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«INDIVIDUALIZING ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC INSTRUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF ASSESSMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION By Karen Salvador A DISSERTATION Submitted to ...»

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133 Informal, emergent assessment methods……………………………………….133 Summative assessments………………………………………………………...134 Summary………………………………………………………………………..136 Differentiation of music instruction for students with cognitive impairments…………137 Early Childhood approach……………………………………………………...139 Paraprofessionals……………………………………………………………….142 Social mainstreaming vs. inclusion…………………………………………….144 Summary………………………………………………………………………..149 Constructivism and differentiation……………………………………………………..149 Teacher as facilitator……………………………………………………………151 Differentiation inherent in Ms. Davis’s practice of constructivism…………….161 Collaborative, cooperative learning atmosphere………………………………..165 Summary………………………………………………………………………..168 Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………169 Chapter 6: Hailey Stevens: Assessment and Differentiation Intertwined……………………...173 When and how was music learning assessed…………………...………………………174 Report cards…………………………………………………………………….174 Aptitude testing…………………………………………………………………177 Written assessments…………………………………………………………….177 Learning Sequence Activities…………………………………………………..178 Embedded assessments…………………………………………………………181 Summary of when and how music learning was assessed……………..……….184 Scoring and Tracking the Results of Assessments……………………………………..184 Scoring Learning Sequence Activities………………………………………….184 Embedded assessments…………………………………………………………185 Necessity of individual response……………………………………………….189 Challenges to assessment……………………………………………………….190 Summary of scoring and tracking the results of assessments…………………..191 Impact of assessment on differentiation of instruction…………………………………192 Differentiation inextricably intertwined with assessment practices……………192 Differentiation as a natural consequent of assessment…………………193 Assessment as a form of differentiation………………………………...196 Separating musical abilities from academic or behavioral abilities…………….199 Data-driven student-centered learning………………………………………….203 Summary of the impact of assessment on differentiation of instruction……….208 Emergent Themes………………………………………………………………………208 Environment conducive to assessment and differentiation……………………..209 Purpose of music class………………………………………………….209 Normalizing musicking…………………………………………………212 Structuring activities with multiple response levels…………………....217 Summary………………………………………………………………..226 Overarching impact of teacher beliefs………………………………………….226 viii Chapter summary……………………………………………………………………….230 Chapter 7: Cross-case Analysis………………………………………………………………..233 When and how did participants assess music learning………………………...……….236 When participants assessed……………………………………………………..236 How did participants assess music learning……………………...……………..238 How did participants score and track students’ music learning………………………...242 What was the impact of assessment on differentiation of instruction………………….244 Tactics for differentiation of whole-group music instruction…………………..245 Group work strategies for differentiation in music class………………………252 Use of centers…………………………………………………………..252 Praxial group work……………………………………………………..254 Creative group work……………………………………………………255 Analysis of grouping strategies………………………………………...257 Approaches to differentiation for students with special needs…………………258 Differentiation of instruction for mainstreamed students………………253 Strategies for teaching music to self-contained classes………………...263 Summary of the impact of assessment on differentiated instruction…………...264 Emergent themes……………………………………………………………………….264 Factors facilitating assessment and differentiation……………………………..265 Organizational factors…………………………………………………..265 Personal factors…………………………………………………………268 The influence of instructional philosophy on assessment and differentiation …269 Continuum between direct instruction and teacher facilitation………...270 Effect of directness of instruction on assessment and differentiation….271 Summary of Cross-Case Analysis……………………………………………………...274 CHAPTER 8: Chapter Eight: Conclusions and Implications………………………………….277 Implications for practice………………………………………………………………..278 Implications for the practice of assessment…………………………………….279 Aptitude testing…………………………………………………………280 Role of performances in assessment……………………………………280 Logistical considerations……………………………………………….281 Summary………………………………………………………………..282 Implications for differentiated instruction……………………………………...283 Whole-group differentiation……………………………………………283 Groupings-based differentiation………………………………………..284 Differentiation for students with special needs…………………………284 Implications at the secondary level……………………………………………..286 Summary of implications……………………………………………………….286 Suggestions for future research…………………………………………………………287 Assessment practices…………………………………………………………...287 Performances…………………………………………………………………...288 Differentiation practices…………………………………………….….………288 Grouping practices………………………………………………….….……….288 Group work………………………………………………………….………….289 ix Learning Sequence Activities…………………………………………………..289 Students with special needs…………………………………………………….290 Philosophy/teacher beliefs……………………………………………….……..290 Applications to other music learning settings…………………………………..291 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………...291 APPENDIX A: Videotape Analysis Summary Form ………………………………………….301 APPENDIX B: Initial Interview………………………………………………………………..302 APPENDIX C: Exit Interview………………………………………………………………….303 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………305

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Table 1.1 Think-tac-toe, adapted from Roberts and Inman (2007)…………………………….

.26 Table 7.1 Summary of Findings, Danielle Wheeler…………………………………………...235 Table 7.2 Summary of Findings, Carrie Davis………………………………………………...235 Table 7.3 Summary of Findings, Hailey Stevens……………………………………………...236

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Figure 1.1 Venn Diagram, adapted from Roberts and Inman (2007) ………………….

.………25 Figure 5.1 Tom Izzo Jingle…………………………………………………………………….158 Figure 6.1 Common “Improvised” Response………………………………………………….178 Figure 6.2 Easier rhythm……………………………………………………………………….193 Figure 6.3 More difficult rhythm ……………………………………………………………...193 Figure 6.4 “Safe” answer………………………………………………………………………216 Figure 6.5 Megan’s response …………………………………………………………………216 Figure 6.6 Jada’s response………..……………………………………………………………216 Figure 8.1 Metaphor for a balanced approach to elementary music instruction………….295-296

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It is a crisp sunny day in late February, and snow blankets the garden in the school entryway just outside the music room window. First grade students sit in a circle on the gray carpet, legs crossed and hands behind their backs. They are unusually still and quiet, hoping to be chosen to participate in a singing game. Eager eyes watch as the teacher “hides” small stuffed animals in the hands of children who are “ready.” The teacher sings: “Who has the penguin?” and the child with the penguin sings an echoed reply “I have the penguin” in an accurate, slightly husky voice. The teacher sings “Who has the bear?” Another student echoes “I have the bear” in a mostly speaking voice. The teacher sings “Who has the snowman?” A boy sings “I have the snowman” in a sweet, crystalclear head voice. He stands, and the three children with stuffed animals run them to the teacher as she sings “Hide them somewhere.” The class echoes “Hide them somewhere” and then sings “bum-bum-bum” on the resting tone as the teacher quickly redistributes the animals for another round of turns.

I asked the teacher how she chose which student to give each animal, as the sung phrases

seem to be different levels of difficulty:

I was originally planning on letting the students choose the next students [to give the stuffed animals], but based on the wide range of singing abilities in this class, I decided to choose which student would sing which echo. This enabled me to give the students who had showed consistent, accurate use of singing voice the challenging (high) phrase and those that hadn’t shown as much consistent, accurate use of singing voice one of the easier (lower) phrases to sing (HS Journal 2/23, p. 2).

Several rounds of the game proceed in much the same fashion. As the children become familiar with the song, they begin to sing the prompts with the teacher. When individual children respond, the teacher neither praises nor corrects, but simply moves to the next phrase of the song in a continuous rhythm. The game continues until the teacher sings “Who has the snowman?” to a little boy. Troy speak-sings the echoed reply. Without any interruption in the rhythm, the teacher repeats the prompt, with a clear implication that she thinks he can do better. Troy smiles and sings the response in an accurate head voice. The teacher smiles and winks at Troy as she continues to sing, “Hide them somewhere” and the game goes on.

When I asked the teacher how she decided to ask that particular student for a better

response, she replied:

Many of the students who sang inaccurately I did not press because they hadn’t shown higher singing achievement in the past. If they haven’t shown that they CAN sing in tune at this point, I don’t want to risk embarrassing them by pointing it out. They may simply need more opportunities for solo singing and more opportunities to develop their tonal audiation and skill (just as a young child who speaks a word incorrectly needs more time All names in this document are pseudonyms.

to develop their speech and vocabulary without being told they’re wrong). Generally, when they’re ready to sing, they’ll sing!

I chose to press Troy because he was a student who didn’t use singing voice for most of kindergarten and then one day showed he could sing IN tune IN head voice. At that point, it appeared that he had been CHOOSING not to sing. If that is the case, I will encourage those students to use head voice and/or give them the “come on, I know you can do it!” look. I’ve also tried to flatter him a lot in the past (praising his use of head voice when he did choose to do it and/or commenting on how I couldn’t “trick him”) so that he would WANT to use his singing voice (HS Journal 2/23, pp. 3-4).

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