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«Suggested citation: Panday, S., Makiwane, M., Ranchod, C., & Letsoalo, T. (2009). Teenage pregnancy in South Africa - with a specific focus on ...»

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Appendices Appendix 1: Literature search strategy Database Region covered Description Ebsco Information International Ebsco Information Services covers a range of educational, Services: Ebscohost medical and psychological databases (13) Web

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Appendix 2: The HSRC 2003 Status of the Youth Survey – Methods Introduction This section of the report summarises the parameters for the collection of quantitative data for the survey component of the HSRC Status of Youth Survey 2003 (SYR). It details aspects of the sample design and fieldwork, including training of fieldworkers.

Sample design A self-weighting sample was designed, based on the most recent available data from Statistics South Africa.

Thus, the major reporting domains of the sample were drawn so that they were proportional to that of Census

2001. Households (primary sampling units) were selected to render a national sample of 3 500 young people, representative of population group and province. The Census 2001 enumeration areas (EAs) selected by the HSRC’s Surveys, Analysis, Modelling and Mapping Unit were associated with their different municipalities and plotted on a national map.

Route maps were prepared to identify each primary sample unit in the sample design within each district and in each province. These maps served as a guide for the survey teams into the correct enumeration area and to the selected households within each area.

The original sample size was 3 500. The fieldwork company targeted 3 600, so as to allow for refusals and incomplete questionnaires. Response rate to the targeted sample of 3 600 was 98.36%. Thus the actual response was 1.17% more than the design. Minority population groups were slightly over-sampled in the study but, as this is so slight, it does not change the self-weighting nature of the sample.

Method for random selection of the sample

The SYR sample was drawn using the 2001 Census to estimate a number of visiting points in an enumeration area. An enumeration area is defined by Census 2001 to consist of a number of households, usually between 100 and 200 visiting points. A visiting point is defined as a residential stand, address, structure and flat in a block

of flats or homestead. In order to select an individual to be interviewed, the following route was followed:

The number of individuals to be interviewed in each province was chosen such that they were proportional to the number of young people found in the province as provided by Census 2001.

The enumeration areas were chosen according to five residential types, namely, urban formal, urban informal, rural traditional, rural farms and hostels. The number of enumeration areas selected from each type was proportional to those defined in the Census.

Visiting points within each enumeration area were chosen randomly.

If there was more than one household at a visiting point, one household was randomly selected. Within each household, if there was more than one young person within the ages 18 to 35, one person was randomly selected.

The fact that the selection of young people hinged on their availability within the household during November and December, the latter being a traditional holiday month, might have resulted in some unintended bias. For

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example, higher education levels were found in the sample compared to those reported in other studies and it could be that such individuals are less mobile because they have employment and were thus more likely to be selected into the SYR study.

Substitution of dwellings Interviewers were not allowed to substitute households selected for interviews except with the permission and in the presence of field supervisors who were trained in the rules for substitution. Substitution was allowed only if a selected dwelling was found to be empty, there was no eligible young person resident in the household, residents were not at home for an extended period of time or there were obvious physical dangers posed to the lives of interviewers. Refusal to be interviewed was not an acceptable ground for substitution. Where substitution of a dwelling was required, the nearest dwelling next to the original, to right of the interviewer (when facing the entrance to the dwelling), was considered first. For this new dwelling to be chosen, it had to have a fairly similar profile as the one to be substituted. For example, in an enumeration area with a mixture of formal and informal dwellings, an informal dwelling could not be substituted with a formal dwelling. If, for any reason, the dwelling immediately next to the interviewer on the right was not eligible, the dwelling immediately to the left of the field worker was chosen as a substitute, observing the rule of similarity.

Selecting eligible young people

All eligible young people (18-35 years of age), in every household selected for interview, were identified from a brief conversation with a principal respondent in the household. Within the household, selection of one young person to be the respondent in the survey was entirely random, achieved through a blinding procedure. Only the age-group criterion (18-35 years) was used. If a potential respondent met this criterion other attributes, such as specific single age, gender or race, were not taken into account in selecting one out of all eligible young respondents. If only one person was eligible in the household, the person was interviewed and the random selection process did not apply.

Data quality

Emphasis was placed on the collection of high quality data. As a result, several measures were put in place to monitor key areas of survey data collection that are susceptible to errors. Office-based monitors and quality control specialists conducted random checks to determine the location and activities of field workers. In the course of the checking visit, they also collected and reviewed completed questionnaires for immediate corrections where errors were identified. The quality control staff also conducted random call-backs on ten percent of the sample using an abbreviated form of the questionnaire, consisting of questions selected for quality check purposes.

Questionnaire development

Concepts of youth development and transition to adulthood, as part of the life cycle approach, were adopted as the conceptual framework for the survey. What can be found from literature on this subject as indicators of a successful transition to adulthood are, among others: completion of education, entry into the labour force, establishment of an independent household, attainment of financial independence, marriage and parenthood, civic engagement and healthy lifestyle choices. The areas of youth education, youth employment and youth civic engagements were selected as critical aspects of youth development and these topics formed the focus of the questionnaire design. The principles for questionnaire development and a draft of the questionnaire

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were approved by UYF. The questionnaire had six sections:

• General demographic and other background information on respondents

• Employment

• Education

• Community and civic engagement

• Health and disability

• Social development Each section of the questionnaire consisted of questions that aimed at establishing external conditions of young people, as well as their views and attitudes on issues affecting them.

Ethical considerations The survey followed the generally established principles regarding ethics of social research. These principles include written voluntary and informed consent by selected individuals, and the principles of anonymity and confidentiality. The proposal for the survey was submitted to the HSRC Research Ethics Committee and authorisation was given to conduct the survey.

Pilot study

A pilot study preceded data collection. The main purpose of the pilot study was to test the survey questionnaire.

Three areas were visited: a suburb and a township in Pretoria, and a rural area in the Northwest Province.

Thirty people, ten from each area, were interviewed using the draft questionnaire. Lessons learned during the pilot study were used to refine the final version of the questionnaire. These included: avoiding repetitive questions, improving the clarity of questions and response categories, filling gaps in the questionnaire and shortening the questionnaire. Following minor and mainly layout changes, the questionnaire was finalised based on experiences from the pilot study. The questionnaire was reproduced in English but administered in different vernacular languages.

Training of fieldworkers

The development of training manuals for field survey staff was also based on experiences gained during the pilot study. Training for field workers took place centrally at the offices of The Africa Strategic Research Corporation in Johannesburg. All members of the fieldwork team, including the team leader, regional leaders and quality control specialists attended the training. Researchers from the HSRC were also present.

All aspects of the survey, including identification of respondents and quality control, were dealt with during the training. Field interviewers were chosen on the basis of a balanced combination of racial characteristics to ensure that the sample design was effectively achieved. In view of the time constraints it was decided not to translate questionnaires from English into all eleven official languages. The field workers were trained in the correct meaning of terms used in English and their translation into the other languages using the experience gained during sample interviews in the pilot study. In addition, the interview teams were constituted in ways that represented all predominant languages spoken in each sample area. All fieldworkers were multi-lingual.

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Respondents were offered the choice to be interviewed in their preferred languages. However, to standardise response categories for data entry and analysis, all response options in the questionnaires were presented in English.

Fieldwork The fieldwork commenced simultaneously in all provinces immediately after the training. Field workers worked in teams of two to three with one team leader/supervisor guiding their work. The team leaders identified enumerator areas, used the simple random sample rule provided to them to select households and which young people were to be interviewed, and introduced the interview teams.


The main challenge faced by the fieldwork team was pressure of time. Data collection was initially designed to commence at the beginning of October 2003 to allow for a minimum of two and half months of data collection in the field. However commencement of data collection was delayed until November due to a number of logistical and practical constraints. Additionally, towards the end of November, several EAs in the sample showed significant movement of people - especially from urban to rural areas for the Christmas holidays. This put more pressure on the interview teams to complete their work as soon as possible.

However, the compressed survey time and the temporary movement of people during the holiday season were accommodated by increasing the size of the fieldwork teams in order to complete data collection on schedule. Data entry ran concurrently with data collection. An advantage of this approach is that it provided an opportunity for office editors to relay any data errors to field workers for immediate correction while they were still in the field.

Although the questions were generally found to be acceptable, respondents pointed to the sensitive nature of some personal (especially sexual) questions. However, there was no evidence of biased responses or selective non-response to these questions. Interviewers were well trained to handle these questions and the questions were strategically placed in the questionnaire to be asked when respondents were well acquainted with the objectives of the survey and relaxed with the interviewers. Respondents’ comfort with the questionnaires was also increased by having women interviewers in the team interview females and male interviewers interviewing men.

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