FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 15 |

«His Majesty's Government Ministry of Population and Environment Kathmandu, Nepal June 2000 Ministry of Population and Environment 1 State of the ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

In addition, international NGOs (INGOs) such as Save the Children USA/UK/Japan, CARE - Nepal, Oxfam, Plan international, etc. are also participating in social mobilisation vis-à-vis implementation of conservation activities. The World Conservation Union - IUCN, and the World Wildlife (WWF) are two international NGOs involved in the transfer of natural resource management know-how. In addition, some donor agencies such as GTZ, DANIDA, FINNIDA, SNV, ODA, JICA, USAID, UN agencies, WB and ADB and are also addressing environmental issues through their programmes.

Ministry of Population and Environment 24 State of the Environment Report, 2000 In sum, Nepal experienced steady population growth rate, the population growth rate has not declined in spite of several population management efforts. The increasing population rate is not compatible with the carrying capacity of Nepal's natural resources endowment. Another critical issue is the imbalanced distribution population access to natural resource. Some districts, especially, the least developed mountain regions, have a declining population size while others have a high growth rate. However, health indicators such as infant mortality and life expectancy rate have steadily improved. The coverage of health services such as immunisation programmes, oral re-hydration therapy and nutritional programmes have also considerably increased.

Yet, 50 per cent of the total population still live below the poverty line.

Increasing number of impoverished people have multi-fold negative environmental impacts, particularly on the natural resource base such on as soil, water and forests. In order to improve socio-economic and environmental conditions, HMG is encouraging social organisations to participate in community development activities. Though, social mobilisation through social organisations is not a new phenomenon and has been in practice for centuries, the cumulative effect of these organisations on environmental management is yet to be evaluated.

2.2 Atmosphere and Climate Issues 2.2.1 Greenhouse Gases The combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and land use changes are two major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Major sources of GHGs in relation to land use and soil borne sources are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. During the period of 1960/61 to 1990/91, the general input of Carbon Dioxide due to deforestation and land use change in Nepal, was estimated at 6.9 x 1012 grams/year (Haughton et al., 1987),

3.96 x 106 tons/year (Hall and Uhlig, 1991), and 8.34 x 107 (min.) to 15.45 x 107 (max.) tons/year (Devkota, 1992). These differences are basically due to the variation in the consideration of the forest areas. On the other hand, annual emission of GHGs through utilisation of petroleum products is estimated at 72 Gigagram (Gg) of Carbon, and 1.79 Gg of Nitrogen in between 1970/71 to 1990/91 (Devkota, 1992). Boden, Marland and Andres (1995) derived the trend of CO2 emission in Nepal by utilisation of fossil fuels since 1950 to 1992. They estimated an emission of 354,000 tons of CO2 emission in 1992 due to combustion of fossil fuels. Release of GHGs from other sources and its impact on the environment is yet to be analysed.

Ministry of Population and Environment 25 State of the Environment Report, 2000 2.2.2 Chlorofluro Carbon (CFC) In 1999, under the co-ordination of the Nepal Bureau of Standard and Metrology (NBSM), the Ministry of Industry endorsed a national programme to check CFC-12. According to a survey conducted by NBSM in 1996, a total of 52 tons of CFCs-12 (29 tons) and HCFCs-22 (23 tons) have been utilised in Nepal and the per capita consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) is only about 0.0013 kg. ODSs are utilised in Nepal in commercial refrigeration, building and air conditioning, and household refrigeration.

Although Nepal does not produce ODSs, the consumption rate is definitely on the increase. Inadequate control measures will likely increase the consumption of CFC-12 and it is predicted to reach to 85 tons by the year 2010.

2.3 Inland Waters 2.3.1 Water Water is one of the major natural endowments of Nepal. The country has more than 6,000 rivers with considerable flow variation, sediment loads and deposition. Hydropower potential is estimated at 83,000 MW, of which 50 per cent is considered economically feasible. The annual mean stream flow for the snow-fed major river systems is estimated to be about 4,930 m3/sec. This amounts to 70 per cent of the total annual surface runoff.

About 60 to 85 per cent of the annual surface runoff occur during the monsoon period. The annual runoff from Nepal is about 222 billion m 3/sec, with a mean runoff coefficient of 0.777 (JICA/DHM, 1993; Table 2.3.1).

Inter annual discharge variation is very high in the Nepalese rivers. The coefficient of annual variation is significantly higher in the rivers originating from the Middle Hills and the Churia than that of snow-fed rivers.

The Terai comprises a reasonable amount of groundwater resources for irrigation and drinking water purposes. A substantial amount could also be used for operating water-demanding industries. The water table is generally about 15 m from the surface in the northern part of the Terai, while in the southern parts it is closer to the surface. The middle section of the Terai, comprises of high-pressure artesian areas. The surface water table in Eastern Terai region varies from 3 to 4.5 m in general, while it changes from 3 to 9 m in the Dun Valleys of Central Terai, and up to 18 m depth in the Bhabar zone in the Western Terai. In Kathmandu Valley, the water table ranges from a depth of about 1 to 12 m and has limited number of aquifers which have been reported at about a depth of 450 m.

Ministry of Population and Environment 26 State of the Environment Report, 2000 Table 2.3.1 Estimated Runoff of the Rivers

–  –  –

Statistics on water balance reveals surplus water resources in four major basins - Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali and Mahakali. However, water shortages occur during the dry seasons in the five medium river basins and most small streams originating from the Siwaliks. Water balance studies of five rivers, namely, the Kankai, Bagmati, West Rapti and Babai have indicated water shortages during the winter season.

Both the surface and ground water are potential sources for increasing agricultural production in Nepal. The Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP) has also emphasised development of irrigation facilities to increase the cropping intensity. The APP has identified shallow tube well irrigation as one of the priorities for the Terai area. Based on the recharge rate in the Terai, it is estimated that the extraction and recharge ratio in the Terai is to the order of 10 per cent.

Use of ground water for drinking purposes is extensive in Kathmandu Valley. About 46 per cent of the water supplied in Kathmandu and Lalitpur is from underground sources. In 1999 when the total demand of water for Kathmandu and Lalitpur was 123.8 MLD, the total available supply was only 103.6 MLD. At present, drinking water required for Kathmandu Valley is 150 MLD, but the supply is only one-third of the demand during dry seasons and two-thirds in other seasons.

27 Ministry of Population and Environment State of the Environment Report, 2000

2.3.2 Water Quality

Sporadic studies on water quality indicate degradation in the quality of both river and drinking water. Such deterioration is not just limited to urban and riverside settlement areas. Drinking water in most rural parts is also experiencing biological contamination. For example, the Bagmati River, which drains the Kathmandu Valley, is highly polluted at different stretches and its water is unfit for human consumption. Based on water quality and biological features, this river is divided into four sections. They are: (a) a zone of good ecological condition from the source to Guheswori, (b) a zone of slightly polluted condition from Guheswori to the confluence of Dhobi Khola, (c) a zone of severe pollution from Thapathali to Chovar, and (d) a zone of pollution from Chovar downwards (Sharma, 1986; and NESS, 1995). A one-year water quality monitoring record of the Bagmati river indicates a high level of discharge and/or disposal of oxygen demanding wastes in the river. The concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicates an increase from October to March.

A monitoring study also revealed river water quality to be generally good along the riversides, with the exception of areas along the human settlements (Hoffman, 1994). Water quality to some extent is degraded due to lack of sewerage treatment. According to a report published by the Nepal Water Supply and Sewerage Corporation in 1997, only 26,141 households in Kathmandu have connection to public sewerage. The remaining houses discharge their sewage into septic tanks, latrines or directly into the river systems. The public sewerage pipe is also directly drained into both Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers.

The monthly average sediment load in major river systems is estimated at

1.131 g/L in Sapta Koshi, 1.434 g/L in Sapta Gandaki, and 0.988 g/L in Karnali (Ghimire and Uprety, 1990). The Tamur river has the highest annual suspended sediment load of 57.6 million tons (Sharma, 1997; Table 2.3.2).

In general, quality drinking water in the urban areas is scarce and most often contaminated. In Kathmandu the quality is inferior due to the presence of different contaminants such as coliform bacteria, iron and ammonia (NESS, 1995 and ENPHO, 1993). The amount of iron in the drinking water in some cases exceeds the WHO standard and high concentration of iron makes the water unsuitable for industrial and other household uses. This drinking water also contains high ammonia, which

–  –  –

In general, irrigation and power development projects are affected by heavy sediment recessing load. Watershed degradation is a common phenomenon. Some common environmental problems are landslides and floods, degradation of forests and land in the watersheds, deposition of sediment in the canal system and the reservoir, and change in water quality.

2.3.3 Wetlands About 0.731 million ha of land in Nepal is covered by wetlands, including water bodies, of different sizes and characteristics (Bhandari, Shrestha and McEachern, 1994). Wetlands are highly fertile and productive ecosystems.

Nepal's wetlands can be divided into five categories.

–  –  –

?? The relatively shallow midland-mountain wetlands lakes such as Phewa, Begnas and Mai Pokhari;

?? The lowland-tropical wetlands which are are seasonally flooded riverine flood plains, including Koshi Tappu;

?? The human managed wetlands such as ponds, rice fields, ghols, etc.; and ?? Artificial wetlands such as reservoirs, irrigation canals and sewage ponds.

In Nepal, wetlands provide a habitat to over 180 species of fishes and a number of water-dependent birds and other animals. About 190 bird species are considered water-dependent, of which 90 species are migrants, 66 species are residential, while the remaining 34 bird species are uncommon and rare resident species (Manandhar and Shrestha, 1994). Of the 370 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and higher vertebrates dependent on wetland habitats, about 100 species are estimated to be threatened (Suwal, 1992), while the Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica) and gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) are considered vulnerable (Shrestha, 1995). Wetlands are also rich in aquatic angiosperms. They provide food for human beings, fodder for wild animals and ungulates, and feed for bird species.

The Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (175 sq. km) is the only protected wetland and designated Ramsar Site in Nepal. This is the main habitat of wild buffaloes (Arna) ( Bubalus bubalis) including about 325 species of birds.

Nepal's wetlands are facing degradation primarily due to eutrophication.

They are critically threatened by the effects of anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, unregulated hunting, increased pollution level from the discharge of untreated effluents and damming.

In sum, adequate amount of surface water is available in different parts of the country. This could be used for drinking, irrigation, and hydro-electricity generation purposes. According to Hindu mythology, rivers are holy places that deserve both conservation and sustainable use. However, excessive withdrawal of underground water is exceeding the recharge rate, which is an environmentally unsound practice. Water pollution, of both drinking water and river, is increasing due to discharge of untreated effluents from industries and domestic sources.

Species inhabiting the Nepali wetlands are threatened by the destruction of their habitat. Eutrophication combined with encroachment has reduced the Ministry of Population and Environment 30 State of the Environment Report, 2000 area of wetlands, thereby, endangering various biological species inhabiting the area. In order to utilise existing resources on a sustained basis, a hydrological information bank should be established for planning and designing water projects. Environmental and social assessments should be integrated into project cycles, which would help optimise project benefits and minimise negative environmental impacts on wetlands. Due attention should also be given to minimising the volume of pollution load in water bodies through enforcement of environmental standards.

2.4 Land Degradation, Desertification and Natural Disasters 2.4.1 Land Use Land resource base supports the livelihood of the majority of people. The great diversity in landscapes and climates is reflected in the complex usage of land. In general, land use category includes agriculture, forest, and pasture, snow cover and other lands. In the mid-1980s, agriculture, forest, Himali area, grazing area, water bodies, settlements and roads, and others (barren land, landslide, etc.) covered 18.0, 37.6, 15.3, 13.4, 2.7, 0.7 and 12.3 per cent respectively (NPC, 1985). However, they were later broadly divided into cultivated, grass, forest and shrub lands. Major portion of the land area is under forest cover, followed by agriculture (Table 2.4.1).

This indicates an increase in agriculture area by 3 per cent, and a decrease in grassland area by 1 per cent while a separate shrub land category has also been identified. It also indicates that around 54 per cent of the total area falls under some form of vegetation cover in the wild.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 15 |

Similar works:

«Forrabury & Minster Parish Plan Boscastle: The Queen’s Head and entrance to harbour. Photo provided by Jonathan Stirrup © Forrabury & Minster Parish Plan This Parish Plan, completed in April 2016, is based on the results of a survey carried out in December 2013. The first part of the report gives a summary of the findings and a commentary from the Steering Group. This is followed, from page 24, by the detailed results, as analysed by an independent person. When this survey was initially...»

«N Guía del usuario Ordenador Serie VPCP11 n2N Contenido Antes del uso Más información sobre el ordenador VAIO Consideraciones ergonómicas Uso de la función Bluetooth Introducción Uso de la función GPS Ubicación de los controles y los puertos Uso de varias funciones con sensores Sobre los indicadores luminosos incorporados Sujeción del ordenador Uso de dispositivos periféricos Conexión de una fuente de alimentación Uso de los auriculares con función de Utilización del paquete de...»

«erlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn, Austria, download unter www.biologiezentrum. Some powdery mildews from Tamil Nadu, India V.B. HOSAGOUDAR Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, Coimbatore 641003, India HOSAGOUDAR, V.B. (1991). Some powdery mildews from Tamil Nadu, India. — Sydowia 43: 23-30. An account is given of 13 anamorph of powdery mildews. Oidium abutili, O. kydiae, O. moringae and O. passifloracearum are new species; O. abelmoschi, O. azadirachtae, O. clitoriae,...»

«Moguls and Maharajas: Books on India and Indian Influences on Asian Writing Abridged version of a talk to the Asia-Pacific Special Interest Group of ALIA, National Library of Australia, Canberra, 18 July 2012 Andrew Gosling, former Chief Librarian, Asian Collections, National Library of Australia As this talk was originally planned for the 4th of July, American Independence Day, I would like to start with the American who designed Canberra, Walter Burley Griffin (1876-1937). Griffin spent his...»

«University of Chicago Library Guide to the Mircea Eliade Papers 1926-1998 © 2008 University of Chicago Library Table of Contents Descriptive Summary 4 Information on Use 4 Access 4 Citation 4 Biographical Note 4 Scope Note 6 Related Resources 7 Subject Headings 8 INVENTORY 8 Series I: Writings, Notes and Interviews 8 Subseries 1: Writings 8 Sub-subseries 1: Literary Writings 8 Sub-subseries 2: Autobiography 15 Sub-subseries 3: Journal 18 Sub-subseries 4: Academic and Other Writings 28...»

«Gavesana Journal of Management Vol. 4 Issue. 2 July 2012 December 2012 Editorial (ii) Behaviour of Investors: An Empirical Study Nageshwar Rao Prerna Dahane 1 Dimensions of E-Service Quality: An Empirical Study of Online Shoppers Kamal K. Gupta 11 Would Female Married Celebrities be Effective? Integrating Marital Status, Role Congruence and Credibility in Indian Case Neetika Kaur Saluja 25 The Determinants of Capital Structure of Pharmaceutical Players in Gujarat Dharmendra S. Mistry 40...»

«1 Moravcsik v. Rosato: A Critical Review Tommaso Pavone (tpavone@princeton.edu) March 6th, 2014 Synopsis In 2011, Sebastian Rosato published his doctoral dissertation, Europe United, with Cornell University Press.1 The debate outlined in this critical review was waged in a recent symposium in the journal Security Studies and concerned the validity of the claims in Europe United. Although the debate features critiques of Rosato’s work by both Andrew Moravcsik and Craig Parsons, I focus on the...»

«Marine Safety Investigation Unit MARINE SAFETY INVESTIGATION REPORT Safety investigation into a stevedore fatality on board the Maltese registered bulk carrier TARSUS at Port Rozi Anchorage, India on 13 November 2013 201311/011 MARINE SAFETY INVESTIGATION REPORT NO. 29/2014 FINAL Investigations into marine casualties are conducted under the provisions of the Merchant Shipping (Accident and Incident Safety Investigation) Regulations, 2011 and therefore in accordance with Regulation XI-I/6 of the...»

«6. INCREASING FINANCIAL AUDIT QUALITY USING A NEW MODEL TO ESTIMATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU 1 Florin DOBRE 2 Laura BRAD 3 Abstract Establishing the performance of the companies is one of the facts that influence the shareholders’ attitude. As a fact, a framing category could further affect the evolution of the company and could influence the audit opinion. As creditworthiness should be given to audit, a performance function score was computed for the companies listed...»

«48 Op. Att'y Gen. No. 24 INDIANS Application of light vehicle registration fee to tribally owned vehicles; INDIANS Application of light vehicle registration fee to vehicle owned by enrolled tribal members residing on their reservations; INDIANS Application of light vehicle registration fee to vehicle owned by Indian not residing on the reservation at which he or she is enrolled; MOTOR VEHICLES Application of light vehicle registration fee to tribally owned vehicles; MOTOR VEHICLES Application...»

«INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ILRI) Assessment of capacity building needs at local and national level CONSULTANT’S REPORT Final Draft Professor (Retd) Dr. M. A. Hasnath National Consultant Present Address: Mirpur – 11, Block – A, Road – 9, Lane – 3, House – 5, Dhaka – 1221, Phone: 8012399 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page CONTENT Abbreviations 3 Executive Summary 5 Statement of Services 6 I Introduction 7 1. Agro-ecological conditions 7 2. Availability of species of...»

«PUBLIC DOCUMENT OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN: 2016 2018 AS APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS AT ITS MEETING ON 16 DECEMBER 2015 PUBLIC STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 2016 -2018 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART A: Three Year Plan: 2016 to 2018 – Objectives and Operations 1. Setting the scene 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Transition Context 1.2.1 Economic Trends 1.2.2 Financing Needs 1.2.3 Structural reform needs 2 Medium Term Objectives 2.1...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.