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«ACTA U N I V E R S I T AT I S O U L U E N S I S B HUMANIORA Johanna Ylipulli SMART FUTURES MEET NORTHERN REALITIES: ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ...»

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OULU 2015

B 126

ACTA U N I V E R S I T AT I S O U L U E N S I S

B

HUMANIORA

Johanna Ylipulli

SMART FUTURES MEET

NORTHERN REALITIES:

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

PERSPECTIVES ON THE

DESIGN AND ADOPTION

OF URBAN COMPUTING

UNIVERSITY OF OULU GRADUATE SCHOOL;

UNIVERSITY OF OULU,

FACULTY OF HUMANITIES,

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY;

FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

ACTA UNIVERSITATIS OULUENSIS

B Humaniora 126

JOHANNA YLIPULLI

SMART FUTURES MEET NORTHERN

REALITIES: ANTHROPOLOGICAL

PERSPECTIVES ON THE DESIGN

AND ADOPTION OF URBAN

COMPUTING

Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Doctoral Training Committee of Human Sciences of the University of Oulu for public defence in Kuusamonsali (YB210), Linnanmaa, on 6 March 2015, at 1 p.m.

U N I VE R S I T Y O F O U L U, O U L U 2 0 1 5 Copyright © 2015 Acta Univ. Oul. B 126, 2015 Supervised by Professor Hannu I. Heikkinen Professor Jaakko Suominen Professor Timo Ojala Reviewed by Professor Sarah Pink Doctor Anne Galloway Opponent Professor Gertraud Koch ISBN 978-952-62-0747-6 (Paperback) ISBN 978-952-62-0748-3 (PDF) ISSN 0355-3205 (Printed) ISSN 1796-2218 (Online) Cover Design Raimo Ahonen

JUVENES PRINT

TAMPERE 2015 Ylipulli, Johanna, Smart futures meet northern realities: Anthropological perspectives on the design and adoption of urban computing.

University of Oulu Graduate School; University of Oulu, Faculty of Humanities, Cultural anthropology; Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Acta Univ. Oul. B 126, 2015 University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland

Abstract

This thesis explores the sociocultural processes shaping the design, adoption and use of new urban technology in the city of Oulu in northern Finland. The exploration is conducted at experiential level focusing on people’s personal perspectives which allows uncovering underlying cultural meanings, social structures and historically formed practices and discourses. The unique case for the thesis is provided by the recent technological development in Oulu that has been shaped by agendas such as ubiquitous computing and smart cities.

The thesis first investigates in-depth the design process of the new urban technology, and also compares the visions of the designers and decision-makers with the practices and perspectives of the city inhabitants. Then, the adoption process of public urban technologies is studied in detail by constructing a conceptual appropriation model. Finally, the effects of the northern location of Oulu on the design and use of the urban technology are scrutinized. The research is based on empirical, qualitative research materials comparing the experiences of young adult and elderly city inhabitants; in addition, quantitative use data of urban technologies is utilized to provide an overview on the use trends.

The key findings indicate that the design and decisions concerning novel technologies and the outcome are shaped by complex sociomaterial practices based on experiences from previous similar projects, and on certain preconceptions about the city inhabitants and technology’s role in the cityscape. Different people have differing power positions in relation to the development of the urban public places, and technology implementation can marginalize some segments of city inhabitants. Further, the adoption of novel urban technologies is found to depend heavily on the norms of public places and people’s long-term experiences of technology use. Finally, climate, ICT use and sociocultural context are shown to be profoundly interconnected, and thus, urban computing design must reconsider the situatedness of technology. These findings call for further sociocultural studies on future smart cities.

Keywords: applied anthropology, northern location, smart technology, sociocultural factors, ubiquitous computing, urban anthropology, urban space

Ylipulli, Johanna, Älykkäät tulevaisuudet kohtaavat pohjoiset todellisuudet:

Antropologisia näkökulmia kaupunkiteknologian suunnitteluun ja omaksumiseen.

Oulun yliopiston tutkijakoulu; Oulun yliopisto, Humanistinen tiedekunta, Kulttuuriantropologia;

Tieto- ja sähkötekniikan tiedekunta, Tietotekniikan osasto Acta Univ. Oul. B 126, 2015 Oulun yliopisto, PL 8000, 90014 Oulun yliopisto Tiivistelmä Väitöskirja tarkastelee sosiokulttuurisia tekijöitä, jotka ovat vaikuttaneet uuden kaupunkiteknologian suunnitteluun, omaksumiseen ja käyttöön Pohjois-Suomessa Oulussa. Tutkimus keskittyy ihmisten kokemukselliseen tasoon, jonka kautta on mahdollista hahmottaa kulttuurisia merkityksiä, sosiaalisia rakenteita sekä historiallisesti muotoutuneita käytäntöjä ja diskursseja. Tutkimuksen taustalla on Oulun viime vuosien teknologinen kehitys, joka osaltaan perustuu visioihin älykaupungista ja kaupunkitilaan sulautetusta jokapaikan tietotekniikasta.





Tutkimus tarkastelee aluksi uuden kaupunkiteknologian suunnitteluprosessia, ja peilaa lisäksi suunnittelijoiden ja päättäjien visioita kaupunkilaisten käytäntöihin ja näkökulmiin. Seuraavaksi julkisten kaupunkiteknologioiden käyttöönottoa jäljitetään rakentamalla malli, joka kuvaa omaksumisprosesseja. Lopuksi selvitetään Oulun pohjoisen sijainnin vaikutusta teknologian suunnitteluun ja käyttöön. Tutkimus perustuu empiirisiin, laadullisiin tutkimusaineistoihin, joiden avulla tutkitaan ja vertaillaan nuorten aikuisten ja ikääntyneiden kaupunkilaisten kokemuksia. Lisäksi käytetään määrällistä aineistoa kuvaamaan kaupunkiteknologioiden käytön kehityssuuntia.

Väitöskirjan mukaan kaupunkiteknologioita koskevat päätökset ja lopputulos ovat monimutkaisten sosiaalis-materiaalisten käytäntöjen muovaavia. Käytäntöjen taustalla ovat kokemukset samankaltaisista projekteista sekä ennakkokäsitykset kaupunkilaisista ja teknologian roolista kaupunkitilassa. Tutkimus valottaa ihmisten erilaisia valta-asemia kaupunkien kehityksessä ja tuo esiin, miten teknologia voi marginalisoida joitakin ihmisryhmiä. Tutkimus osoittaa, miten julkisten paikkojen normit ja pitkän ajan kuluessa muovautuneet teknologiakokemukset vaikuttavat uusien kaupunkiteknologioiden omaksumiseen. Lisäksi todetaan ilmaston, tieto- ja viestintätekniikan käytön ja sosiokulttuurisen kontekstin vahva yhteys, jonka vuoksi alan tutkimuksen tulisi arvioida uudelleen teknologian paikkasidonnaisuutta. Tulokset osoittavat, että sosiokulttuurista tutkimusta älykaupungeista tarvitaan lisää.

Asiasanat: kaupunkiantropologia, kaupunkitila, pohjoinen sijainti, sosiokulttuuriset tekijät, soveltava antropologia, sulautettu tietotekniikka, älytekniikka To my grandmother Hilkka For always being a source of positive thinking 8 Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank my supervisors, Prof. Hannu I. Heikkinen, Prof.

Jaakko Suominen and Prof. Timo Ojala for giving invaluable guidance, constructive criticism and providing support throughout my dissertation research. Having supervisors with different disciplinary backgrounds has ensured the richness of perspectives; interdisciplinary research calls for interdisciplinary supervising. I am also sincerely grateful for pre-examiners of my dissertation, Prof. Sarah Pink and Dr.

Anne Galloway, for their insightful assessments and illuminating views that helped me to improve my research and strengthen my arguments considerably. I also wish to express my warm thanks to Prof. Gertraud Koch for agreeing to be my official opponent.

I gratefully acknowledge the support of several funding bodies and agencies.

These include the Academy of Finland, the Nokia Foundation, the UniOGS graduate school, the Faculty of Humanities, and the Riitta and Jorma J. Takanen Foundation.

For their support for the UBI research program, I also would like to thank the City of Oulu, the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation (TEKES), the ERDF, and the companies having sponsored corresponding projects.

I am deeply grateful for several outstanding academic women who have significantly contributed to my choice of carrier by providing guidance throughout my studies and also by acting as role models. I would not have even considered becoming a researcher without their influence; you can’t be what you can’t see! Dr. Taina Kinnunen was the first one to gently push me towards the world of research when I was writing my Bachelor’s thesis many years ago. I have had the honor to cooperate with her until recently, also with one of the original articles of this thesis. Prof. Sanna Karkulehto made an indelible impression on me when I was finishing my Master’s thesis and studying media production; later, she became a mentor and a colleague from I have learnt many essential facts about teaching and research. Dr. Tiina Suopajärvi has been my closest colleague during the past five years. Without Dr.

Suopajärvi and her brilliant anthropological mindset, navigating in the interdisciplinary terrain would have been considerably harder if not completely impossible.

During my dissertation research, I have had the pleasure of cooperating with many inspiring scholars representing different disciplines. I would like to thank especially Ms. Anna Luusua for her companionship; sharing an office space with her has been like an ongoing, intriguing journey into the world of architectural thinking.

In addition, I have got invaluable lessons on computer science and human-computer 9 interaction from Dr. Hannu Kukka, Dr. Marko Jurmu and Prof. Vassilis Kostakos.

Further, I would like to thank Dr. Aulikki Herneoja, Prof. Seija Ridell, Ms. Henrika Pihlajaniemi plus many others for fruitful and always fascinating interdisciplinary cooperation and conversations.

Furthermore, I have been participating in the activities of two research communities that represent the Humanities; the community of cultural anthropologists at the University of Oulu, and the research group of Digital Culture at the University Consortium of Pori. The peer support provided by these groups has been priceless. I especially would like to thank my fellow anthropologists for delightful academic discussions in informal contexts such as Christmas parties; Ms. Johanna Aromaa, Dr.

Jenny Kangasvuo, Dr. Sami Lakomäki, Dr. Riitta-Marja Leinonen, Mr. Tim Luoto, Ms. Aila Mustamo, Dr. Marjo Taivalantti and many many others. The research group of Digital Culture has continuously reminded me of how vast the spectrum of topics and perspectives within Humanistic studies of digital technology can be. Our discussions have been vivid and atmosphere always relaxed, both in face-to-face meetings and virtually; thank you Dr. Anna Haverinen, Ms. Anne Holappa, Mr.

Johannes Koski, Ms. Pauliina Tuomi, Dr. Riikka Turtiainen and all the others.

In addition, I express my kind thanks to all the study participants; I thank them for sharing their views and time with me and my colleagues. This research would simply not exist without their contribution.

This section of acknowledgements would not be complete without mentioning that at the same time when preparing this thesis, I was confronted with the loss of a loved one followed by some very difficult and sad times. I am still amazed and humbled for all the support I have received from my family and friends. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the Northern Finnish rock climbing and freeskiing communities and especially to the members of Läskikymppi Freeride Team and Climbing Club Oulun Cave. Mountains may be ruthless but the shared passion for climbing and skiing creates amazing ties.

Finally, I would like to warmly thank my loved ones: my parents Hannele and Kyösti, my oldest sister Paula who is my mirror, and my cousin Laura who has been my partner in crime since I learnt how to walk, as well as other dear family members.

Thank you for always being there for me and believing in me; words cannot express how grateful I am for all the support and tireless encouragement. Last but not the least I thank Janne for understanding the requirements of research work and for reminding me of all the Life that is waiting for me after I turn off my laptop.

Oulu, January 2015 Johanna Ylipulli 10 Original articles This thesis is based on the following peer-reviewed publications, which are referred

throughout the text by their Roman numerals:

I Suopajärvi T, Ylipulli J & Kinnunen T (2012) ’Realities Behind ICT Dreams’.

Designing a Ubiquitous City in a Living Lab Environment. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology 4(2): 231–252.

II Ylipulli J & Suopajärvi T (2013) Contesting ubicomp visions through ICT practices:

Power negotiations in the meshwork of a technologised city. International Communication Gazette 75(5–6): 538–554.

III Ylipulli J, Suopajärvi T, Ojala T, Kostakos V & Kukka H (2014) Municipal WiFi and interactive displays: Appropriation of new technologies in public urban spaces.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change 89: 145–160.

IV Ylipulli J, Luusua A, Kukka H & Ojala T (2014) Winter is Coming: Introducing Climate Sensitive Urban Computing. Proc ACM Conference on Designing interactive systems. New York, NY, USA, ACM Press: 647–656.

–  –  –

13 5.1.3  Keeping up the high-tech image of the city

5.1.4  Pursuit of scientific innovation

5.1.5  Implications for the imagined users

5.2  Visions of the designers and urban ICT practices of the city inhabitants

5.2.1  Strategies of the designers and decision-makers

5.2.2  Urban mobility and technology



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