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«CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS Pre-U Certificate MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series 9779 PRINCIPAL COURSE FRENCH 9779/04 Paper 4 (Topics ...»

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Pre-U Certificate

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series


9779/04 Paper 4 (Topics and Texts), maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of

the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not

indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.

Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2014 series for most IGCSE, Pre-U, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2 Mark Scheme Syllabus Paper Pre-U – May/June 2014 9779 04 Part I: Cultural Topics Candidates are to attempt one question from Part I: Cultural Topics and will write their answers in the Target Language as these texts / films are to be studied primarily in cultural context (be it historical, political, social) as well as a literary / cinematic one.

Answers are to be marked out of 30 according to the criteria below:

• 20 for Content [AO3: 10 marks, AO4: 10 marks] • 10 for Language [AO2] This paper is intended to test candidates’ knowledge and understanding of a topic and their ability to use this knowledge to answer questions in a clear and focused manner. A sophisticated literary approach is not expected (although at the highest levels it is sometimes seen), but great value is placed on evidence of a first-hand response and thoughtful, personal evaluation of what candidates have studied. Candidates may have been encouraged to depend closely on prepared notes and quotations: quotation for its own sake is not useful, though it will not be undervalued if used appropriately to illustrate a point in the answer. This applies to films as well as literary texts. Texts and notes may not be taken into the examination.

Candidates will not tend to show all the qualities or faults described in any one mark-band. Examiners will attempt to weigh all these up at every borderline, in order to see whether the work can be considered for the category above.

Examiners will take a positive and flexible approach and, even when there are obvious flaws in an answer, reward evidence of knowledge and especially any signs of understanding and careful organisation. In the marking of these questions, specific guidelines will be given for each question, agreed by the examination team.

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Indicative Content Questions are open to interpretation and, therefore, the following notes are not intended to be prescriptive but to give an indication of some of the points which could be made in response to each question. They are by no means exhaustive.

1 LA FRANCE PENDANT LA GUERRE (1939–45) A « Pendant la guerre, l’égoïsme et la soif d’argent des Français représentaient un plus grand danger pour la France que les soldats ennemis. » Jusqu’à quel point êtes-vous d’accord ? »

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The question serves not to equate the dangers of Nazi invasion and French national characteristics, but rather to invite candidates to take issue with the seamier side of individuals’ behaviour during the Occupation and to consider the dangers presented by the occupying army. Of course, resistance to the Occupation was not tolerated by the Nazis, and those engaged in resistance or subversion were usually shot. Thus the resistance movement portrayed in the film operated generally at great personal cost and self-sacrifice. However, there were elements whose patriotism was weaker than others, and who sold out to the enemy through collaboration and/or betrayal. Self-interest also asserted itself through the black market. The Film examines the activities of a group of Resistance fighters in the Lyon area. Thus Aubrac’s first and second arrests, both at meetings of Resistance leaders, were as a result of betrayal, and this treachery leads too to the arrest in Paris of the coordinator of the resistance movement and in Lyon to Jean Moulin. Later Aubrac’s (Jewish) parents are arrested and deported, illustrating a willingness of some to betray the existence of Jews to the Nazi authorities. Some candidates may discuss the role of Mme Aubrac in securing her husband’s release from captivity, enabling both of them to join De Gaulle in London. This would be evidence to undermine the statement in the question.

Némirovsky, Tempête en juin (from Némirovsky, Suite française) The book concentrates on the early days of the war, before the German soldiers have completely overrun the country, thus the emphasis is on the reaction of individuals and families to the early bombs and destruction and the worsening economic situation.

The chaos of the invasion and beginning of the Occupation surprised many of the characters who are self-absorbed and continue to act as if order and society would continue as before.

A number of them reveal a lack of perspective, and demonstrate surprising arrogance/ egotism, e.g. Corte and Florence, feelings of social superiority and wealth, e.g. Mme Pericand; Charles Langelet demonstrates a fanatical avoidance of the real world, and gets killed (perhaps symbolically) at the moment when he returns to Paris and tries to resume his former lifestyle. Hubert Pericand has youthful and naïve ideas about defeating the advancing armies, but realises that defeat is inevitable when he discovers the shortage of guns and ammunition amongst the soldiers he tries to help. Theft and exploitation (Corbin, Corte) become the norm.

A strange twist of fate sees Philippe Pericand, whose priestly vocation is in some doubt, murdered by the very orphans he is trying to rescue.

–  –  –

Dutourd, Au bon beurre The satirical novel concentrates on French behaviour and attitudes during the Occupation. At the forefront are greed, treachery and opportunism of those who target first and foremost financial gains during the Occupation. There is ample illustration of rivalry, division and betrayal; behaviour is motivated by political or personal expediency; (e.g. the depiction of those who forge Resistance identities at the end of the war (e.g. Legrandier, Delahausse).

Collaboration with the Germans is both passive and active. Aspects indicate the widespread support of the Vichy régime. (e.g. En 1942...l’esprit de résistance n’était pas fort répandu et la plupart des Français acceptaient le gouvernement de Vichy. p244). Personal privation (e.g. food shortages) or exploitation (e.g. Léonie) and Anti-Semitism could also be mentioned.

B Les personnages, jusqu’à quel point se sont-ils comportés en patriotes ?

Film: Lucie Aubrac (Berri) The Aubrac couple, serving selflessly in the Resistance, and going beyond the call of duty (perhaps for personal reasons too) are at one extreme of the scale of French patriotism.

Analysis of the Resistance group of which they are part will reveal differing degrees of patriotism amongst its members: loyal chiefs of the Resistance (Jean Moulin), committed followers (Samuel/Aubrac), collaborators, traitors. Aubrac’s parents are arrested and deported, demonstrating the general wave of anti-Semitism and a willingness (of some Frenchmen) to betray the existence of Jews to the Nazi authorities. Some answers might discuss confession under duress and torture. Raymond’s escape from prison and flight to London to join de Gaulle show the commitment of the Resistance movement despite the dangers of undermining the Nazi occupation.

Némirovsky, Tempête en juin (from Némirovsky, Suite française)

The overwhelming majority of characters are not interested in the war, but are anxious to advance their self-preservation and to try to continue living as if the war was not on. Some demonstrate patriotic sentiments, e.g. Maurice who feels bitter about the Armistice; Hubert Pericand, who wants to fight with the French army, but the majority are fixated on surviving the chaos. Hubert hates his family for their hypocrisy associated with their wealth and contradictory loyalty to the French government. Answers will paint pen portraits of individual characters, most of whom are more concerned about social status and quality of life rather than the fate of their country.

Dutourd, Au bon beurre

There are few characters who behave decently and who wholeheartedly support resistance to the Germans. Those who are committed are flawed: Léon is naive and a romantic dreamer; Alphonse, his Communist cellmate, shows that not everyone who was against the Nazis held the same views. Amongst the carnival of characters feature a number of prominent representative positions: answers may mention Lebugle, whose pro-Vichy and pro-German sermons show him up to be a credulous fool; he is also a foil for Mme Lécuyer, whose pro-Gaullist stance is well-meaning but unreflective; her son, Léon, whose naïvety, wild imagination and plan to assassinate Laval serve only to undermine the Resistance movement; Legrandier who blows with the wind shows how fickle many French were – including the Poissonard, and point to how many forged themselves a Resistance identity at the end of the war. A good number are fuelled by self-interest and greed, and principles are

–  –  –

often exchanged for expediency. Perception of patriotism is telling too: C-H’s argument of the marché noir patriotique is quite false, it simply illustrates his self-justification and pitiless piracy.

The novel challenges the national myth of individual and national memory.

2 L’ÉCOLE A Comment les jeunes sont-ils présentés dans les deux ouvrages que vous avez étudiés?

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The film portrays a young man in need of structure and encouragement, but neither his parents nor the school provide the right approach. In many ways Antoine is an average boy who likes to please and have fun, but the people around him do not provide channels for him to develop his expectations and attitude in a positive way. Analysis of family life and incidents at school will provide good examples. His gradual exclusion from mainstream society can be charted through disappointments and moral decay. Education and teachers seen as oppressive, lacking understanding, no real learning or communication between teacher and the central character takes place; the rest of the class is kept under control; their natural enthusiasm has to be bridled to conform to the demands of the teacher (and adults). The detention establishment at the end seems well-populated, and suggests that the school system (and other institutions) are failing many.

School: success and hard work are not universally rewarded: the opening sequence with Antoine drawing a moustache on a picture of the teacher; the boy who rips pages out of his book without managing to write the dictation; later, whilst Mauricet recites a poem, the other children wreck his diving goggles. René tries to defend Antoine, but is thrown out of the class too. The scenes with René and Antoine show delinquent behaviour (R’s theft of money, joint theft of alarm clock and typewriter, they throw balls of paper at passers-by). Avoidance of responsibility through truancy; the lack of a moral compass.

Entre les murs (Cantet)

The children in the class do not appear to be willing or cooperative learners. Whatever good will there may have been disappears when the teacher fails to keep good discipline and lets pupils interrupt. There is a cross section of ability and motivation: certainly some are keen to advance (e.g. Wei), others make a concerted effort not to cooperate. The overwhelming impression is one of hostility, or at best indifference to education. Attitudes vary: obedience, sarcasm, a lack of respect. They do cohere as a group, and when one of their number is disciplined (e.g. Souleymane), there is outright hostility towards the teacher. Pupil expectations were, arguably, not successfully developed by M Marin, and his expectations are shockingly low. There is, however, enjoyment of learning in other lessons (reported at the end).

Pennac, Chagrin d’école

The book looks at the attitudes and expectations of pupils from the point of view of parents, teachers and his own childhood. His own feeling of identity and exclusion are echoed in the phone calls he receives from worried parents; the adults’ world is sometimes taken on by the children (e.g. Nathalie). Pupils who are failing at school have complex reasons for their © Cambridge International Examinations 2014 Page 7 Mark Scheme Syllabus Paper Pre-U – May/June 2014 9779 04 position (e.g. metaphor of onion). Teachers’ rôle is to help pupils develop skills and learning;

there are good examples of success and cooperation (e.g. Blanc-Mesnil), and how the

author develops tastes through dictations, etc. An aperçu of public opinion is also relevant:

the demonisation of youth by the media, the interest in young people of things commercial.

The book argues that we need to rescue ‘cancres’, that no one should just be left to struggle, that it is essential to try. Pennac’s critique of education is not saying that school is bad, far from it. He believes that school has saved many children from vice, prejudice, ignorance, stupidity and greed, as well as from class-bound or fatalistic families. He is offering ideas for making school better able to do that.

B A quels problèmes les professeurs doivent-ils faire face dans ces ouvrages? Pourquoi ne trouvent-ils pas toujours la bonne solution ?

Les 400 coups (Truffaut) Presentation of a stiff, authoritarian class, where discipline is harshly enforced, and there is no interest in getting to know individuals; the teacher is something of a caricature. There is no real communication between teachers, parents and Antoine. The contact between school, parents and child is always within the context of a disciplinary infringement.

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