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«Suggested citation: Panday, S., Makiwane, M., Ranchod, C., & Letsoalo, T. (2009). Teenage pregnancy in South Africa - with a specific focus on ...»

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Kirby, D. B. (2008). The impact of abstinence and comprehensive sex and STI/HIV education programs on adolescent sexual behaviour. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 5, 18-27.

Kirby, D., Coyle, K., & Gould, J. B. (2001). Manifestations of poverty and birth rates among young teenagers in California zip code areas. Family Planning Perspectives, 33, 63–69.

Kirby, D., Laris, B. A., & Rolleri, L. A. (2005). Impact of Sex and HIV Education Programs on Sexual Behaviours of Youth in Developing Countries (Rep. No. 2). Family Health International.

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Kirby, D. B., Laris, B. A., & Rolleri, L. A. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: their impact on sexual behaviours of young people throughout the world. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 206-217.

Kirby, D., Obasi, A., & Laris, B. (2006). The effectiveness of sex education and HIV education interventions in

schools in developing countries. In D. Ross, B. Dick, & J. Ferguson (Eds.), Preventing HIV/AIDS in Young People:

A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Kissin, D. M., Anderson, E. J., Kraft, J. M., Warner, L. & Jamieson, D. J. (2008). Is there a trend of increased unwanted childbearing among young women in the United States? Journal of Adolescent Health, 43, 364Klerman, L.V. (2004). Another Chance: Preventing Additional Births to Teen Mothers. Washington DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Klepinger, D. H., Lundberg, S. & Plotnick, D.R. (1995). Adolescent fertility and the educational attainment of young women. Family Planning Perspectives 27(1): 23-8.

Koenig, M. A., Zablostska, I., Lutalo, T., Nalugoda, F., Wagman, J. & Gray, R. (2004). Coercive first intercourse and reproductive health among adolescent women in Rakai, Uganda. International Family Planning Perspectives, 30, 156-63.

Lam D, Leibbrandt M & Mlatsheni C (2008) Education and Youth Unemployment in South Africa. (Working Paper No. 22). Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town Landry, D.J. & Forrest, J. D. (1995). How old are U.S. fathers. Family Planning Perspectives, 27(4), 159-165.

Langille, D. B., Flowerdew, G. & Andreou, P. (2004). Teenage pregnancy in Nova Scotia communities:

Associations with contextual factors. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 13, 83-94.

Lansford, J. E., Miller-Johnson, S., Berlin, L. J., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E. & Pettit, G. S. (2007). Early physical abuse and later violent delinquency: A prospective longitudinal study. Child Maltreatment, 12, 233-245.

Larson, N. C., Hussey, J. M., Gilmore, M. R., & Gilchrist, L. D. (1996). What about dad? Fathers of children born to school mothers. Families in Society, 77, 279-290.

Lesch, E. & Kruger, L. (2005). Mothers, daughters and sexual agency in one low-income South African community. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 1072-1082.

Limmer, M. (2008). Addressing young people’s sex and alcohol use: It’s about aspiration not information.

Education and Health, 26, 38-39.

Lloyd, C. B. & Mensch, B. S. (1999). Implications of formal schooling for girls’ transition to adulthood in developing countries. In C. H. Bledsoe, J. B. Casterline, J. A. Johnson-Kuhn, & J. G. Haaga (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World (p. 80-104). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Lloyd, C. B. & Mensch, B. S. (2006). Marriage And Childbirth as Factors in Dropping Out from School: An Analysis of DHS Data from Sub-Saharan Africa (Rep. No. 219). New York: Population Studies.

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Lloyd, C. B. & Mesch, B. S. (2008). Marriage and childbirth as factors dropping out from school: an analysis of DHS data from sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, 62(1), 1-13.

Lopoo, L.M. & DeLeire, T. (2006). Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(2), 275-298.

loveLife 2003. Report on activities and project. Retrieved, 25 May, 2009, from http://www.lovelife.org.za/ corporate/index.html loveLife 2009. loveLife – South Africa’s National HIV prevention programme for young people. Retrieved, 25 May, 2009, from http://www.lovelife.org.za/corporate/index.html loveLife 2009. Outreach and support. Retrieved 25 May, 2009, from http://www.lovelife.org.za/corporate/index.

html MacPhail, C. & Campbell, C. (2001). ‘I think condoms are good but, aai. I hate those things’: condom use among adolescents and young people in a Southern African township. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 1613MacPhail, C., Pettifor, A. E., Pascoe, S., & Rees, H. V. (2007). Contraception use and pregnancy among 15-24 year old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Bio Medical Central Medicine, 5, 1-8.

Madhavan, S., Townsend, N. W., & Garey, I. N. (2008). Absent Breadwinners: Father-child connections and paternal support in rural South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies, 34(3), 647-663.

Madu, S.N. & M.P. Matla, M.P. (2003). Illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behaviour among a sample of high school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of the Northern Province, South Africa, Journal of Adolescence 26, 121–136.





Magnani, R., Karim, A.M., Macintyre, K., Brown, L. & Hutchinson, P. (2003). Transitions to Adulthood in the Context of AIDS in South Africa. The Impact of Exposure to Life Skills Education on Adolescent Knowledge, Skills and Behaviour. Horizons Research Summary. Washington DC: Population Council.

Magnani, R. J., Macintyre, K., Karim, A. M., Brown, L., & Hutchinson, P. (2005). The impact of life skills education on adolescent sexual risk behaviours in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 289-304.

Maharaj, P. (2006). Reasons for condom use among young people in KwaZulu-Natal: prevention of HIV, pregnancy or both? International Family Planning Perspectives, 32(1): 28-34.

Maharaj, P., Kaufman, C. & Richter, L. (2000). Children’s Schooling in South Africa: Transitions and Tensions in Households and Communities. (CSDS working paper No. 3). Durban: University of Natal, Center for Social and Development Studies.

Makiwane, M. (1998). Adolescent pregnancy and reproductive health in Transkei (Rural South Africa). African Journal of Reproductive Health, 2, 41-48.

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Makiwane, M. (2007). The impact of the social grants on teenage fertility in South Africa. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Makiwane, M. (2009). [Department of Health abortion statistics]. Unpublished raw data.

Makiwane, M., Desmond, C., Richter, L. M. & Udjo, E. (2006). Is the Child Support Grant Associated with an Increase in Teenage Fertility in South Africa? Evidence from National Surveys and Administrative Data. Cape Town: HSRC Press.

Makiwane, M. & Udjo, E. (2006). Is the Child Support Grant associated with an Increase in Teenage Fertility in South Africa? Evidence from National Surveys and Administrative Data. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council.

Manlove, J. (1998). The influence of high school dropout and school disengagement on the risk of school-age pregnancy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(2), 187-220.

Manzini, N. (2001). Sexual initiation and childbearing among adolescent girls in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

Reproductive Health Matters, 9, 44-52.

Maphumulo, S (2009, February 13). Pupil dies after giving birth. The Star, p. 6.

Mathews, C., Guttmacher, S. J., Flisher, A. J., Mtshizana, Y. Y., Nelson, T., McCarthy, J. et al. (2009). The quality of HIV testing services for adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa: Do adolescent-friendly service make a difference? Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 188-190.

Maticka-Tyndale, E. & Brouillard-Coyle, C. (2006). The effectiveness of community interventions targeting HIV and AIDS prevention at young people in developing countries. In: Preventing HIV / AIDS in Young People.

A Systematic Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Team on Young People, edited by David A. Ross, Bruce Dick and Jane Ferguson. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization 2006. 205-241. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 938).

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Miller, D. B. (1997). Adolescent fathers: what we know and what we need to know. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 14(1), 55-69.

Miller, B. (1998). Families Matter: A Research Synthesis of Family Influences on Adolescent Pregnancy.

Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Miller, B. C., Benson, B. & Galbraith, K. A. (2001). Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy risk: A research synthesis. Developmental Review, 21, 1–38.

Miller, B. C. (2002). Family influences on adolescent sexual and contraceptive behaviour. The Journal of Sex Research, 39, 22-26.

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Miranda, A. E. & Szwarcwald, C. L. (2007). Pregnancy rate and risk behaviors among female adolescents in Vitória, Brazil. Women & Health, 45(3), 17-30.

Montgomery, C. M., Hosegood, V., Busza, J., & Timaeus, I. M. (2005). Men’s involvement in the South African family: engendering change in the AIDS era. Social Science and Medicine 62, 2411-2419.

Morejele, N., Brook, J. S., & Kachieng’a, M. A. (2006). Perceptions of sexual risk and substance abuse among adolescents in South Africa: A qualitative investigation. AIDS Care, 18, 215-219.

Morojele, N. K., Kachieng’a, M. A., Mokoko, E., Matsobane, A. N., Parry, C. D. H., Nkowane, A. M. et al. (2006).

Alcohol use and sexual behaviour among risky drinkers and bar shebeen patrons in Gauteng province, South Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 217-227.

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a cross-sectional study. Reproductive Health, 3, 1-5.

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Moultrie, T. A. & Timaeus, I. M. (2003). The South African fertility decline: Evidence from two censuses and a Demographic and Health Survey. Population Studies, 57, 265-283.

Moultrie, T. A. & Dorrington, R. (2004). Estimation of Fertility from the 2001 South Africa Census Data. Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research for Statistics South Africa.

Moultrie, T. A. & McGrath, N. (2007). Teenage fertility rates falling in South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 97, 442-443.

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Nkuna, B (2008, September 29). Child grants used for booze-NGOs. The Cape Argus, p. 6.

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Pallitto, C. C. & Murillo, V. (2008). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy in El Salvador.

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