«THE NEUMEISTER COLLECTION OF CHORALE PRELUDES OF THE BACH CIRCLE: AN EXAMINATION OF THE CHORALE PRELUDES OF J. S. BACH AND THEIR USAGE AS SERVICE ...»
THE NEUMEISTER COLLECTION OF
CHORALE PRELUDES OF THE BACH CIRCLE:
AN EXAMINATION OF THE CHORALE PRELUDES OF J. S. BACH
AND THEIR USAGE AS SERVICE MUSIC AND PEDAGOGICAL WORKS
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Louisiana State University and
Agricultural and Mechanical College
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in The School of Music and Dramatic Arts Sara Ann Jones B. A., McNeese State University M. M., Northwestern State University January 23, 2002 Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES
LIST OF SCORES
1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
History of The Neumeister Collection, 1 Content & Importance, 2 Purpose of Writing, 7
2. THE NEUMEISTER COLLECTION
Description, 9 Dating & Authentication, 10 The Neumeister Collection as Prototype, 14
3. THE NEUMEISTER COLLECTION AS LITURGICAL MUSIC...............15 Lutheran Church Services, 15 The Organ in the Liturgy, 16 Chorales Shared with Orgelbüchlein, 19 Liturgical Classifications, 22 Other Collections, 27
4. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE J. S. BACH CHORALEPRELUDES IN THE NEUMEISTER COLLECTION
Chorale Forms, 32 Structural Elements, 40 ii Contrapuntal Techniques, 44 Rules of Performing Polyphonic Music, 45 Pedagogical Presentations
BWV 957: Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt
BWV 1093: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen...........64 Conclusion
APPENDIX A: Alphabetical Index to The Neumeister Collection.................77 APPENDIX B: Autograph Index to The Neumeister Collection
Anh.: Anhang (“appendix”) Attr.: Attributed to BWV: Bach Werke-Verzeichnis Cadences: Cad.
HC: Half Cadence IAC: Imperfect Authentic Cadence PAC: Perfect Authentic Cadence PC: Plagal Cadence DC: Deceptive Cadence CF: Cantus Firmus CP: Cantus Planus Chor.: Chorale Coll.: Collection CU: Clavierübung, III
Mel. Chor.: Melody Chorale Orn. Mel. Chor.: Ornamented Melody Chorale Chor. Can.: Chorale Canon Chor. Mot.: Chorale Motet Chor. Part.: Chorale Partita Comp. Fm.: Composite Form Inter.: Interlude Intro.: Introduction LM4708 (Yale Manuscript): Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes LP (or 18): Eighteen Great Chorale Preludes Misc.: Miscellaneous Mms (or Mus. Ms.).: Music Manuscript Ms.: Manuscript NC: The Neumeister Collection
Table 1. Corrections in Authorship of Chorales due to The Neumeister Collection.
.......4 Table 2. J. S. Bach Chorales in The Neumeister Collection: Concordances & their Locations
Table 3. Suggested Techniques for Improvisation as Written by Christoph Raupach in His Essay Veritophili deutliche Beweis-Gründe, worauf der rechte Gebrauch der Music beydes in den Kirchen und ausser denselben beruhet
Table 4. Chorales in The Neumeister Collection & the Orgelbüchlein
Table 5. Liturgical Classifications of Shared Chorales
Table 6. Chorales in The Neumeister Collection Shared by other Organ Collections of J.
Table 7. Chorale Prelude Forms & their Characteristics
Table 8. Composite Forms of the J.
S. Bach Chorale Preludes Contained in The Neumeister Collection
Table 9. J.
S. Bach Chorale Preludes in The Neumeister Collection Exhibiting Elements of One or More Forms
Table 10. J.
S. Bach Chorale Preludes in The Neumeister Collection Exhibiting Standard Forms
Example 1 BWV 1095, O Lamm Gottes unschuldig, Mm.12-13
Example 2 BWV 1095, O Lamm Gottes unschuldig, Mm. 12-13
Example 3 BWV 1096, Christ, der du bist Tag und Licht, Mm. 38-39
Example 4 BWV 1105, Jesu, meine Freude, Mm. 5-6
Example 5 BWV 1096, Christ, der du bist Tag und Licht, Mm. 38-39
Example 6 BWV 1099, Aus tiefer Not, schrei ich zu dir, Mm. 23-24
Example 7 BWV 1120, Christ, der du bist der helle Tag, Mm. 1-2
Example 8 BWV 742, Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder, M. 15
Example 9 BWV 1099, Aus tiefer Not, schrei ich zu dir, Mm. 23-24
Example 10 BWV 1105, Jesu, meine Freude, Mm. 5-6
Example 11 BWV 1105, Jesu, meine Freude, Mm. 14-15
Example 12 BWV 957, Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, Mm. 1-2..................52 Example 13 BWV 742, Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder, M. 9
Example 14 BWV 1099, Aus tiefer Not, schrei ich zu dir, Mm. 23-24
Example 16 BWV 1093, Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, M. 10.............53 Example 17 BWV 1093, Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, M. 16.............53 Example 18 BWV 1093, Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, M. 17.............54 Example 19 BWV 957, Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, Mm. 20-22..............63 Example 20 BWV 957, Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt,Mm. 13-15...............63 Example 21 BWV 957, Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, Mm. 4-6..................65 Example 22 BWV 1093, Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, Mm. 23-26......65
Score I: Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, BWV 957
Score I. A.: Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, BWV 957 Chorale
Score I. B.: Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, BWV 957 Chorale
Score I. C.: Machs mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Güt, BWV 957 Chorale
Score II.: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, BWV 1093
Score II. A.: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, BWV 1093
Score II. B.: Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, BWV 1093
One of the most significant discoveries of the twentieth century was the finding of an unpublished compendium of German Baroque keyboard music in 1982 in the archives of the John Herrick Music Library, Yale University, by musicologists Christoph Wolff and HansJoachim Schmidt and Yale University librarian Harold E. Samuel. The collection, which was entitled LM 4708: The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes of the Bach Circle, contains eighty-two previously unknown chorale preludes by several prominent Baroque German organists including Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), Johann Michael Bach (1648Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703), and Johann Sebastian Bach (1658-1750).
Historically, it is an important compendium because it augments the number of known chorale compositions by these composers. But its primary importance is the thirty-eight J. S. Bach chorale preludes, thirty-three of which were unknown. The collection also serves as a link to
The collection also inclues three J. S. Bach chorale preludes which can be found in virtually identical settings elsewhere in the chorale literature of Bach. This is unique occurrence has changed the dating of Bach’s works, resetting early dating parameters.
It is the purpose of this study to examine the J. S. Bach chorale preludes in The Neumeister Collection as a worthy collection of service and teaching music. These works offer a wide variety of music for the Liturgy and are categorized liturgically and topically, allowing organists a detailed and complete index. They are also accessible to all levels of playing, require little or no pedaling, and are short and sectional making them highly flexible.
Tables classifying these chorale preludes according to form, other settings of the same chorale, and estimated playing times have been included for the church organist.
These chorale preludes are also excellent teaching pieces, exemplifying an array of forms, contrapuntal techniques, styles, and harmonies. Also, many adapt easily to different voicings, giving the organ student additional training in the independence of hands and feet. A table of the rules of playing polyphonic music and scores presenting the original and edited settings of two chorale preludes are included.
One of the most significant musical discoveries of the twentieth century was the finding of an unpublished compendium of German Baroque keyboard music in the archives of the John Herrick Music Library at Yale University in 1982. Musicologists Christoph Wolff, a renowned Bach scholar, and Hans-Joachim Schultz of Harvard University, as well as Yale University librarian Harold E. Samuel, discovered the collection while cataloging manuscripts bequeathed to the university by former Yale professor Lowell Mason (1792This collection was entitled Yale University LM 4708-The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes of the Bach Circle, and will hereafter be referred to as The Neumeister Collection. In addition to containing previously unknown works by several German composers spanning several generations, such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Michael Bach, the collection also included thirty-three unknown works by Johann Sebastian Bach, a discovery of great historical significance.1 The history of the collection is well documented: Johann Gottfried Neumeister (1757-1840) compiled what is believed to be an anthology of service music for the active church organist while he was serving as the second organist, sexton, and bell ringer at the Städtkirche, in Frieberg. Neumeister studied organ, composition, and theory with Steven Westrop, CD jacket notes for Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750): The Neumeister Chorales, performed by Christopher Herrick, organ (Hyperion CDA 67215, 2000), 1.
Georg Andreas Sorge (1703-1778); however, his primary livelihood was teaching German at the Latin School in Frieberg. As a part-time organist, Neumeister’s musical requirements included accessible, functional, and versatile service music with little or no pedal and few technical difficulties. Based on the watermark of the manuscript, notational characteristics, and Neumeister’s arrival in Frieberg in the early 1790s, it is probable that this compendium of service music was assembled sometime after this.2 Johann Gottfried Neumeister retired from active church service in 1831 and died at the age of eighty-three in Homburg, near Frankfurt am Main. The manuscript then passed to Christian Heinrich Rinck (1770-1846), although the exact date of its passing is unknown. Rinck was a Darmstadt court organist who studied in Erfurt from 1786-1789 with Johann C. Kittle, one of Johann Sebastian Bach's most famous pupils. Rinck was a well-known collector of manuscripts, and his estate, which was purchased by Lowell Mason in 1852, contained many keyboard works from the Bach Circle. Mason, a Yale University professor, bequeathed his collection of manuscripts to that university upon his death in 1873. Since 1873, The Neumeister Collection has resided among the archival materials in the John Herrick Music Library at Yale University.3 The Neumeister Collection contains a total of eighty-two chorale preludes.
Composers include: Johann Michael Bach (1648-1694), father-in-law and uncle of Christoph Wolff, “The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes from the Bach Circle,” in Bach: Essays on His Life and Music (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 109-111.
Christoph Wolff, ed., Organ Chorales from the Neumeister Collection: Yale University Manuscript LM 4708 (London: Bärenreiter Kassel, 1985), VI.
Johann Sebastian Bach (hereafter abbreviated J. S. Bach), twenty-five works; Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703), brother of Johann Michael and uncle of Johann Sebastian Bach4, three works; Friederich Wilhelm Zachow (1663-1712), teacher of G. F. Handel, four works; Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), teacher of Johann Christoph Bach (1671who in turn was the brother and teacher of J. S. Bach, one work; Daniel Erich (1646-1712), one work; Georg Andreas Sorge, teacher of Johann Gottfried Neumeister, five works; and J. S. Bach (1685-1750), thirty-eight works. The collection also contains five anonymous chorale preludes.5 A complete listing of the contents of the collection can be found in the Appendices: Appendix A lists the contents alphabetically; Appendix B presents the chorale preludes in the order in which they appear in the autograph.
The importance of this collection of chorale preludes is significant: of the eightytwo works, sixty-six are written by members of the Bach family. The compendium has revealed twenty-five works by Johann Michael Bach which were previously unknown, quadrupling the number of chorale compositions by this composer, and making The Neumeister Collection the most extensive source of his works today.6 Appendix C contains a listing of these compositions. Unknown works by J. C. Bach, Daniel Erich, and F. W. Zachow also increase their known chorale output. Authorship of several of the chorale preludes in the collection either incorrectly attributed to a composer or classified Wolff, Christoph, The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes from the Bach Circle: Facsimile Edition of the Yale Manuscript LM 4708 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 5.
Wolff, Organ Chorales, VI.
Joseph Payne, CD jacket notes for J. S. Bach Chorale Preludes (Yale Manuscript), performed by Joseph Payne, organ (Harmonia Mundi 905158, 1985), 19-20.
as doubtful works has been credited to the correct composer because of the Neumeister manuscript. Table 1 lists these corrections.
Corrections in Authorship of Chorales due to The Neumeister Collection ________________________________________________________________________
Number in The Composer Chorale Neumeister Collection
63 J. M. Bach Wenn mein Stündlein vorhander ist (formerly attr.to J. S. Bach)-variant version _______________________________________________________________________
Source: Christoph Wolff, The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes from the Bach Circle: Facsimile Edition of the Yale Manuscript LM 4708 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 12-14.