S.R. Devkota, 1999. Managing Solid Wastes in MetroKathmandu, SERD, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.

Thapa, V.K.T., 1997, An Inventory of Nepal's Insects, IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu.

UNDP, 1997. Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programmeme, New York.

Uprety, B.K., 1997. Natural Biodiversity. Institutional Strengthening and Collection of Environmental Statistics in Selected DMCs. Central Bureau of Statistics.

Kathmandu.

Wagley, M.P., 1997. Policy and Programme Response for Combating Desertification, in Combating Desertification: Report of the National Seminar on Desertification and Land Improvement (Eds. M.P. Ghimire and B. K. Uprety), Ministry of Population and Environment/UNCCD Secretariat.

Kathmandu.

WECS, 1996. Energy Synopsis Report, Nepal 1994/95. Ministry of Water Resources. Water and Energy Commission Secretariat. Kathmandu.

World Bank, 1997, World Development Report. Washington D.C.

Yamanaka, H., 1982. Radiocarbon Ages of Upper Quaternary Deposit in Central Nepal and Their Geomorphological Significance. Geography : The Science Report of Tohoku University. Seventh Series, Vol. 32, No. 1, Japan.

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Year Landslides and Floods 1964 Glacial lake outburst flood along the Arun River 1968 Rockslide on 5th March and blocking of the Budhi Gandaki River A second landslip on 17th July A third landslip causing a flood of 5,210 cumecs on 1st August 1969 Floods along Gandaki river 1971 Floods along Gandaki river 1974 Rockslide and damming of Ankhu Khola at Labu Bensi and washout of Arughat bazaar 1977 Glacial lake outburst of Nare Drangka below Amadablam 1980 Glacial lake outburst and flood in Tamor 1981 Glacial lake outburst in head region of Bhotekoshi and Sunkoshi rivers Glacial lake outburst flood in Barun Khola Damming of Tinau River and downstream washout 1985 Glacial lake outburst of Dig Cho and washout of Namche hydropower station 1986 Rockslide and flash flood on Gandaki river on 30th June 1987 Flood along the Sunkoshi river and damage to the powerhouse 1988 Flood and earthquake (Eastern Nepal) Earthquakes 1255 King Abhaya Malla's reign (1216-1255 AD) - many houses and temples collapsed, killing one-third to one-fourth of the population in Kathmandu Valley 1681 During King Sri Nibas Malla's reign - many houses collapsed 1833 August 26, intensity X (M.M.), time 11 pm. Result: More than 100 houses leveled in a moment. Direction of motion: East-West October 4, intensity IX lasted half a minute and destruction was as bad as that of 26 August; October 18, intensity VIII 1869 July 7, intensity X: tremendous shock in Kathmandu, a large portion of the population buried in the ruins 1934 Earthquake in Nepal and Bihar; January 15, intensity X in magnitude 3,400 people died in the Kathmandu Valley alone 1963 May 23, intensity VIII. A terrible shock - destroyed a large portion of the town 1980 Earthquake in Bajhang Source: Sharma, 1988

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Year Events 1979 The monsoon rains resulted in washouts of i) a 30 m span bridge across the Bijayapur Khola on the Prithvi Highway and of ii) a 60 m long bridge across the Karra Khola along with the parti al washout of road sections, minor bridges and culverts on Hetauda - Birganj road leading to a rehabilitation cost of about Rs. 8 million.

1981 Twenty-seven kilometers of 114 km -long Arniko Highway was severely damaged during 1981 monsoon, mainly due to unprecedented floods along the Bhote Kosi River caused by glacial lake outburst in Tibet.

The damage costs Rs. 62 million approximately.

1983 A total of about 500 meters of road length at various sections of the & Dharan-Dhankuta Highway; and 115,000 cubic meters of slip debris 1984 occurred on this road during the 1984 monsoon.

1989 Floods and an earthquake seriously affected 350 km of roads; road failures at 37 locations and damaged to 41 bridges. A total of 15 km of road and three bridges were completely washed out in the country.

A 50 km length of the 114 km-long Arniko Highway was severely affected by the monsoon. Twenty-one per cent of the entire road was under risk of major failure costing to Rs. 520 to 730 million with additional maintenance costs of six to seven million rupees per year at 1990 prices for rehabilitation.

Several sections of the Dharan-Dhankuta Highway damaged with about 0.5 km washout due to rains and an earthquake during the monsoon season. The damage cost approximately Rs 10 million at 1987 prices.

The Charnawati area of the Lamosangu-Jiri road was affected by the washout of the Charnawati Bridge and major gullys and landslides in the three-kilometer section near Charnawati, resulting in a rehabilitation cost of Rs. 190 million from 1987 – 1991 A rehabilitation program costing Rs 91 million at 1991 prices is going on to correct the damage on the Thankot-Naubise road East-West Highway led to rehabilitation costs of Rs. 163 million at Damage to bridges, river protection, and several road sections on the 1991 prices 1991 The heavy rainfall on 1 September 1991 resulted in severe undercutting of banks of the Seti River and collapsed a 33-m span bridge over the Seti Gorge at Pokhara on the Prithvi Highway. The rehabilitation has involved the construction of a 200-m span cable, stay type bridge on the same site.

1993 Heavy rainfall and floods on 19 and 20 July 1993 caused massive damage to the Prithvi Highway, Tribhuvan Rajpath and severe damage to the East-West Highway, Phidim-Taplejung road, BardibasSindhuli Road, and Dhalkebar-Birtamod road. The total rehabilitation 102 Ministry of Population and Environment State of the Environment Report, 2000 Sindhuli Road, and Dhalkebar-Birtamod road. The total rehabilitation cost is estimated at 1,290 million Rupees at 1993 prices. Road access to Kathmandu was completely cut off for 28 days. Damage valued at (i) Rs. 200 million for the penstocks and powerhouse of Kulekhani dam, and (ii) Rs. 150 million for Bagmati Barrage.

Ten bridges damaged besides minor damage to the embankment in nine places along the East – West Highway (Pathlaiya - Dhalkebar, and Hetauda-Narayanghat section) incurring damage worth Rs. 48 million approximately A 22 m span out of a 44 m total span of Malekhu Bridge, a 66 m span of Balkhu Bridge, and 66 m out of a 88 m span of Mahadevbesi Khola bridge washed out in Prithvi Rajmarg (Naubise – Mugling section).

Further, severe road damage and failure of retaining structures occurred in 60 places. The losses were valued at Rs. 572 million approximately 3 bridges (10 m., 61 m. and 7 m. span), 23 culverts and 534m of road section in 19 places were completely washed out in Tribhuvan Rajpath (Naubise - Hetauda section). Retaining structures failed along more than 103 m of road. Further, severe damage occurred due to landslides in more than 2,090 places, road failure in 10 places for a total of over 1 Km. length, and damage to two bridges. Fifteen kilometres of road length in six sections affected.

Serious damage to a 16 km length of a road and landslides in various places resulted and damage worth of Rs. 23 million approximately in Phidim - Taplejung Highway Source: Sharma, 1988

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Amphibians Appendix II Rana tigerina (Indian Bull Frog) Insects Appendix II Troides aeacus aeacus (Golden Birdwaing) Troides helena subsp. serberus (Common Birdwing) Source: Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation

–  –  –

1.2 Type II Test - carbon monoxide emission at idling speed This test applies to vehicles fueled with leaded gasoline only.

The carbon monoxide content by volume of the exhaust gases emitted with engines idling must not exceed 3.5% at the settings used for the Type I test.

1.3 Type III Test - verifying emissions of crankcase gases The crankcase ventilation system must not permit the emission of any of the crankcase gases into the atmosphere.

1.4 Type IV Test - determination of evaporative emission This test applies to all vehicles fueled with leaded and unleaded gasoline.

Evaporative emissions shall be less than 2 g/test.

1.5 Type V Test - durability of pollution control devices This test applies to vehicles fueled with unleaded gasoline only.



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