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«ACTA ACTA U N N IIVR SRS IIT AT IIS O L U E N NIS IIS U IN EVE RI S ATAT S U U L U E S S S U V E T T IS O OULUEN E E Katri Jokikokko Katri Jokikokko ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

OULU 2010

OULU 2010

OULU 2010

E E 114

E 114

ACTA

ACTA U N N IIVR SRS IIT AT IIS O L U E N NIS IIS

U IN EVE RI S ATAT S U U L U E S S S

U V E T T IS O OULUEN

E

E

Katri Jokikokko

Katri Jokikokko

Katri Jokikokko SCIENTIAE RERUM

SCIENTIAE RERUM

SCIENTIAE RERUM

SOCIALIUM SOCIALIUM SOCIALIUM

TEACHERS' INTERCULTURAL

TEACHERS' INTERCULTURAL

TEACHERS' INTERCULTURAL

LEARNING AND COMPETENCE

LEARNING AND COMPETENCE

LEARNING AND COMPETENCE

UNIVERSITY OF OULU,

UNIVERSITY OF OULU,

UNIVERSITY OF OULU,

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

ACTA UNIVERSITATIS OULUENSIS

E Scientiae Rerum Socialium 114

KATRI JOKIKOKKO

TEACHERS' INTERCULTURAL

LEARNING AND COMPETENCE

Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Education of the University of Oulu for public defence in Kuusamonsali (Auditorium YB210), Linnanmaa, on 17 December 2010, at 12 noon U N I VE R S I T Y O F O U L U, O U L U 2 0 1 0 Copyright © 2010 Acta Univ. Oul. E 114, 2010 Supervised by Professor Rauni Räsänen Reviewed by Professor Pauli Kaikkonen Professor Liisa Salo-Lee ISBN 978-951-42-6369-9 (Paperback) ISBN 978-951-42-6370-5 (PDF) http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514263705/ ISSN 0355-323X (Printed) ISSN 1796-2242 (Online) http://herkules.oulu.fi/issn0355323X/ Cover Design Raimo Ahonen

JUVENES PRINT

TAMPERE 2010 Jokikokko, Katri, Teachers' intercultural learning and competence University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, P.O.Box 2000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland Acta Univ. Oul. E 114, 2010 Oulu, Finland

Abstract

The aim of this research is to provide more theoretical and practical knowledge and understanding on the process of teachers’ intercultural learning and the nature of intercultural competence in teachers’ work. It is a qualitative study based on questionnaires and interviews collected from former ITE (Intercultural Teacher Education) students in the Department of Educational Sciences in the University of Oulu. The research consists of five articles and a summary part.

The research falls within the area of intercultural education. The theoretical framework of the research is based on critical pedagogy, various models of intercultural competence as well as various learning theories (transformative, experiential, sociocultural) which are seen as approaches that provide analytical and theoretical tools for understanding intercultural learning.

Phenomenographical and narrative research approaches construct the methodological framework for the research. The data have been collected twice. The first data consist of open-ended questionnaires (15) and half-structured interviews (10). This set of data was analysed phenomenographically. The second data consist of 10 biographical interviews which are analysed narratively.

The main results of the study suggest that, according to the conceptions of the research subjects, teachers’ intercultural competence is less related to specific skills and knowledge than it is comprised of a holistic approach to issues. It is perceived more as an ethical orientation to people, life and diversity, which guides a person’s thinking and behavior rather than an ability to perform something well in an intercultural environment. On the basis of the research, teachers’ intercultural learning processes differ, depending on the person’s background, living environment and other experiences. There does not seem to be only one theory that would comprehensively describe this varied process. Teachers’ intercultural learning is a process involving the combination of formal and informal learning. While it can be a gradual process affected by various life experiences, it sometimes occurs rather suddenly through crises and turning points as assumed in transformative theory. The significant roles of environment and other people for intercultural learning are obvious although individual self-reflection is needed as well. The research also highlights the importance of emotionally strong experiences for intercultural learning.

Keywords: intercultural competence, intercultural learning, narrative research, phenomenographic research, teacher education Jokikokko, Katri, Opettajien interkulttuurinen oppiminen ja kompetenssi Oulun yliopisto, Kasvatustieteiden tiedekunta, PL 2000, 90014 Oulun yliopisto Acta Univ. Oul. E 114, 2010 Oulu Tiivistelmä Tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tuoda lisää teoreettista ja käytännöllistä tietoa ja ymmärrystä opettajien interkulttuurisen oppimisen prosessista sekä interkulttuurisen kompetenssin luonteesta. Tutkimus on luonteeltaan laadullinen, ja se perustuu kyselylomakkeisiin ja haastatteluihin, joita olen kerännyt entisiltä Oulun Yliopiston Kasvatustieteellisen tiedekunnan ITE (Interkulttuurinen opettajankoulutus) -ohjelman opiskelijoilta. Tutkimus koostuu viidestä artikkelista ja yhteenveto-osasta.





Tutkimus sijoittuu interkulttuurisen kasvatuksen alueelle. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys pohjautuu kriittiseen pedagogiikkaan, interkulttuurisen kompetenssin malleihin sekä erilaisiin oppimisteorioihin (transformatiivinen, kokemuksellinen ja sosiokulttuurinen). Näiden teorioiden katson tarjoavan analyyttisiä ja teoreettisia välineitä interkulttuurisen oppimisen ymmärtämiseen. Tutkimusmetodologiana olen soveltanut fenomenografista ja narratiivista lähestymistapaa. Aineistoa olen kerännyt kahdesti. Ensimmäinen aineisto koostuu avoimista kyselylomakkeista (15) ja puolistrukturoiduista haastatteluista (10). Tämän aineiston analysoin fenomenografisesti. Toinen aineisto koostuu 10 elämänkerrallisesta haastattelusta, jotka analysoin narratiivisesti.

Tutkimuksen päätulosten mukaan opettajat eivät koe interkulttuurista kompetenssia niinkään erityisinä taitoina tai tietoina vaan enemmän kokonaisvaltaisena lähestymistapana. Opettajien mukaan interkulttuurinen kompetenssi on ennen kaikkea eettinen orientaatio ihmisiä, elämää ja moninaisuutta kohtaan. Sen katsotaan ohjaavan ihmisen ajattelua ja toimintaa kokonaisvaltaisesti, eikä sitä siis nähdä pelkästään kykynä ja taitona toimia taitavasti monikulttuurisessa ympäristössä. Tutkimuksen tulosten pohjalta voidaan sanoa, että opettajien interkulttuurisen oppimisen prosessit ovat moninaisia riippuen henkilön taustasta, elinympäristöstä ja muista kokemuksista.

Mikään kuvatuista oppimisteorioista ei näytä kokonaisvaltaisesti selittävän ja kuvaavan tätä moninaista prosessia. Opettajien kulttuurienvälinen oppiminen sisältää formaalia, informaalia ja nonformaalia oppimista. Se voi olla vähittäinen prosessi, johon erilaiset elämänkokemukset vaikuttavat pikkuhiljaaa. Se voi joskus tapahtua myös yhtäkkisesti kriisien ja elämänmuutosten kautta, kuten transformatiivisen oppimisen teoriassa oletetaan. Merkittävillä toisilla sekä ympäristöllä on interkulttuurisessa oppimisessa suuri rooli, vaikka yksilöllistäkin reflektiota tarvitaan. Tutkimuksessa nousi keskeiseksi myös tunneperäisesti vahvojen kokemusten merkitys interkulttuurisessa oppimisessa.

Asiasanat: fenemenografia, interkulttuurinen kompetenssi, interkulttuurinen oppiminen, narratiivinen tutkimus, opettajankoulutus Acknowledgements While writing this doctoral thesis has been an important learning process for me as individual, there are numerous ‘significant others’ who have made the completion of this doctoral thesis possible. First of all, I want to thank my supervisor Rauni Räsänen from the Faculty of Education in Oulu, who has always had time to encourage and support me in every phase of the research process. She has been an indispensable teacher, supervisor, colleague and friend. For me, and for many others, she has served as a model of a person with remarkable intercultural competences. She has given me the freedom to make my own choices and do this study independently, but she has always given me valuable guidance when I needed it.

I’m indebted to all my research subjects, the former students of the ITE (Intercultural Teacher Education) programme whose contributions and efforts have been of major importance for this study. Without them, I would not have completed this research.

I am also grateful for the EDGE (Education, Diversity, Globalisation and Ethics) research group members, as they have been the friends that provided me with the needed critiques to challenge my thoughts and improve my writings. In reading and commenting on my articles, they gave me new perspectives and challenged my thinking both in formal seminar meetings and in informal discussions. I especially want to thank my colleagues and friends Hanna Alasuutari, Maria Järvelä and Markku Salakka for many valuable discussions and enjoyable and smooth cooperation. Johanna Sitomaniemi-San has particularly helped me with the language in many of my articles, but she has also given me ideas on how to develop the clarity and content of my texts. As the opponents of my thesis in the pre-examination seminar, Johanna, along with Pauliina Rautio, had a great influence on my finalising the summary part of my doctoral thesis as they gave me valuable comments and views on how to make my thesis clearer and more coherent. I also want to thank Eeva-Kaisa Hyry and Minna Uitto for many academic discussions, joint writings and presentations.

I started my doctoral thesis process in the SYREENI (Marginalization, Inequality, and Ethnic Relations in Finland) project funded by the Academy of Finland. During the year and a half that I was a member of that project, I worked closely with Tanja Lamminmäki-Kärkkäinen, as we wrote articles together and participated in editing a book. I want to thank Tanja for all the interesting and eye-opening discussions. KASVA, the Finnish Doctoral Programme in Education and Learning, made it possible for me to concentrate on my thesis from 1.1.2004 to 31.7.2005. I want to thank the supervisors in KASVA for the guidance they provided me on my thesis and for organizing rewarding seminars.

I want to thank the Faculty of Education, which has trusted me by giving me the opportunity to work with the students. I have worked in various posts within the Faculty of Education during my doctoral thesis process. Holding various teaching positions has lengthened my doctoral thesis process, but teaching has been a continuous and valuable learning experience for me. In recent years, in addition to teaching ITE students, I have also taught EDGLO (Education and Globalisation) international master degree groups, where students come from all around the world.

I believe that working with that group has especially widened my perspective and affected my own intercultural learning process.

I want to express my gratitude to Professor Pauli Kaikkonen and Professor Emerita Liisa Salo-Lee for their careful and precise reading of my work, and for their valuable comments concerning my thesis.

I am grateful for my parents. Kiitos äiti ja isä tuestanne, huolenpidostanne ja avustanne yli 35 vuoden ajan. Olette aina arvostaneet koulutuksen merkitystä, rohkaisseet minua ottamaan asioista selvää ja oppimaan uutta. Teille omistan tämän väitöskirjan. I also thank my brother Antti for inspiring academic debates and discussions. I also want to thank my dear friends for bringing joy to my life and giving me energy and strength also for this research process.

Finally, I want to thank my spouse and children, who have had to be understanding towards a wife and mother whose thoughts have sometimes been far away from the everyday activities of life. Kent, Eeli and Aliina, thanks for reminding me of the most important and valuable things in the world.

List of original publictions I Jokikokko, K. (2005). Perspectives to intercultural competence. In R. Räsänen & J. San (Eds.), Conditions for intercultural learning and co-operation (pp.

89–106). Research in Educational Sciences 23. Turku: Finnish Educational Research Association.

II Jokikokko, K. (2005). Interculturally trained Finnish teachers’ conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence. Journal of Intercultural Education, 16(2), 69–83.

III Jokikokko, K. (2005). Reflections on interculturally oriented teachership. In R. Räsänen & J. San (Eds.), Conditions for intercultural learning and cooperation (pp. 183–206). Research in Educational Sciences 23. Turku: Finnish Educational Research Association.

IV Jokikokko, K. (2009). The Role of significant others in the intercultural learning of teachers. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(2), 143–164.

V Jokikokko, K. (2010). Rethinking intercultural learning: teachers’ narratives on various learning processes. Manuscript.

Contents Abstract Acknowledgements 7 List of original publications 9 Contents 11 1 Introduction: the necessity of intercultural learning and competence in today’s societies and world 13

1.1 Aims and research questions

1.2 Researcher’s pos ition

2 Theoretical framework of the research 19

2.1 Contextualising and conceptualising the research in the field of global and intercultural education

2.2 Critical pedagogy as a theoretical lens of the research

2.3 Defining teacher’s intercultural competence

2.4 Perspectives to intercultural learning

2.4.1 Intercultural learning as transformative process

2.4.2 Intercultural learning as experiential process

2.4.3 Intercultural learning as sociocultural process

3 Methodological choices during the research process:

from phenomenography to narrative research 37

3.1 Former ITE (Intercultural Teacher Education) students as research subjects

3.2 Phenomenographical a pproach

3.3 Phenomenographical theme interviews

3.4 Phenomenographical data analysis



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