WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 ||

«His Majesty's Government Ministry of Population and Environment Kathmandu, Nepal June 2000 Ministry of Population and Environment 1 State of the ...»

-- [ Page 15 ] --

The test represents an endurance test of 80,000 kilometer driven on the road or on a chassis dynamometer.

Not withstanding the above requirements, a manufacturer may choose to use the deterioration factors from the following table.?

–  –  –

2.2 Type II Test - carbon monoxide emission at idling speed This test applies to vehicles fueled with leaded gasoline only.

The carbon monoxide content by volume of the exhaust gases emitted with engines idling must not exceed 3.5% at the settings used for the Type I test.

2.3 Type III Test - verifying emissions of crankcase gases The crankcase ventilation system must not permit the emission of any of the crankcase gases into the atmosphere.

2.4 Type IV Test - determination of evaporative emission This test applies to all vehicles fueled with leaded and unleaded gasoline.

Evaporative emissions shall be less than 2 g/test.

2.5 Type V Test -durability of pollution control devices This test applies to vehicles fueled with both leaded and unleaded gasoline.

The test represents an endurance test of 80,000 kilometer driven on the road or on a chassis dynamometer.

Not withstanding the above requirements, a manufacturer may choose to use the deterioration factors from the following table. ?

–  –  –

3.2 Type II Test - carbon monoxide emission at idling speed This test applies to vehicles fueled with leaded gasoline only.

The carbon monoxide content by volume of the exhaust gases emitted with engines idling must not exceed 3.5% at the settings used for the Type I test.

3.3 Type III Test - verifying emissions of crankcase gases The crankcase ventilation system must not permit the emission of any of the crankcase gases into the atmosphere.

Not applicable for two wheelers?

3.4 Type IV Test -determination of evaporative emission This test applies to vehicles fueled with leaded and unleaded gasoline.

Evaporative emissions shall be less than 2 g/test.

Not applicable for two wheelers?

3.5 Type V Test - durability of pollution control devices This test applies to vehicles fueled with unleaded gasoline only.

The test represents an endurance test of 80,000 kilometer driven on the road or on a chassis dynamometer.

Not withstanding the above requirements, a manufacturer may choose to use the deterioration factors from the following table.?

–  –  –

B. Vehicles Fueled with Diesel (Compression ignition engines) 1 For Passenger Cars With Up To Six Seats and Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) less than 2.5 tons

–  –  –

1.2 Type II Test - carbon monoxide emission at idling speed Not applicable

1.3 Type III Test - verifying emissions of crankcase gases Not applicable?

1.4 Type IV Test - determination of evaporative emission Not applicable

–  –  –

2 For Light-Duty Commercial Vehicles with Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) less than or equal to 3.5 tons ?

2.1 Type 1 Test - verifying exhaust emissions after a cold start

–  –  –

Note :

* Please see the explanatory note ** Please see the explanatory note ? As amended by the decision of HMG/N of 2056.12.02 ? As added by the decision of the HMG/N of 2056.12.02

–  –  –

Explanatory Notes

1. Type Approval: Most countries require some form of certification or type approval by vehicle manufacturer to demonstrate that each new vehicle sold is capable of meeting applicable emission standards. Usually, type approval requires emission testing of prototype vehicles representative of planned production vehicles. Under ECE and Japanese regulations, such compliance is required only for new vehicles. U.S regulations require that vehicles comply with emission standards throughout their useful lives when maintained according to the manufacturing specifications.

The advantage of a certification or type approval program is that it can influence vehicle design prior to mass production. It is more cost effective because the manufacturers identify and correct the problems before production actually begins.

2. Approval of a Vehicle : Vehicle manufacturers apply for approval of a vehicle type with regard to exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions and durability of pollution control devices to the authority responsible for conducting the tests.

The application for approval also includes details like description of engine type comprising all the particulars, drawings of the combustion chamber and of the piston, description of evaporative control system, particulars concerning the vehicles, descriptions of pollution control devices etc. If the vehicle type submitted for approval meets the requirements of various types of tests mentioned, only then the approval of that vehicle is granted.

3. Conformity of Production: The conformity of production is an assembly line testing system. The objectives of assembly line testing are to enable regulatory authorities to identify certified production vehicles that do not comply with applicable emission standards, to take remedial actions (such as revoking certification and recalling vehicles) to correct the problem, and to discourage the manufacture of non-complying vehicles. This test provides an additional check on mass-produced vehicles to assure that the designs found adequate in certification are satisfactorily translated into production, and that quality control on the assembly line is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that vehicles in use meet standards. The basic difference between TA and COP is that TA is based on prototype vehicle or design of the vehicle while COP measures emissions from real production vehicles.

As per the requirements set forth by the European Union, a sufficient number of random checks are made of serially-manufactured vehicles bearing the type approval mark of vehicles bearing all the types of tests mentioned above. The tolerance limits are provided for conformity of production in Type I test.

118 Ministry of Population and Environment

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 ||


Similar works:

«NOCTURNAL LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES ON NECROPHAGOUS, CARRION-ASSOCIATING BLOW FLY SPECIES (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE) OF FORENSIC IMPORTANCE IN CENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by RYAN SCOTT KIRKPATRICK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2004 Major Subject: Entomology NOCTURNAL LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES ON NECROPHAGOUS, CARRION-ASSOCIATING BLOW FLY SPECIES (DIPTERA:...»

«Therapeutic discourse: a phenomenological view Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Hartmann, Barbara Dianna Reed Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. Downloaded...»

«Wu Enqin What Does Design Expose? A Comparative Study of Finnish Modern Furniture and Chinese Ming-style Furniture Publications of the University of Eastern Finland Dissertations in Education, Humanities, and Theology 70 University of Eastern Finland Joensuu 2015 All Chinese quotations translated by Wu Enqin All photos, except when noted, taken by Wu Enqin Juvenes Print Tampereen Yliopistopaino Oy Tampere, 2015 Sarjan vastaava toimittaja: Maija Könönen. Myynti: Itä-Suomen yliopiston kirjasto...»

«MISSION “To Consistently Create Wealth for our clients through high standards of work quality, transparency and Honesty” At PrimeTree Capital our mission is to consistently create wealth for our clients and partners. We understand that our clients are individuals and each individual would have their own unique requirement and risk taking appetite. Our partners at PrimeTree Capital apply their indepth knowledge, experience and dedication towards service to assist our clients in reaching...»

«Final Report Conservation Goat Grazing for Invasive Species in the Hudson Valley Grant Number: 68-2C31-8-997 Glynwood Center Grant Director: Ken Kleinpeter Director of Farm and Facilities 1 Introduction: The invasive shrub, Multiflora Rose (Rosa Multiflora) has been a nuisance weed in the United States for more than a century. It was originally brought to the United States in 1866 as rootstock for ornamental roses. Later it was also promoted by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service for use in...»

«UNREPORTED IN THE COURT OF SPECIAL APPEALS OF MARYLAND No. 1162 September Term, 2015 _ TIMOTHY REEVES v. MARIA MILLER Meredith, Nazarian, Thieme, Raymond G., Jr. (Retired, Specially Assigned), JJ. Opinion by Meredith, J. Filed: March 15, 2016 * This is an unreported opinion, and it may not be cited in any paper, brief, motion, or other document filed in this Court or any other Maryland Court as either precedent within the rule of stare decisis or as persuasive authority. Md. Rule 1-104. —...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.