«The Invisible Students Young Parents in Education By Sinéad Riordan, The Centre for Social and Educational Research, Dublin Institute of Technology ...»
Northern Ireland Dawson’s (1995) survey of policy and procedure in the local educational authorities of Northern Ireland with regard to provision for young school age mothers in the 1990s found that responsibility for provision lay with Special Education. On average, more hours of Home Tuition were available in Northern Ireland than in England and Wales. There did not appear to be any 64 group provision devoted solely to school age mothers at this time. However, Dawson noted that Northern Ireland’s small size and lack of urbanisation may reduce the practicality of group provision, particularly where there is more family support. Concerns with providing a full curriculum and comments about adverse attitudes at school were observed.
Young parents in Barnardos Young Parents Network in Northern Ireland, cited difficulties ranging from negative staff attitudes, to a lack of home tuition. The study found that less than half of those mothers surveyed received any home tuition before their baby was born, whilst 75% received no home tuition after the birth of their child (Working Group on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood, 2000).
Box 7. The Next Steps Project, Northern Ireland
A Gingerbread based project called Next Steps offers home based support to teenage mothers who are referred to the project, currently available in two HSS Trust areas, by their Health Visitor.
The programme aims to empower participants to reach personal goals. A wide range of support and information is offered, including access to welfare advice, training and help with childcare. It also provides opportunities to meet with other young mothers (Working Group on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood, 2000:70).
In 1998, a framework was agreed on the development of policy and support services for pregnant schoolgirls and school age mothers in Northern Ireland. This framework emerged from a Save the Children research study called ‘Pregnant Schoolgirls and School Age Mothers: Access to Education’ (Davies et al., 1996). The starting point of the framework is that every pregnant
schoolgirl or school age mother should be supported:
The School Aged Mothers Project (SAM) in Northern Ireland offers what the Working Group on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood described as an "innovative response to the needs of school age mothers" (2000: 33).
The purpose of SAM is to support young women who are pregnant or who have had a baby while still of compulsory school going age, to continue their formal education and to address personal development, antenatal and health issues in a supportive environment.
The initial pilot of SAM was ran by Barnardo’s in partnership with the North Eastern Education and Library Board, Causeway Health & Social Services Trust and Ballysally Youth and Community Centre. Of those who participated in the pilot, 75% sat their exams. This is a very significant outcome when compared to the findings of Davies et al’s (1996) study which showed that two-thirds of young mothers felt they missed out on opportunities to sit exams.
66 Bibliography Area Development Management Ltd (1998). Preventive Education Strategies to Counter Educational Disadvantage. Insights, no. 10. Dublin: ADM.
Berthoud, R. & Robson, K. (2001). ‘The Outcomes of Teenage Motherhood in Europe.’ Innocenti Working Paper No. 86. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre Blaikie, A. (1994). ‘Family fall out’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 4th March, 1994.
Boldt, S, Devine, B., MacDevitt, D. and Morgan, M. (1998). Educational Disadvantage and Early School Leaving. Discussion Papers. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency Boldt, S. & Devine, B. (1998). ‘Educational disadvantage in Ireland: literature review and summary report’ pp. 7 – 39. IN: Boldt, S, Devine, B., MacDevitt, D. and Morgan, M. (1998). Educational Disadvantage and Early School Leaving. Discussion Papers. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency Bradshaw, J. & Millar, J. (1991). Lone Parents: Policy in the Doldrums. London: Family Policy Studies Centre Breen, R. (1991). Education, employment and training in the youth labour market. Dublin: ESRI, Paper no. 152
Clancy, P. (1995). Interim Report of the Steering Committee’s Technical Working Group. Dublin:
Higher Education Authority Clarke, L. (1999). ‘Young mothers and their families: trends, associated factors and consequences’ pp. 52 – 70. IN: Report of a Health Education Authority Expert Working Group.
Promoting the Health of Teenage and Lone Mothers: setting a research agenda. London: Health Education Authority Collins, C. & William, J. (1997). The 1997 Annual School Leavers Survey: results of the School Leavers’ Survey 1995-1997. Dublin: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment.
Connolly, G., Kennelly, S., Conroy, R., & Byrne, P. (1999). Teenage Pregnancy in the Rotunda Hospital. Irish Medical Journal, vol. 91, no. 6 Cullen, B. (1997) Integrated Service Provision and Children at Risk. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency.
Davies, C., Downey, A. & Murphy, H. (1996). School-age Mothers: access to education. A Report to Save the Children Fund. Belfast, NI: Save the Children Dawson, N. (1994). The 1994 Survey of Educational Provision for Pregnant Schoolgirls and Schoolgirl Mothers in the LEAs of England and Wales. Bristol: School of Education, University of Bristol …………… (1995). The 1995 Survey of Educational Provision for Pregnant Schoolgirls and Schoolgirl Mothers in the Education and Library Boards of Northern Ireland. Bristol: School of Education, University of Bristol
Dempsey, M. (2001). The South East Teenage Pregnancy Study. Unpublished research. Cork:
South Eastern Health Board.
67 Edwards, R. & Duncan, S. (1996). ‘Lone mothers and economic activity’ IN: Williams, F. (ed) Social Policy: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Polity Press European Social Fund Evaluation Unit (1996). Evaluation Report: Early School Leavers’ Provision.
Dublin: ESF Programme Evaluation Unit Fahey, T. & Russell, H. (2002). Family Formation in Ireland: trends, data needs and implications.
Dublin: ESRI Family Policy Studies Centre (1999). Teenage Pregnancy and the Family. Family Briefing Paper No.
9, September 1999. London: Family Policy Studies Centre Flanagan, N. (1996). Lone Parenthood in Ireland. Masters of Social Science Thesis (unpublished) University College Dublin.
Hamburg, B. (1986). ‘Subset of adolescent mothers’ IN: School-age Pregnancy and Parenthood.
Aldinburg: Gruyter Hannan, D. (1986). Schooling and the Labour Market: Young People in Transition from School to Work. Dublin: Shannon Curriculum Development Unit.
Hannan, D. & O’Riain, S.F. (1993). Pathways to Adulthood in Ireland: causes and consequences of success and failure in transitions amongst Irish youth. General Research Series, Paper no. 161.
Dublin: ESRI Hantrais, L. (1994). ‘Comparing Family Policy in Britain, France and Germany’, Journal of Social Policy, 23, 2, pp. 135-160 Irish Vocational Educational Association (2001). IVEA Policy on Educational Provision for Asylum Seekers, Refugees and other Non-nationals: Working Group Report. Dublin: Irish Vocational Educational Association.
Kiernan, K. (1995). Transition to Parenthood: young mothers, young fathers – associated factors and later life experiences. Welfare State Programme, Discussion Paper WSP/113. London: London School of Economics
Lynch, K. (1999). ‘The Status of Children and Young People: educational and related issues’ IN:
Healy, S. & Reynolds, B. (eds). Social Policy in Ireland: principles, practice and problems. Dublin:
Oak Tree Press, pp. 321 – 349 Mahon, E. (2002). Education and Training for Young Mothers in the Republic of Ireland. Paper to Conference. Young Parents in Ireland: moving towards a vision of effective policy and practice.
Dublin Castle, 30th and 31st January, 2002
McCashin, A. (1997) Employment Aspects of Young Lone Parenthood in Ireland. Dublin:
Department of Social Studies, TCD.
McCoy, S., Doyle, A. & Williams, J. (1999). 1998 Annual School Leavers’ Survey of 1996/’97 Leavers. Dublin: Department of Education and Science, Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment and the ESRI
McIntosh, M. (1996). ‘Social anxieties about lone motherhood and ideologies of the family’ IN:
Silva, E. (ed.) Good Enough Mothering: feminist perspectives n lone motherhood. London:
Routledge 68 McKeown, K. (2001). ‘Families and Single Fathers in Ireland’. Administration, vol. 49, no. 1 (Spring 2001), pp. 3 – 24 Midwinter, J. (2001). ‘Setting up the TPPI’. Presentation to the National Teenage Parent Research and Practice Group: 13th September 2001, Leeds, UK. Unpublished.
Milne-Home, J., Power, A. & Dennis, B. (1997). Pregnant Future: barriers to employment, education and training amongst pregnant and parenting adolescents. Sydney: Women’s Employment, Education and Training Advisory Group.
NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (1997). ‘Preventing and reducing the adverse effects of unintended teenage pregnancies’ Effective Health Care Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 1. York: University of York O’Mahony, C. (2000) ‘Tackling early school leaving in Dundalk’ IN: Poverty Today, October 2000, no. 48. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency Phoenix, A. (1991) Young Mothers? Cambridge: Polity Press Plotnick, R.D. (1993). ‘The effect of social policies on teenage pregnancy and childbearing’ Families in Society, June.
Rourke, S. (1994). Young Disadvantaged People 14 – 17 Years of Age: Needs and Opportunities.
Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency
Ronayne, T. (1994) An Evaluation of the Vocational Training and Opportunities Scheme. Dublin:
Work Research Centre Ruddy, D. (2001). ‘New Roles on School Attendance’. Education Matters.
http://www.educationmatters.net Ryan, S. (1998). Percieved Needs for Guidance, Counselling and Psychological Services in VEC
Youthreach Centres, Community Training Workshops and Senior Traveller Training Centres. Dublin:
National Co-ordinators of Youthreach and National Centre for Guidance in Education.
Selman, P. & Glendinning, C. (1996) ‘Teenage Pregnancy: Do Social Polices Make a Difference?’ IN: Brannen, J. & O’Brien, M. (eds.) Children in Families: Research and Policy. London: Falmer Press, pp. 202 – 218
Silva, E.B. (1996). ‘The transformation of mothering’ IN: Silva, E. (ed.) Good Enough Mothering:
feminist perspectives n lone motherhood. London: Routledge Smart, C. (1999). ‘Wishful Thinking and Harmful Tinkering/ Sociological reflections on family policy’. Journal of Social Policy, 26, 3, pp. 301 – 321 Social Exclusion Unit (1999). Teenage Pregnancy. London: Social Exclusion Unit.
Standing, K. (1999). ‘Lone Mothers and ‘Parental’ Involvement’: a contradiction in policy? Journal of Social Policy, 29, 3, pp. 479 – 495 Official Publications Central Statistics Office (1997). Report on Vital Statistics: Fourth Quarter and Yearly Summary for
1996. Dublin: Central Statistics Office.
69 Department of Education and WRC Social & Economic Consultants (1994). An Evaluation of the Vocational Training Opportunities Scheme: report to the Minister of Education. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Department of Education and Science (1998). Green Paper on Adult Education: Adult Education in an Era of Lifelong Learning. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
…………………… (1999) Press Release on Stay in School Initiative (Online). www.gov.ie/educ.
………………… (1999) Press Release on funding provision to Area Development Management to support needy students in partnership areas. 3rd October, 2001. (Online). www.gov.ie/educ ………………….. (2000). Learning for Life: White Paper on Adult Education. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
………………… (2001) Press Release: Address by Dr Michael Woods TD, Minister for Education & Science on tackling Educational Disadvantage: Educational Disadvantage Committee and Forum to Address Educational Disadvantage. 12th February, 2001. (Online). www.gov.ie/educ.
………………….. (2000). Learning for Life: White Paper on Adult Education. Dublin: The Stationery Office Press Release: Address by Dr Michael Woods TD, Minister for Education & Science at the inaugural meeting of the National Educational Welfare Board. 15th June, 2001. (Online).
………………….. (2000). Learning for Life: White Paper on Adult Education. Dublin: The Stationery
Office (2001). Review of educational initiatives to combat disadvantage, 2000’. Dublin:
Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs (2000). Review of the One Parent Family Payment. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
………………………. (2001). Statistical Information on Social Welfare Services 2000. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
……………………… (1997). National Anti-Poverty Strategy, Sharing in Progress. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Galligan, Y. (2000). The Development of Mechanisms to Monitor Progress in Achieving Gender Equality in Ireland. Report commissioned by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform.
Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Government of Ireland (1999). Ireland: National Development Plan, 2000 – 2006. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
………………………… (2000). Programme for Prosperity and Fairness. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Joint Committee on Family, Community and Social Affairs (2001) Teenage Parenting Contemporary Issues. Dublin
National Economic and Social Forum (2002). Early School Leavers. Forum Report No. 24. Dublin:
The Stationery Office.
……………………… (2001). Lone Parents. Forum Report No. 20. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
……………………… (1996). Equality Proofing Issues. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Report of the Partnership 2000 Expert Working Group on Childcare (1999). National Childcare Strategy. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Social Exclusion Unit, Home Office. (1999). Teenage Pregnancy. London: Social Exclusion Unit.
Working Group on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood (1999). Myths and Reality: teenage pregnancy and parenthood. Belfast, Stormont: Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety.
Notes 71 72 Notes