WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 35 | 36 || 38 | 39 |   ...   | 82 |

«Human Rights Watch Brussels London New York Washington, D.C. Copyright © 2003 by Human Rights Watch. All rights reserved. Printed in the United ...»

-- [ Page 37 ] --

salaries of its employees for three months, because the government had kept it short of cash; the government also terminated the incentives promised to former rebels, about 50,000 Sudanese pounds each.635 Cutting off Riek Machar’s ability to pay his many followers and their dependent large families seemed designed to pressure him to bring his forces into line.636 Neither that nor a “national dialogue” conference worked.637 Pro-Government Militia Commander Peter Gatdet Mutinies Against Paulino Matiep and Government, September 1999 In September 1999, the government’s most active Nuer proxy, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, whose militia had borne the brunt of the 1998-1999 fighting against the SSDF on behalf of the government, was deserted by most of his SSUM/A troops. His number two, Zonal Cmdr. Peter Gatdet,638 mutinied, capturing the Paulino Matiep garrison and arms depot at Mankien and taking several thousand officers and troops (Bul and Leek Nuer) with him. Cmdr. Peter Gatdet was said to have withdrawn the government-supplied ammunition and weapons to Rupnyagai and Nhialdiu. Paulino Matiep’s prisoners 635 Nhial Bol, “Former Rebels Threaten to Quit Sudan’s Islamic Regime,” IPS, Khartoum, August 16, 1999. This article gives the rate of 1,700 Sudanese pounds per U.S. $ 1, making the incentive worth U.S. $ 29. The small amount of money at stake illustrates the poverty of the country and the low value assigned to former rebels. On July 31, 1999, one month prior to commencement of oil export, Sudan officially changed its currency from the Sudanese pound to the Sudanese dinar, which was worth ten times the pound. “Sudan Switches from Pound to Dinar,” AFP, Khartoum, July 31, 1999.

636 A top National Congress official, Ali Tamin Fartak (of the African Fertit people, former NIF/NC governor of Western Bahr El Ghazal), urged Riek Machar to abandon the UDSF and join the government party, the National Congress, if he wanted the 1997 accord to be implemented. Nhial Bol, “Former Rebels Threaten to Quit Sudan’s Islamic Regime,” IPS, Khartoum, August 16, 1999.

Many NIF/NC members were still resentful that Riek Machar had withdrawn from the National Congress in early 1999 to form another political party, the UDSF––although he immediately registered the party with the government, which many opposition parties refused to do.

637 “War-torn Sudan Takes Step toward National Dialogue,” Reuters, Khartoum, August 21, 1999.

638 Peter Gatdet, a Bul Nuer, was a soldier in the Sudanese army who was sent for a one-year term of service with the Iraqi army during the 1980-88 war with Iran, on account of which he was nicknamed “the Iraqi.” He earned a reputation for artillery prowess later. Cmdr. Peter Gatdet was serving in the east during 1998 and was only transferred back to Western Upper Nile/Unity State, his place of origin, in 1999. Relief official, Human Rights Watch interview, Ganyliel, Western Upper Nile, April 5, 2001.

–  –  –

held in Mankien—some captured during July 1999 from their homes in Bentiu—were freed by Cmdr.

Peter Gatdet, according to one of them.639 Coupled with the SSDF (Tito Biel)’s quiet realignment with the SPLA, the Peter Gatdet mutiny radically changed the military and political equation in Western Upper Nile/Unity State, causing a sizeable increase in the number of anti-government Nuer forces and leaving the government with far fewer Nuer troops to act as its proxies in this oil area.640 Once again, conflict over oil was implicated in the new fighting. Reportedly, the Gatdet mutiny was blamed in part on Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep (that is, the government) for “not giving pro-government 639 (Simon) Magwek Gai Majak, interview, April 6, 2001. Cmdr. Kerubino Kwanyin Bol, a veteran of Anyanya, then officer in the Sudanese army, then a founder of the SPLM/A who defected to the government—and a gross abuser of human rights—died in the course of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet’s mutiny in Mankien. Kerubino had burned his bridges to both the government and the SPLM/A by then. He went to his relative by marriage, Paulino Matiep, for refuge. Kerubino was in Mankien when Peter Gatdet captured the base. Kerubino reportedly was delayed leaving Mankien because Paulino Matiep was trying to negotiate for Kerubino’s safety at the army garrison at Mayom; the army had taken a dislike to Kerubino after his defection from their ranks at Wau in January 1998, which cost the government many casualties. Human Rights Watch, Famine in Sudan, pp. 46-48. 130-34. Gatdet’s forces put Kerubino to death by firing squad, according to one of the freed prisoners aligned with Riek Machar. (Simon) Magwek Gai, interview, April 6, 2000; see “Sudanese Rebel Leader Bol Said Killed in Ambush 10 Sep,” Al-Sharq al-Awsat (London), Khartoum, September 13, 1999, as translated in World News Connection, September 13, 1999; “Leading Sudanese Rebel Leader Bol Reported Killed,” DPA, Khartoum, September 13, 1999; “Sudan Militia Leader Said Still Alive But Tortured,” Reuters, Khartoum, September 13, 1999;

“Sudanese MP Says Militia Leader Behind Ex-rebel’s Assassination,” AFP, Khartoum, September 14, 1999; Rosalind Russell, “Sudanese Warlord Dies in Mutiny,” Reuters, Nairobi, September 15, 1999; “Slain Sudanese Warlord Mourned by His 10 Wives,” East African (Kampala), Khartoum, September 28, 1999; Salva Kiir, interview, August 11, 2000 (Peter Gatdet executed Kerubino).





640 The militias of commanders Simon Gatwich of Akobo and Gordon Kong of Nasir remained loyal to the government, but well to the east of Block 5A and Western Upper Nile/Unity State. Old Fangak is in the Zeraf Island formed by the White Nile (Bahr El Jebel) on the west and the Bahr El Zeraf on the east. Most of Zeraf Island is within Block 5A although it was not under exploration by Lundin. The militia of Gabriel Tanginya of Old Fangak was separated from the Lundin-identified oilfields by vast stretches of Nile and sudd. When Old Fangak changed hands to the SPLA, Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya’s forces relocated to Poum to the east, sometimes referred to as “New Fangak.”

–  –  –

militias salaries and part of the oil revenue.”641 Cmdr. Peter Gatdet told the London-based Financial Times

that:

The government of Sudan is occupying our land and destroying our people because of this oil.... Wherever oil is found, they refer to it as an asset for the whole country; then they remove it from the people. There is complete displacement.... I made this move so I can attract the attention of other South Sudanese, so we can all come together and face a common enemy.... We have given enough warnings. If the oil companies don’t leave, we will attack the fields and make them go.642 Cmdr. Peter Gatdet’s shelling of Bentiu in September 1999 forced the WFP to suspend food distributions in the government garrison town for the week of September 19-25, adversely affecting thousands of needy civilians both in the town and as far as Ruweng County, where planned aid deliveries from Bentiu were canceled.643 The WFP and OLS received reports of bombings of Mankien on September 18 and 19,644 most likely part of a government effort to retake the base. Civilians were injured and some killed, including some who had already been displaced from Mayom and were sheltering in Mankien. The government of Sudan denied flight access to Mankien and Nhialdiu from September 23 until the end of the month,645 an indication that it did not control either town. The fighting forced many families to abandon cultivation 641 Alfred Taban, “Sudan Town Shelled by Renegade Militia,” Reuters, Khartoum, October 21, 1999.

642 Mark Turner, “Oil Fuels the Conflict in Southern Sudan,” Financial Times (London), Wicok, Western Upper Nile, October 15, 1999.

643 OLS Security closed the Bentiu area on September 21, on the grounds of safety. WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 105: September 19 Nairobi, September 25, 1999.

644 U.N. OLS (Northern and Southern Sectors), “Joint Weekly Report: September 22, 1999,” Nairobi, September 22, 1999; WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 104: September 12-18, 1999,” Nairobi, September 18, 1999.

645 WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 105: September 19-25, 1999,” Nairobi, September 25, 1999.

–  –  –

of their lands. Families depending on small family granaries outside of Bentiu found their granaries burned down.646 Cmdr. Peter Gatdet targeted Mayom also, a government garrison town with a shrinking civilian population. On September 29, shelling was reported there, and civilians fled. Peter Gatdet’s forces shelled Bentiu again in late September, fighting to within three kilometers of that garrison town, where Peter Gatdet’s former commander, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, put up resistance.647 Relief organizations suspended all food aid to Mayom, and rations began to run out in special feeding programs for children in Bentiu and Rubkona.648 Clashes between Cmdr. Peter Gatdet and the government in October 1999 caused civilians to continue to flee from the garrison towns of Bentiu (Block 1) and Mayom (Block 4) to Rupnyagai (Block 4), Nhialdiu, Boaw, and Dorkhan (all Block 5A).649 Even after arriving in these areas, these and other internally displaced people were unable to cultivate because of spreading insecurity.650 The relief agencies 646 Alfred Taban, “Sudan Town Shelled by Renegade Militia,” October 21, 1999.

647 WFP, “The Security Situation in Unity State and Impact on WFP Activities: October ’99.” 648 U.N. OLS (Northern and Southern Sectors), “Joint Weekly Report: 13 October 1999,” Nairobi, October 13, 1999; WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 106: September 26-October 2, 1999,” Nairobi, October 2, 1999; Alfred Taban, “Sudan Town Shelled by Renegade Militia,”October 21, 1999.

649 U.N. OLS (Northern and Southern Sectors), “Joint Weekly Report: October 13, 1999,” Nairobi, October 13, 1999; WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 112: November 7-13, 1999,” Rome, November 13, 1999.

650 On September 28, 1999, relief personnel and local authorities visited Koch, Boaw, and Pabuong, locations inside Block 5A and SSDF territory to which civilians displaced by government forces had fled over the previous months. The relief team discovered that life had been severely disrupted by the fighting and had not returned to normal. The displaced Koch population was beginning to return, but many crops had been stolen by militias or damaged by floods. The Boaw population was hosting a “large number” of displaced persons from elsewhere in the state, straining local resources. To the south, Pabuong had become a transit point for displaced fleeing Koch and Ler to safer areas in Nyal and Ganyliel (Western Upper Nile/Unity State, Block 5B) and Makuac (Tonj County, Bahr El Ghazal, Block 5A). WFP, “Sudan Bulletin No. 106: September 26-October 2, 1999,” Nairobi, October 2, 1999.

–  –  –

predicted a severe food deficit would arise, starting with the hunger gap period—the time between planting and harvest—of April to September 2000.651 Fighting was heating up further south in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. On September 28, 1999, SSDF forces remaining around Ler (which they gradually lost and never managed to retake) claimed that they had wiped out a company of Sudan armed forces at the Piliny bridge between Ler and Adok, capturing two non-commissioned officers.652 In early October, Chief Magai Reat Wuor, a Nuer chief elected to the Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace Council at the Wunlit conference, was summarily executed between Koch and Ler by government troops under the command of Paulino Matiep, according to the New Sudan Council of Churches.653

Cmdr. Peter Gatdet’s Troops Attack Oil Areas and Oilrig in Block 1, October 1999

651 In the U.N. Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan 2000, the U.N. estimated that around 210,000 persons (after the harvest) and 547,000 persons (during the hunger gap period) would qualify for food assistance, and food insecurity was expected to be worst, in Leech State and Ruweng County (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). “These areas will be of particular concern to WFP in 2000 since food deficits are more severe and access to beneficiaries are more problematic than elsewhere in southern Sudan.” Ibid., p. 16. To circumvent insecurity and government flight bans, relief agencies planned to stockpile basics—needed for survival in this swampy area—which could not be airdropped, including mosquito nets, shelter material (plastic for tents), and fishing equipment. They decided against stockpiling, however, as fighting continued.

By the hunger gap period in 2000, the situation was worse than predicted. Scorched earth attacks caused more mass movements of tens of thousands of fightened civilians. See below.

652 Kuong Danhier Gatluak, SSDF press release, “Government of Sudan Uses Chemical Agents in Aerial Bombardment in Western Upper Nile,” Nairobi, October 22, 1999. The names of the captive non-commissioned officerss were given as Cpl. Ahmed Mohammed Makin, from the Kadugli (Nuba Mountains, Southern Kordofan) auxiliary police force, and Cpl. Ibrahim Abdalla Ahmed, Damazin command (El Kurmuk, Southern Blue Nile). (The use of chemical agents was not established.) 653 NSCC press release, “Peace Council Refuses to Be Intimidated and Documents Remarkable Progress in People-to-People Peace Process,” Nairobi, October 4, 1999.

241Human Rights Watch

Cmdr. Peter Gatdet had in the past blocked the advance of rebels to the oil areas. Now he turned his troops around and used the strategic position of the Bul Nuer to threaten the GNPOC oil operations.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 35 | 36 || 38 | 39 |   ...   | 82 |


Similar works:

«STATE OF RHODE ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS Filed – February 8, 2010 PROVIDENCE, SC. SUPERIOR COURT TOWN OF JOHNSTON : : v. : PM No. 2008-5956 :INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHOOD : OF POLICE OFFICERS, LOCAL 307 : DECISION LANPHEAR, J. This case is before the Court on Plaintiff Town of Johnston’s motion to vacate an arbitration award in favor of the International Brotherhood of Police Officers, Local 307 (“the Union”) and the Union’s motion to confirm the arbitration award. For the reasons...»

«SAINTE-ANNE-DE-BEAUPRÉ SAINT-LOUIS-DE-GONZAGUE-DU-CAP-TOURMENTE BEAUPRÉ Réalisé pour le CLD de la MRC de la Côte-de-Beaupré Par : DAVID BEAUMIER (05 359 328) AMÉLIE BOURNIVAL (07 191 752) LYSANNE JUNEAU (07142 128) NANCY PLANTE-CÔTÉ (06 202 436) KEVIN VILLENEUVE-TREMBLAY (07 199 490) PLAN DE GESTION DE BEAUPRÉ SAINTE-ANNE-DE-BEAUPRÉ SAINT-LOUIS-DE-GONZAGUE-DU-CAP-TOURMENTE Travail présenté à Monsieur William Moss ARCHÉOLOGIE ET AMÉNAGEMENT DU TERRITOIRE ARL-19524 Département...»

«Monsoons Introduction On an annual basis, the rainfall (or, sometimes, the lack thereof) associated with monsoons has the greatest impact on the greatest number of people of all tropical phenomena. In particular, the Asian monsoon, the most well-known and well-studied of all monsoons, directly or indirectly impacts nearly half of the world’s population, much of which lives in third-world nations such as India and Indonesia. Excessive rains with strong monsoons can bring flooding and loss of...»

«Midnight Basketball ~ Progress Report January 2011 to June 2011 ~ Midnight Basketball Tournament 1 2011 The first of two tournaments in the 2011 Midnight Basketball season was successfully launched on Friday April 1st, 2011 with 40 players. With a slightly late start to registrations, momentum soon built to have a total of 86 players registered for the Tournament. The delay occurred because Michael Lay, Tournament Manager, was in Germany honouring his professional basketball contract which...»

«WILLIAM J. ENTWISTLE A LENDA ARTURIANA NAS LITERATURAS DA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA TRADUÇÃO DO INGLÊS DE ANTÓNIO ÁLVARO DÓRIA Revista e acrescentada pelo Autor IMPRENSA NACIONAL DE LISBOA = 19 4 2 = = A LENDA ARTURIANA NAS LITERATURAS DA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA WILLIAM ¡. ENTWISTLE A LENDA ARTURIANA NAS LITERATURAS DA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA TRADUÇÃO DO INGLÊS DE ANTÓNIO ALVARO DÓRIA Revista e acrescentada pelo Autor IMPRENSA NACIONAL DE LISBOA — 19 4 2 = — ÍNDICE P R E F Á C I O DO A U T...»

«Come Along: The Journey to a More Intimate Faith by Jane Rubietta (2008, Waterbrook Press) Study Guide for Individuals and Groups Page 1 of 12 ABOUT THIS GUIDE Though Come Along: The Journey into a More Intimate Faith contains multiple application tools at the end of each chapter, sometimes it is helpful to have additional questions and journey-deepening suggestions enrich personal study and application, and to make leading or facilitating a small group, book club or study easier. For a...»

«Preliminary Draft. The Panic of 1907: JP Morgan, Trust Companies, and the Impact of the Financial Crisis Carola Frydman Boston University and NBER Eric Hilt Wellesley College and NBER Lily Y. Zhou Federal Reserve Bank of New York Abstract: The outbreak of the Panic of 1907 occurred following a series of scandalous revelations about the investments of some prominent New York financiers, resulting in widespread runs on trust companies throughout New York City. The connections between the trust...»

«Comment choisir sa selle ? Extrait de « Western saddle guide », traduit par une amie Québécoise, pas correcte, la selle ne sera jamais ‘bonne’. Jane. Vous trouverez ici toutes les parties de la selle et la terminologie qui explique le tout en détail. Nous expliquerons pourquoi l’arçon, le Pour comprendre la selle western, vous devez comprendre quelles siège et les fixations sont si importants dans la qualité de la selle. sont les parties qui forment le produit fini. Même si...»

«Combinatorics: The Fine Art of Counting Week Three Solutions Note: in these notes multiplication is assumed to take precedence over division, so 4!/2!2! = 4!/(2!*2!), and binomial coefficients are written horizontally: (4 2) denotes “4 choose 2” or 4!/2!2! Appetizers 1. How many 5 letter words have at least one double letter, i.e. two consecutive letters that are the same? 265 – 26*254 = 1,725,126 2. A Venn diagram is drawn using three circular regions of radius 1 with their centers all...»

«1 Sermon #278 New Park Street Pulpit GRIEVING THE HOLY SPIRIT NO. 278 DELIVERED ON SABBATH MORNING, OCTOBER 9, 1859, BY THE REV. C. H. SPURGEON, AT THE MUSIC HALL, ROYAL SURREY GARDENS. “And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption.” Ephesians 4:30. THERE is something very touching in this admonition, “Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God.” It does not say, “Do not make Him angry.” A more delicate and tender term is used—“Grieve Him...»

«INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE DEFENSA CIVIL INDECI – PNUD – PER/02/051 LAMBAYEQUE MAPA DE PELIGROS DE LA CIUDAD DE LAMBAYEQUE: Diciembre 2003 1 PROYECTO INDECI – PNUD PER/02/051 CIUDADES SOSTENIBLES MAPA DE PELIGROS DE LA CIUDAD DE LAMBAYEQUE 2 INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE DEFENSA CIVIL – INDECI PROYECTO INDECI – PNUD PER/02/051 CIUDADES SOSTENIBLES DIRECTOR NACIONAL Contralmirante A.P. (r) JUAN LUIS PODESTA LLOSA 3 PROYECTO INDECI – PNUD PER/02/051 CIUDADES SOSTENIBLES Director Nacional de...»

«BOMBSHELL 24TH APRIL ROUND 3 PLAYER PROFILES LUCAS FLYNN AIDAN O’SHEA What team are you in and when did you start playing What team are you in and when did you start playing AFL? AFL? Auskick U8’s. I started playing in 2015. U11’s. I started playing when I was 5. It was 6 years ago. Who is your favourite team and player? Who is your favourite team and player? Sydney Swans, Adam Goodes. Sydney Swans, Dan Hannebery. Favourite thing to do other than AFL? Favourite thing to do other than AFL?...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.