WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 28 | 29 || 31 | 32 |   ...   | 39 |

«A Resource Guide for Parents and Teens Developed and Compiled by the Youth Council of the DuPage Workforce Board A Letter to Parents: Your teen’s ...»

-- [ Page 30 ] --

The results of the study showed a positive relationship between the implicit gender-science stereotype of the country and the gender difference in eighth grade science TIMSS performance. Specifically, the stronger the association between male and science in a country, the larger the male advantage in science performance. In this study, implicit biases predicted TIMSS performance better than self-reported stereotypes did. Because this study was correlational, the researchers could not determine whether the weaker performance of girls in science created the implicit gender-science stereotype or whether the stronger gender stereotype led

to poorer female performance. Banaji believes, however, that it is the latter:

The degree to which the idea that girls aren’t good at science is in the air we breathe, the more likely it is to show up in patterns of attitudes, beliefs, and performance. If you look around you and only a fraction of those doing science come from group A, what are members of group A and B to think? It doesn’t take too many neurons to figure out that perhaps group A isn’t so good at science.

iMPliCiT biAS And WoMEn in STEM

Overall, the implications of this research for women in science and engineering are significant.

Implicit biases against women in science may prevent girls and women from pursuing science from the beginning, play a role in evaluations of girls’ and women’s course work in STEM subjects, influence parents’ decisions to encourage or discourage their daughters from pursuing science and engineering careers, and influence employers’ hiring decisions and evaluations of female employees.

Banaji points out that unconscious beliefs, once they are brought to the fore, can be changed if the holder of the belief so desires: “Implicit biases come from the culture. I think of them as the thumbprint of the culture on our minds. Human beings have the ability to learn to associate two things together very quickly—that is innate. What we teach ourselves, what we choose to associate is up to us.”

AAUW78r E Co M M E n d AT i o n

• R aise awareness of implicit bias.

A main purpose of the IAT is to help educate individuals about their implicit biases. Although implicit biases operate at an unconscious level and are influenced by our cultural environment, individuals can resolve to become more aware of how they make decisions and if and when their implicit biases may be at work in that process. Anyone can take the IAT at https://implicit.harvard.edu to gain a better understanding of their biases. Educators can look at the effect their biases have on their teaching, advising, and evaluation of students and can work to create an environment in the classroom that counters gender-science stereotypes. Parents can resolve to be more aware of messages they send their sons and daughters about their suitability for math and science.

–  –  –

People tend to view women in “masculine” fields, such as most STEM fields, as either competent or likable but not both, according to Madeline Heilman, an organizational psychologist at New York University. In 2004 Heilman and her colleagues published the results of three experiments addressing the double bind facing women in masculine fields. The researchers found that when success in a male-type job was ambiguous, a woman was rated as less competent than an identically described man, although she was rated equally likable. When individuals working in a male-type job were clearly successful, however, women and men were rated as equally competent, but women were rated as less likable and more interpersonally hostile (for example, cold, pushy, conniving). This was not found to be true in fields that were “female” or gender-neutral. Heilman and her colleagues found that both competence and likability matter in terms of advancement, but women were judged to be less competent than men were in masculine fields unless there was clear evidence of excellence, and in that case, women were judged to be less likable—a classic double bind. In a follow-up study, Heilman and Okimoto (2007) found that successful women in masculine occupations are less likely to be disliked if they are seen as possessing communal traits such as being understanding, caring, and concerned about others.

Heilman’s interest in examining how women in male-type fields can be penalized for their success was sparked when she co-authored an amicus brief to the U.S. Supreme Court in the case Price Waterhouse v. Ann B. Hopkins (American Psychological Association, 1991). Hopkins was a senior manager at Price Waterhouse when she was proposed for partnership in 1982.

After review, her nomination was neither accepted nor rejected but was held for reconsideration the following year. When the partners in her office refused to propose her for partnership again the next year, she sued Price Waterhouse for sex discrimination. Hopkins was clearly competent. She had recently secured a $25 million contract with the U.S. Department of State, and the Supreme Court noted that the judge in her initial trial stated, “[N]one of the other partnership candidates at Price Waterhouse that year had a comparable record in terms of successfully securing major contracts for the partnership” (ibid, pp. 228, 234). Yet many of Madeline Heilman is a professor of psychology at New York University. Her research focuses on sex bias in work 12 settings, the dynamics of stereotyping, and the unintended consequences of preferential selection processes. After receiving a doctorate from Columbia University, she spent eight years as a member of the faculty at the School of Organization and Management at Yale University. She serves on the boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Academy of Management Review.





AAUW 82 the partners at Price Waterhouse clearly disliked Ann Hopkins. One partner described her as “macho,” another suggested that she “overcompensated for being a woman,” and a third advised her to take “a course at charm school.” Several partners criticized her use of profanity, and the man who told Hopkins about the decision to place her candidacy on hold advised her to “walk more femininely, talk more femininely, dress more femininely, wear make-up, have her hair styled, and wear jewelry” (ibid., pp. 228, 234). The Hopkins case planted the seed for Heilman’s research on penalties for success for women in male-type work.

T h E d o U b l E b i n d : b E i n G Co M P E T E n T A n d W E l l l i k E d

Although being both competent and well liked are important for advancement in the workplace, this balance may be more difficult for women than men to achieve in science and engineering fields. In the first of three experiments by Heilman and her colleagues, 48 undergraduates at a large northeastern university rated the competence and likability of three employees (one man, one woman, and one “dummy” man, whose information was held constant) in a male-type job: assistant vice president for sales in an aircraft company. The dummy man was included so it would not be obvious to participants that the purpose of the experiment was to examine differences in evaluation based on gender. Participant ratings of the dummy man were not part of the analysis. Participants were recruited from an introductory psychology course in which more than 90 percent of enrollees typically reported having work experience. The participants were given packets describing the responsibilities of the job, which included training and supervising junior executives, breaking into new markets, keeping abreast of industry trends, and generating new clients. The gender-type nature of the job was communicated via the products involved, including engine assemblies, fuel tanks, and other aircraft equipment and parts.

The students were split in half, and one group was told that the men and woman were about to undergo their annual performance review, so their performance was unclear. The other group was told that the men and woman were clearly successful and had recently been designated top performers by the organization. Participants rated female and male employees equally competent when the individual’s prior success was made explicit. When information about performance was not provided, however, the woman was rated significantly less competent than the man. In terms of likability, participants were no more likely to choose the male than the female employee as more likable when performance was unclear, but when success was clear, participants overwhelmingly indicated that the man was more likable than the woman, with 19 of the 23 subjects choosing the successful man as more likable than the successful woman. Additionally, the woman was rated significantly more interpersonally

–  –  –

7.1 7.1 7 6.9 6.8 6 5.8 5.5 5

–  –  –

hostile than the man when she was described as clearly successful, but the woman was rated significantly less interpersonally hostile than the man when performance was unclear (see figure 21).

In a second experiment 63 undergraduates at a large northeastern university rated the likability of successful women and men in male jobs, female jobs, and gender-neutral jobs. This time, the employee to be evaluated was the assistant vice president (AVP) of human resources;

however, the division in which the employee was said to be working differed by gender type:

the financial planning division (a male-type position), the employee assistance division (a female-type position), or the training division (a gender-neutral position). Participants were given packets describing the responsibilities of the jobs. The gender type of the positions was made clear through the job descriptions and responsibilities as well as by a section labeled “Characteristics of AVPs,” which included the sex distribution of employees in the job

–  –  –

In a third experiment designed to understand the career effects of being disliked, 131 participants made recommendations for salary increases and special career opportunities for female and male employees who were presented as more or less likable and more or less competent.

This time, the experiment participants were full-time workers who were age 31, on average.

Participants were provided a performance rating for an employee who had recently completed a yearlong management-training program. The rating included bar graphs indicating, on a scale from 0 to 10, the competence and likability of the individual as well as the average competence and likability of all 30 trainees. The participants evaluated the employee on a series of nine-point scales by answering questions such as, “Overall, how would you rate this individual?” (very low–very high); “How successful do you think this individual will be in this organization?” (not at all successful–very successful); and “How would you feel about working with this person as your manager?” (not pleased–pleased). Participants then answered the following questions related to special career opportunities on a nine-point scale from not at all to very much: “To what degree do you recommend placing this individual on the ‘fast track’?” and “There are five highly prestigious upper-level positions available to the recent trainees. To what degree do you recommend this individual be placed in one of these five jobs?” Last, participants were asked to indicate which of five levels of potential salary they would recommend for the employee.

The results of this study indicated that likability and competence both matter for workplace success. Across the board, participants rated employees who were reported to be likable more favorably than those who were reported to be not likable. Competent employees were more highly recommended for special opportunities than were less competent employees, and likable employees, when competent, were more highly recommended for special opportunities than were less likable employees. Competent employees were recommended for a higher salary than were less competent employees, and likable employees, whether competent or not, were recommended for a higher salary than were less likable employees. These results suggest that being disliked can have detrimental effects in work settings. The most critical point from this research is that “whereas there are many things that lead an individual to be disliked, including obnoxious behavior, arrogance, stubbornness, and pettiness, it is only women, not men, for whom a unique propensity toward dislike is created by success in a nontraditional work situation” (Heilman et al., 2004, pp. 425–426). This suggests that success can create an additional

–  –  –



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 28 | 29 || 31 | 32 |   ...   | 39 |


Similar works:

«Working Document No. 2, May 2015 How do stakeholders view the EU ETS? Diversity and differentiation of interests Authors Organisation Noriko Fujiwara CEPS Chara Karakosta UPRC Aleksander Szpor IBS Andreas Tuerk University of Graz Erwin Hofman JIN Abstract The EU emissions trading system (ETS) is expected to make a major contribution towards achieving the EU’s target to reduce greenhouse emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared with 1990 levels. Moreover, there is a strong need to address an...»

«Steam Required For Play Zombie Panic! Source uses Steam and Halflife 2. In order to play Zombie Panic! Source, you must have a fully updated Half Life 2 and be a registered Steam client user. For more information please visit www.steampowered.com and www.zombiepanic.org Half Life 2 Death Match Required Zombie Panic! Source is a modification and requires players to have a legitimate version of Half Life 2 Death Match in order to correctly install and play on the Steam Network. Minimum System...»

«426 RESEARCH JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND HYDROBIOLOGY © 2015 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved ISSN:1816-9112 Open Access Journal Copyright © 2015 by authors and American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Comparing Theory of Mind in Monolingual and Bilingual Children and its Relationship with Language and Communication skills 1Arash Kouhestani and...»

«COFI/2007/9 Rev.1 December 2006 E + COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES Twenty-seventh Session Rome, Italy, 5 9 March 2007 STRENGTHENING REGIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR PERFORMANCES INCLUDING THE OUTCOME OF THE 2007 TUNA RFMOS MEETING SUMMARY This paper provides background information relating to strengthening Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) and their performances. Developments of this issue at international level are described, including through international...»

«CRAFT A MATTER OF SCALE AND PACE By Lidewij Edelkoort Crafts: A matter of scale and pace is an analysis of the future of hand-made design and sustainability, first published in the Prince Claus Fund Journal, The Future is Handmade, The Hague (2003). Lidewij Edelkoort is one of the founding members of Heartwear, a non-for-profit organisation based in Paris and working principally in Benin, Morocco and India. She helped start a Humanitarianism Design masters programme while directing the Design...»

«· The Kid, the Clerk, and the Gambler · Critical Studies in Statistics and Cognitive Science Mathias Winther Madsen · The Kid, the Clerk, and the Gambler · Critical Studies in Statistics and Cognitive Science ILLC Dissertation Series DS-2015-02 For further information about ILLC-publications, please contact Institute for Logic, Language and Computation Universiteit van Amsterdam Science Park 107 1098 XG Amsterdam phone: +31-20-525 6051 e-mail: illc@uva.nl homepage: http://www.illc.uva.nl/...»

«Stomachache (acid regurgitation / gastric upset) TCM The disease pertains to the category of Stomach pain. The acute one with a sudden onset is often caused by impairment of Stomach and Spleen due to overeating, or invasion of pathogenic Cold while the chronic one often attributed to constitutional deficiency of the Spleen and Stomach, or disharmony between the Liver and the Spleen and Stomach. It is recurrent and lasting. Differentiation and Treatment I. Acute due to retention of food Main...»

«Amaroo School Newsletter Week 2, Term 2, 2016 9 February 2016 Katherine Avenue Ph. (02) 6142 1266 Fax (02) 6142 1295 Amaroo ACT 2914 Email: info@amaroos.act.edu.au http://www.amaroos.act.edu.au Dear Parent and Carers, Calendar Dates Welcome to Term 1 as we look forward to another very successful year. I had a lovely week one, visiting classes and Wednesday Defence families welcome morning tea, 9am-11am in getting to realise what a wonderful school Amaroo school is. It 10 February 2016 the...»

«Properties of Proteins Experiment #8 To study chemical and physical properties of proteins from natural sources (egg Objective: and milk) and some chemical reactions of amino acid residues in these proteins, as well as the effects of denaturing agents on these proteins. Introduction Proteins are polymers of the 20 common amino acids. The amino acids are linked through their -amino and -carboxyl groups to form peptide bonds. The proteins you will study are casein (milk protein) and albumin (in...»

«Nullification of Ban on Invoice Assignment Clauses Summary of responses MARCH 2015 Duty to report: summary of responses Contents Nullification of Ban on Invoice Assignment Clauses Contents Nullification of Ban on Invoice Assignment: summary of responses Introduction Responses received Summary of responses Principles of the Proposal (questions 2-6) Exemptions from the nullification (questions 7-10) Effects on the Market (questions 11-15) Changes to legislation and Enforcement (questions 16-17)...»

«Sixteen Crucified Saviors? Why Messiah’s Birthdate Matters! By Maria Merola 1 Sixteen Crucified Saviors? Why Messiah’s Birthdate Matters! By Maria Merola ‫אריאל‬ © Copyright Double Portion Inheritance, September 2002 http://www.DoublePortionInheritance.com Many of you may be asking yourselves “why, Maria, do you make such a big deal about pin-pointing dates of when the Messiah was born and resurrected?” Many of you write to me and say things like “what difference does it...»

«      The  following  documentation  is  an  electronically‐ submitted  vendor  response  to  an  advertised  solicitation  from  the  West  Virginia  Purchasing  Bulletin  within  the  Vendor  Self‐Service  portal  at  wvOASIS.gov.   As  part  of  the  State  of  West  Virginia’s procurement process, and to maintain the  transparency  of  the  bid‐opening  process,  this  documentation  submitted  online  is  publicly  posted  by ...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.