«A Resource Guide for Parents and Teens Developed and Compiled by the Youth Council of the DuPage Workforce Board A Letter to Parents: Your teen’s ...»
See George, Yolanda S., et al. “In Pursuit of a Diverse Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Workforce: Recommended Research Priorities to Enhance Participation by Underrepresented Minorities.” American Association for the Advancement of Science, and National Science Foundation (2001). Web.; and Malcom, Shirley M., Yolanda S. George, and Virginia V. Van Horne, Eds. The Effect of the Changing Policy Climate On Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Diversity. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1996. Print. Mason, Mary Anne. “Better Educating Our New Breadwinners: Creating Opportunities for All Women to Succeed in the Workforce.” The Shriver Report: A Woman’s Nation Changes Everything. Ed.
Heather Boushey and Ann O’Leary. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, October 2009. 160-194.
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/10/pdf/awn/a_womans_nation.pdf (accessed August 2, 2011).
:: STEM ::
Although it would be ideal to compare domestic STEM workers with guest workers, foreign-born students on work visas, and 21 foreign-born workers, it is almost impossible for independent researchers to determine the exact number of guest or student workers on various types of F-1, H-1B visas, and other visas that permit work. Throughout the report we use data on foreignborn workers. We believe that there is a positive correlation between foreign-born workers and guest-workers who eventually go through the legal permanent resident (green card) and citizenship process.
:: STEM ::
The STEM workforce will remain central to our economic vitality well into the future, contributing to innovation, technological growth, and economic development. Capable STEM students, from K-12 all the way through the postgraduate level, will be needed in the pipeline for careers that utilize STEM competencies and increase our innovative capacities.
STEM COMPETENCIES10 KNOWLEDGE CLASSIFICATIONS are content WORK INTEREST is defined as individual preferdomains familiar to educators. Examples include ences for work environment. Interests are clasmathematics, chemistry, biology, engineering and sified as realistic, artistic, investigative, social, technology, English language, economics and enterprising, and conventional. Individuals who accounting, clerical and food production. have particular interests—artistic interest, for example—are more likely to find satisfaction in SKILLS are competencies that allow continued occupations that fit with those interests. Of course, learning in a knowledge domain. They are divided an incumbent can have an artistic interest and not into content, processing, and problem-solving be in an occupation where s/he is able to exercise skills. Content skills are fundamental skills needed that interest (for example, accounting is an occuto acquire more specific skills in an occupation. pation that is not the best outlet for artistic interThese include reading comprehension, active est). However, O*NET allows us to identify which listening, speaking, writing, mathematics, and interests can be fulfilled in which occupations—for science. Processing skills are procedures that con- example, that an incumbent with artistic interest tribute to the more-rapid acquisition of knowledge might like a job as a designer.
and skills. These include critical thinking, active learning, learning strategies, and monitoring KNOWLEDGE ASSOCIATED WITH self-awareness. Problem-solving skills involve the STEM OCCUPATIONS identification of complex problems and related in- Production and Processing: Knowledge of raw formation required to develop and evaluate options materials, production processes, quality control, and implement solutions. costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
ABILITIES are defined as enduring and developed Computers and Electronics: Knowledge of circuit personal attributes that influence performance at boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, work. In the parlance of education psychology, these and computer hardware and software, including closely approximate “aptitudes.” O*NET divides applications and programming.
abilities broadly into categories such as creativity, Engineering and Technology: Knowledge of innovation, mathematical reasoning, and oral and the practical application of engineering science written expression. Each of these broad abilities is and technology. This includes applying principles, subdivided into component elements. For example, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the deinnovative abilities include fluency of ideas, prob- sign and production of various goods and services.
lem sensitivity, deductive reasoning, and inductive Design: Knowledge of design techniques, tools, reasoning. Other abilities include oral expression, and principles involved in production of precision spatial orientation, and arm-hand steadiness. technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
Building and Construction: Knowledge of WORK VALUES are individual preferences materials, methods, and the tools involved in for work outcomes. Important outcomes for the construction or repair of houses, buildings, individuals include recognition, achievement, or other structures such as highways and roads.
working conditions, security, advancement, Mechanical: Knowledge of machines and authority, social status, responsibility, tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and compensation. and maintenance.
:: STEM ::
6% 2.6% 3%
Source: ESA calculations using Current Population Survey public-use microdata and estimates from the Employment Projections Program of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
10.8% 8.8% 10% 10%
These factors make STEM workers highly desirable to companies developing or operating on the technological forefront and extremely important to the U.S. economy, as competitive businesses are the foundation of a competitive economy. As this analysis highlights, STEM jobs should also be highly desirable to American workers. Regardless of educational attainment, entering a STEM profession is associated with higher earnings and reduced joblessness. For college graduates, there is a payoff in choosing to pursue a STEM degree, and for America’s workers, an even greater payoff in choosing a STEM career.
1 Council on Competitiveness, http://www.compete.org/explore/drive-innovation-entrepreneurship 2 Before It’s Too Late, A Report to the Nation from The National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, September 2000, page 4.
12 Science, Technology, and Mathematic Trends and the Role of Federal Government, testimony before the Committee on Education and the Workforce House of Representatives, Statement of Cornelia M. Ashby, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, U. S. Government Accountability Office, May 2006.
Where are the Jobs? – DuPage County, November 2013 Source: Help Wanted Online (HWOL), a service of The Conference Board www.conference-board.org. Job posting data summarized here covers DuPage County, IL. Data has been retrieved from hundreds of online job boards and company websites. The following postings are excluded: (1) Bulk Employers (includes work at home opportunities, training opportunities, and companies that re-post ads from other employers on their own site, obscuring the name of the employer and (2) Third Party Postings (job boards that simply re-post opportunities from other sites already collected by HWOL). This report should not be used as a comprehensive list of available jobs in DuPage County. Some industries use other methods for hiring and may not be reflected in this report.
PROJECT LEAD THE WAYProject Lead The Way is the nation's leading provider of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) programs. Through world-class K-12 curriculum, high-quality teacher professional development, and outstanding partnerships, PLTW is helping students develop the skills needed to succeed in the global economy.
Project Lead The Way's mission: Prepare students for the global economy
Historically, science and math have been taught in isolation. The project-based aspects of Project Lead The Way's curriculum give students a chance to apply what they know, identify a problem, find unique solutions, and lead their own learning, rather than be passive recipients of information in a question-andanswer, right-or-wrong learning environment. When students understand how their education is relevant to their lives and future careers, they get excited, and that is why PLTW students are successful.
PLTW courses are aligned with Common Core State Standards in math and English Language Arts, Next Generation Science Standards, and other national and state standards. Yet, our programs are flexible and customizable so that schools can meet their local curricular and community needs. Courses are designed to complement math and science courses offered by a school and in some instances are used as the core curriculum.
Among other significant findings, independent research studies reveal that PLTW students outperform their peers in school, are better prepared for post-secondary studies, and are more likely to consider careers as scientists, technology experts, engineers, mathematicians, healthcare providers, and researchers compared to their non-PLTW peers.
PLTW Engineering is more than just another high school engineering program. It is about applying engineering, science, math, and technology to solve complex, open-ended problems in a real-world context. Students focus on the process of defining and solving a problem, not getting the "right" answer. They learn how to apply STEM knowledge, skills, and habits of mind to make the world a better place through innovation.
PLTW students have said that PLTW Engineering influenced their post-secondary decisions and helped shape their future. Even for students who do not plan to pursue engineering after high school, the PLTW Engineering program provides opportunities to develop highly transferable skills in collaboration, communication, and critical thinking, which are relevant for any coursework or career.
Cover: Esther Ngumbi, 2007–08 AAUW International Fellow; photo by the University of Idaho Photography Department This report was made possible by the generous contributions of
The Mooneen Lecce Giving Circle provides support for programs that advance equity for women and girls.
AAUW acknowledges the financial support of the National Science Foundation, Gender in Science and Engineering Division, grant 0832982, for the production and dissemination of this report. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Table of Contents ix Foreword
Women have made tremendous progress in education and the workplace during the past 50 years. Even in historically male fields such as business, law, and medicine, women have made impressive gains. In scientific areas, however, women’s educational gains have been less dramatic, and their progress in the workplace still slower. In an era when women are increasingly prominent in medicine, law, and business, why are so few women becoming scientists and engineers?
This study tackles this puzzling question and presents a picture of what we know—and what is still to be understood—about girls and women in scientific fields. The report focuses on practical ways that families, schools, and communities can create an environment of encouragement that can disrupt negative stereotypes about women’s capacity in these demanding fields. By supporting the development of girls’ confidence in their ability to learn math and science, we help motivate interest in these fields. Women’s educational progress should be celebrated, yet more work is needed to ensure that women and girls have full access to educational and employment opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
AAUW thanks its staff and member leaders for their contributions. In particular AAUW is grateful for the exceptional work of Jill Birdwhistell, chief of strategic advancement;
Rebecca Lanning, director of publications; Allison VanKanegan, designer; and Susan K. Dyer, consultant and editor.
Finally, AAUW thanks the members of its distinguished research advisory committee for their guidance. Special thanks go to Ruta Sevo for her work on the conceptual stage of the project and her substantive comments on early drafts of the report.
• Bar bar a Bogue, co-founder and director of the Assessing Women and Men in Engineering (AWE) Project, associate professor of engineering science and mechanics, and director of the Women in Engineering Program, College of Engineering, Penn State University
• Meg A. Bond, professor of psychology and director of the Center for Women and Work, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, and resident scholar at the Brandeis University Women’s Studies Research Center
• Carol J. Burger, associate professor, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Virginia Tech, and founder and editor of the Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
• Joanne McGr ath Coho on, assistant professor, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, University of Virginia, and senior research scientist at the National Center for Women & IT (NCWIT)
• Margaret Eisenhar t, University Distinguished Professor and Charles Professor of Education, School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder x AAUW