WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 42 |

«INDIVIDUALIZING ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC INSTRUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF ASSESSMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION By Karen Salvador A DISSERTATION Submitted to ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

INDIVIDUALIZING ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC INSTRUCTION:

CASE STUDIES OF ASSESSMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION

By

Karen Salvador

A DISSERTATION

Submitted to

Michigan State University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Music Education

ABSTRACT

INDIVIDUALIZING ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC INSTRUCTION:

CASE STUDIES OF ASSESSMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION

By Karen Salvador Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to differentiate instruction so they could meet the music learning needs of individual students. The guiding questions were as follows: (1) When and how did the participants assess musical skills and behaviors? (2) How did participants score or keep track of what students knew and could do in music? And (3) What was the impact of assessment on differentiation of instruction?

I selected three elementary music teachers who had been teaching for at least eight years and were known to use assessments regularly. I observed the first participant as she taught a kindergarten and a fourth grade class every time they met for seven weeks. With the second participant, I observed a third grade, a fourth grade, and a self-contained class for children with cognitive impairments each time they met for four weeks. I observed the final participant each time she taught one first grade and one third grade for seven weeks. In addition to my field notes of these observations, data collection included interviews, teacher journals, videotape review forms, and verbal protocol analysis (think-alouds). Data were analyzed on an ongoing basis using the constant comparative method of data analysis, guided by my initial research questions and also seeking emergent themes.

The results are presented in the form of case studies of each teacher’s practices, followed by cross-case analysis. All participants used a variety of assessment methods, including rating scales, checklists, report cards, observation, and aptitude testing. Two participants included selfassessments, and one compiled all written work into a portfolio for each student. Although each teacher occasionally assessed specifically for report card grades, most assessment was consistent and ongoing throughout the school year and its primary purpose was to inform instruction.

Participants reported that the number of students they taught, lack of time and support, and preparation for performances were major hindrances to assessment, yet they nevertheless each continued consistently to integrate assessment. They disagreed about the role of large-group performance (i.e., after-school “programs” or concerts) as an assessment activity.

Although some assessments were directly applied to personalize instruction in a linear or spiraling fashion, assessment practices and differentiation of instruction were typically interwoven in a complex relationship that varied among participants. Group work—including praxial group work, creative group work, and centers-based instruction—was one way that teachers individualized instruction and also assessed the music learning of individual students.

Participants utilized a variety of presentation styles and offered a range of musical activities in order to personalize whole-group instruction, as well as providing opportunities for individual responses to open-ended high-challenge and self-challenge activities in whole-group contexts.

Furthermore, each participant was expected to differentiate music instruction for students with a variety of special needs. This study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these

–  –  –

Thanks for all the love, humor, work, help, support, guidance, distraction, empathy… I’m glad you did this first… I think you were more understanding than I was.

Thanks for all you do for me, our relationship, and our family.

You are my favorite.

–  –  –

To Betty-Anne, Bridget, Caroyln, Clint, Gina, Julie, Julie (yes, two of them), Stephen, Nancy, Nate, Tami, and all the other DMA choral folks and PhD music education students in my graduate cohort: I have been profoundly influenced and inspired by each of you. Thank you for the stimulating conversations, laughter, and support.

Thanks also to Peter, Jason, and Holly, who let me use their house as an office so I could sort through data and write in solitude, and to Aimee, Julie, Heather, and others who provided peer feedback in writing or discussion. Thanks to Carol, the staff at Eastminster Child Development Center, my mom and my mother-in-law, who helped with child care during this process. My children are happy and healthy, and I could relax and concentrate because I knew that they were being cared for by such wonderful people.

I am grateful for the support of my parents, Paula and Sam Hudnutt, Ken and Suzi Huber. They have always supported my dreams.





Thanks to my committee:

To Dr. Sandra Snow, who picked me out of a choir, believed I could do this, and started me down this path.

To Dr. Judy Palac, who has been a consistent model of supportive mentoring and perseverance under pressure.

To Dr. John Kratus, whose insights are invaluable to my development as a music teacher educator, and who is a master of seeing the “big picture.” To Dr. Mitchell Robinson, for encouraging me to see myself as a leader in music education and helping me to think critically about how I choose to create myself in that role.

And to my Chair Dr. Cynthia Taggart, who balanced allowing me the freedom to be selfdirected in my scholarship while offering critical feedback and prodding me to achieve.

Thank you for your warmth, understanding, support, and the occasional well-deserved kick in the pants.

Finally, thank you to my participants, without whom this project would not have been possible.

Thank you for your time, your openness, and the risks you took by allowing me to observe and analyze your teaching. I hope what I have written honors you--you are all incredible teachers and people.

–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………….xi LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………...xii Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..1 Chapter 1: Review of Literature………………………………………………………………….4 Assessment and measurement in music education………………………………………..5 A brief history……………………………………………………………………..5 Criticisms of assessment in music education…………………………………….10 Optimal role of assessment in elementary general music………………………..10 Purposes and types of assessment………………………………………..12 Criticisms of testing……………………………………………………...14 Summative and formative assessments…………………………………..17 Assessment and individualization of instruction………………………...19 Individual response in music instruction………………………………...21 Differentiation of instruction…………………………………………….21 Reported uses of assessment in elementary general music………………………………27 Challenges to assessment in elementary general music………………………………….33 Philosophical barriers to assessment……………………………………………..34 Institutional barriers to assessment………………………………………………35 Proposed role of assessment in elementary general music education……………………36 Need for this study……………………………………………………………………….37 Purpose of this study……………………………………………………………………..38 Delimitations……………………………………………………………………………..38 Definitions of terms……………………………………………………………………...39 Chapter 2: Review of Related Research………………………………………………………...41 Assessment and differentiation of instruction in elementary education…………………43 Implicit applications of assessment to learning and instruction in general music……….46 Summary…………………………………………………………………………51 Assessment applied to differentiation of instruction in the elementary music classroom.52 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………60 Chapter 3: Methodology…………………………………………………………………………62 Researcher lens…………………………………………………………………………..62 Design……………………………………………………………………………………64 Participants………………………………………………………………………………65 Danielle Wheeler………………………………………………………………...67 Carrie Davis……………………………………………………………………...68 Hailey Stevens…………………………………………………………………...70 Data collection…………………………………………………………………………...71 Observation………………………………………………………………………72 vi Videotaping………………………………………………………………………73 Verbal Protocol Analysis………………………………………………………...74 Journals…………………………………………………………………………..74 Interviews………………………………………………………………………...75 Trustworthiness/Credibility…………………………………………………………….

..76 Limitations……………………………………………………………………………….77 Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………..78 Chapter 4: Danielle Wheeler: Curiosity and Curriculum……………………………………….80 When and how did Ms. Wheeler assess………………………………………………….82 Types of assessment……………………………………………………………...82 Portfolios…………………………………………………………………82 Self-assessment…………………………………………………………..83 Report cards……………………………………………………………...83 Formative assessments…………………………………………………...85 Other assessments………………………………………………………..85 Aptitude testing…………………………………………………………..86 Performances……………………………………………………………..86 When music learning was assessed………………………………………………87 Scoring assessments and tracking results………………………………………………..90 Checklists and rating scales……………………………………………………...90 Observational assessments……………………………………………………….92 Written tests……………………………………………………………………...92 Methods for eliciting response…………………………………………………...93 Challenges to scoring and tracking results……………………………………….94 Differentiation and assessment…………………………………………………………..96 Differentiation in kindergarten…………………………………………………..96 Differentiation in fourth grade…………………………………………………...99 Differentiation based on the assessments of others…………………………….102 Summary………………………………………………………………………..105 Emergent themes………………………………………………………………………..105 Inquisitive disposition…………………………………………………………..105 Linkage of curriculum to assessment…………………………………………...110 Teacher behaviors conducive to differentiation………………………………...113 Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………117 Chapter 5: Carrie Davis: Chaos and Creativity………………………………………………...119 Self-Reports of Assessment…………………………………………………………….123 Aptitude testing…………………………………………………………………124 Report cards…………………………………………………………………….124 Observational assessments……………………………………………………..125 Other formal assessments………………………………………………………126 Importance of individual responses…………………………………………….127 Challenges to assessments……………………………………………………...128 Summary of self-reported assessments…………………………………………129 Assessment and differentiation of instruction in small-group composition……………130 vii Flexible grouping……………………………………………………………….130 Student-centered learning………………………………………………………130 Peer coaching…………………………………………………………………...

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 42 |


Similar works:

«5517 ANTI-HARASSMENT General Policy Statement It is the policy of the School Board to maintain an education and work environment that is free from all forms of unlawful harassment, including sexual harassment. This commitment applies to all School District operations, programs, and activities. All students, administrators, teachers, staff, and all other school personnel share responsibility for avoiding, discouraging, and reporting any form of unlawful harassment. This policy applies to...»

«TRANSGRESSIONS CULTURAL STUDIES AND EDUCATION The Room at the End of the Hall An Ombudsman’s Notebook Bette Ann Moskowitz The Room at the End of the Hall TRANSGRESSIONS: CULTURAL STUDIES AND EDUCATION Volume No: 92 Series Editor: Shirley R. Steinberg University of Calgary, Canada Steinberg, Founding Editor: Joe L. Kincheloe (1950-2008) The Paulo and Nita Freire International (1950Project for Critical Pedagogy Editorial Board Jon Austin, University of Southern Queensland, Australia Norman...»

«BENJAMIN R. KNOLL Department of Politics 462 Crounse Hall Centre College Phone: 859-238-5281 600 West Walnut Street benjamin.knoll@centre.edu http://web.centre.edu/benjamin.knoll/ Danville, KY 40422 ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, 2010-present Assistant Professor, Department of Politics University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 2010 Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 2008-2009 Instructor, Department of Political...»

«SUBAREA I—MATHEMATICAL PROCESSES AND NUMBER SENSE Competency 0001 Understand mathematical problem solving and the connections between and among the fields of mathematics and other disciplines. Successful math teachers introduce their students to multiple problem solving strategies and create a classroom environment where free thought and experimentation are encouraged. Teachers can promote problem solving by allowing multiple attempts at problems, giving credit for reworking test or homework...»

«CULTURAL STUDIES Performative Politics and Radical Possibilities Re-framing Pop Culture Text Work in Schools ELIZABETH JOHNSON City University of New York, College of Staten Island IFTEEN MINUTES INTO THE PERIOD a young man I will call Santo was embroiled in his poster project, working on the assignment for the day to reflect on his essay writing process. Lucretia (a pseudonym for his classmate), who self identified as Black, female, and selfconfident, walked into the room, leaned over to sign...»

«Managing Editor’s Note Welcome to volume four of Edit This!, a peer-reviewed publication created by students in SUNY-Oneonta’s “Introduction to Editing and Publishing” class. The journal forms the final group project in a course that also includes textbook readings on editing, editing exercises, and client projects. Four steps are involved in the making of Edit This!. First, students submit academic, creative, or non-fiction works they know will benefit from revision. Author names are...»

«Aeródromo San Isidro © Eloy Martín 2016 Aeródromo San Isidro © Eloy Martín 2016 Aeródromo San Isidro Antecedentes El 18 de enero de 19161, por iniciativa del Director de la Escuela de Aviación Militar, Teniente coronel de Artillería Ingeniero Alejandro Pastor Obligado (1877-1940), se implementó la Reglamentación para el régimen interno de los aeródromos y establecimientos civiles establecidos en jurisdicción militar. Al respecto el Poder Ejecutivo promulgó un decreto con...»

«Need Any Edition Test Bank or Solutions Manual Please contact me email:testbanksm01@gmail.com If you are looking for a test bank or a solution manual for your academic textbook then you are in the right place most of the books can send to your email right away www.testbanksm01.com http://testbanksm01.blogspot.com/ www.testbanksm01.com https://testbanksolutionmanual001.wordpress.com/ https://www.facebook.com/solutionmanual.testbank.5 https://www.facebook.com/testbanksm01...»

«20 January – 18 February Lyric Hammersmith and Bristol Old Vic in association with Kneehigh Theatre Nightsat the Circus Based on the novel by Angela Carter A new adaptation by Tom Morris and Emma Rice Teachers Resource Pack Image: Natalia Tena as Fevvers. Photograph by Keith Pattison By Tony Taylor Kneehigh photography by Steve Tanner The Nights at the Circus Teachers Resource Pack has been produced with the generous help of The Ernest Cook Trust [A] Introduction for Teachers The resource...»

«NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSTIY Echoes from the field: An ethnographic investigation of outdoor science field trips A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS for the degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Field of Education and Social Policy – Learning Sciences By Jonathan Zvi Boxerman EVANSTON, ILLINOIS March 2013 ©Copyright by Jonathan Zvi Boxerman 2013 All Rights Reserved Abstract Echoes from the field: An ethnographic investigation of outdoor science field...»

«“We All Aspired to be Woodsy”: Tracing Environmental Awareness at a Boys’ Camp Claire Elizabeth Campbell, Dalhousie University In 1945, my grandmother went to work as a secretary at Trinity College School (TCS), a private boarding school for boys in the small town of Port Hope, Ontario. She was an experienced secretary, and she needed the job: she had been widowed only a few months before, with my father barely a toddler, and they had moved back in with her parents, in a tiny house on the...»

«Doctorate In Doctorate In Prosociality, Innovation And Collective Efficacy In Educational Prosociality, Innovation And Collective Efficacy In Educational And And Organizational Contexts Organizational Contexts XXIV Cycle XXVI Course DOCTORAL DISSERTATION: The Social Adjustment In Preschool Age. The Role Of Socio-Emotional Doctoral Dissertation Competence And Teacher-Child Relationship Quality On Peer Acceptance Civic engagement in adolescent students: the role of civic PhD Candidate: Stefania...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.