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«By Kirati Khuvasanond A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Curriculum and Teaching and the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University ...»

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In the qualitative phase, N = 84 students and 10 teachers. Teachers and 6 randomly selected students in each class were interviewed after the posttest. Interview questions focused on the perceived effectiveness of strategies and difficulties in learning and teaching vocabulary within each approach. As Gay (2002) noted, the element of culture, such as cultural value, tradition, learning style, and so forth also play a role in an effective instruction model. Accordingly, interview questions asked about the cultural element of teacher and learners based on the instructional model used in the classroom.

Procedures Three different techniques were randomly applied to the groups of students. See Appendix D, E, and F for description of the three techniques. A set of vocabulary, containing 16 words, was given as a pretest to all groups (see Appendix C for the vocabulary list). The vocabulary pretest was given at the beginning of the experiment to test students‟ background knowledge of those words (see Appendix A for the students‟ pretest). The posttest and questionnaire were given to students at the end of the third period of class, after they received the treatment, to ascertain the students‟ vocabulary knowledge after each technique was applied and their culture norm views toward the approach. (See Table 5 for vocabulary and approach applied to students in each group.

See Appendix B for students posttest. See Appendix L for Material used in classroom).

Table 5.

Vocabulary and Technique Applied to Students in Each Group

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All vocabulary tests (pretests and posttests) consisted of questions to assess students‟ knowledge on vocabulary in terms of spelling (See Appendix A1 and B1), meaning (See Appendix A2 and B2), and use of vocabulary (See Appendix A3 and B3).

Dictation of five random words from the list was conducted to test spelling ability. To assess the meaning of words, students were asked to give the meaning for the 10 given words. The last section on the vocabulary test asked students to identify if the given sentences (10 sentences) were correct or incorrect. If the sentence was incorrect, students were expected to correct the sentence.

A questionnaire was administered to the students at the time of the vocabulary posttests. The questionnaire included two sections. The first gathered general information about the student (name and class). The second section asked about their cultural norm in terms of the instructional perspective. The first four questions were about the general point of view in learning vocabulary with the instruction model used in the classroom. Questions 5-12 were targeted to probe the Thai cultural context that might affect students in the classroom with the approach used in the classroom. Questions 5-8 asked about the cultural concept of “save face;” questions 9-12 were aimed toward the cultural concept of “Kreng Jai” (See Appendix G for the student questionnaire).

Data Analyses A field test for pretest and posttest was administered to approximately 90 students in 6th grade in a school that has similar background compared to the research participants. The results of the field test were used to analyze the difficulty of vocabulary tested. Adjustment were made to both pretest and posttest. This analysis lead to creating equal difficulty of student pretest and posttest. A pilot test for pretest, posttest, and questionnaire was administered to this group of students. Pilot test were composed of two pretests and two posttest to find out the reliability of both pretest and posttests. The first pretest and posttest were given approximately two days apart from the second pretest and posttest. The treatment was administered in between the second pretest and first posttest. The results from the pilot test were used to analyze the quality of the pretest, posttest, and questionnaire by using a standard factor analysis methods (See appendix J for factor analysis results for questionnaire). Reliability analysis was used to test reliability level within pretest and within posttest (See appendix K for summary of pretest and posttest reliability analysis results) Adjustment was made to the questions that appeared to be unrelated to the objective of the test.

The research questions for this study were designed to identify effective teaching techniques for vocabulary learning and to identify the match of Thai culture norms with this strategy. Responses were organized in the form of a database for statistical analysis using Microsoft Excel and the SPSS program.

Student Surveys: Pretest, Posttest, and Questionnaire For the students‟ surveys, the data were organized by creating a frequency table of major themes of the survey in the SPSS program. The raw data of the students‟ survey consisted of the following: survey number, gender, instruction applied, total score in each test section (form, meaning, use), and total frequency score of Likert scale from the questionnaire.

The pretest and posttest were given to students to gather information on their vocabulary knowledge. A 2 (Time) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (Test part) repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze students‟ scores in each skill within each instruction technique. A 2 (Time) x 2 (Gender) x 3 (Type of Instruction) x 4 (Test part) Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance was used to compare score across three instructional techniques. The questionnaire was given to students in order to gather information on technique vs. Thai culture. A One way ANOVA was used to analyze culture norm attitude data from each group (technique: Lecture, CIRC, Jigsaw). In addition, correlation was used to help analyze the relationship between culture norm attitude and students‟ posttest score from each technique (see Table 1).





Qualitative Study In the qualitative phase of the study, questions were posed for analyzing specific cultural norms. Ten teachers and 6 random students from each group were interviewed.

Each interview lasted about 30 minutes. Interview questions were classified into two parts: (a) experience; difficulty, and assistance when each teaching technique is applied and (b) culture, norms and attitude.

For the teacher and student interview, the data were organized by chunking and creating a frequency table of major themes found in the interviews and entered into an

Excel spreadsheet. The raw data of student interviews consisted of the following:

interview number, gender, technique applied, and information on culture norm and attitude.

The teachers interview (see Appendix 8) and student interview (see Appendix 9) began with a question such as “What did you notice?” “What is your experience?” or “What do you feel?” to allow each interviewee to explain the environment and his or her attitude toward the approach. This section was open to interviewees to share their experience and talk about the feelings and attitudes that they have experienced in their classroom. Subsequent questions were conversational in an attempt to get the interviewee to discuss something he or she mentioned as culturally relevant about his or her classroom and its relation to the form of the teaching experienced.

The second section of the interview focused on the interviewees‟ attitude toward cultural norms according to an education perspective. This section asked the interviewee for his or her perspective and cultural beliefs. The follow-up questions for this section were intended to prompt students to talk about the difficulty (uncomfortable feelings) as well as positive experiences that happened in the class due to the culture norm and attitude factor fit or non-fit. In addition, this section allowed interviewees to explore in more detail where students found any mismatches between culture and teaching that obstructed their learning.

Implications and Limitations The results of the study have important implications for Thai teachers in choosing the teaching technique that is the best match for their students. In addition, the results aid curriculum design by fitting students‟ learning preferences about approaches to teaching into the Thai classroom environment. These results could help teachers improve students‟ skills in learning and vocabulary.

In any study, there are variables that are difficult to control. These variables present serious limitations and should be taken into consideration when interpreting the

findings:

1. This research focuses upon EFL students and teachers in grade 6 in Thailand, which may not be generalizeable to other grade levels and other countries.

2. Students in this research may have begun learning English at different ages.

3. Some students in this research may attend English tutoring class outside of school, which may influence scores on the vocabulary test.

–  –  –

This study focused on three different instructional techniques used in teaching vocabulary to EFL students in Thailand. The instructional techniques used in this study were Jigsaw, CIRC, and Teacher Centered (lecture). Pretests and posttests were completed to determine the progress of students and their preferences toward different instruction applied in the classroom. Questionnaires were given to students to gather information on the instruction used in the class and their relation to Thai culture concepts.

A total of 599 students participated in this research (288 male and 311 female).

RQ1 :What is the Effect of Three Teaching Strategies (Jigsaw, CIRC, and Lecture) on Vocabulary Learning (Form, Meaning, Use) for Sixth-Grade Thai Students?

Jigsaw To examine the students‟ achievement in learning vocabulary by using the Jigsaw technique, the data were subjected to a 2 (Time) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (Test Part) Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance with a repeated measurement on time of test (pretest vs posttest). The results from the repeated measures ANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction determined that the mean score of the Jigsaw technique applied in the English classroom that emphasized vocabulary were statistically different between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,206) = 108.28, p.001; in Part II (Meaning), F(1,206) = 395.72, p.001; in Part III (Function of word), F (1,206) = 33.59, p.001; and Overall, F(1,206) = 312.68, p.001. The results of the repeated measures between pretest and posttest of each part are shown in Table 6 and Figure 4.

Table 6 Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in Jigsaw Classroom

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Figure 4. Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in Jigsaw Classroom The results from repeated measures ANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction determined that there were not significant differences for gender when the Jigsaw technique was applied in English classrooms between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,206) = 1.

029, p.05; in Part II (Meaning), F(1,206) =.12,, p.05;

in Part III (Function of word), F(1,206) =.51,, p.05; and Overall F(1,206) =.29,, p.05. The mean score of students‟ progress by gender in the Jigsaw classroom can be seen in Table 7.

Table 7 Mean Score of Students Progress by Gender in Jigsaw Classroom

–  –  –

CIRC To examine students‟ achievement in learning vocabulary by using the CIRC technique, the data were subjected to a 2 (Time) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (test part) Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance with a repeated measure on time of test (pretest and posttest). The results from a repeated measures ANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction determined that the mean score of the CIRC technique applied in English classrooms emphasizing vocabulary were significantly different between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,208) = 33.62, p.001; in Part II (meaning), F(1,208) = 266.77, p.001; in Part III (Function of word), F (1,208) = 26.63, p.001;

and Overall, F(1,208) = 212.60, p.001. The results of the repeated measures between pretest and posttest of each part are shown in Table 8 and Figure 5.

Table 8 Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in CIRC Classroom

–  –  –

Figure 5. Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in CIRC Classroom Therefore, the results from repeated measures ANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction revealed that there were not significant differences on gender in the CIRC technique applied in English classrooms between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,208) = 2.

63, p.05; in Part II (Meaning), F(1,208) =.94,, p.05; in Part III (Function of word), F(1,208) =.2, p.05; and Overall, F(1,208) = 1.91. p.05. The mean score of students‟ progress by gender in CIRC classroom can be seen in Table 9.

Table 9 Mean Score of Students Progress by Gender in CIRC Classroom

–  –  –

Teacher Centered To examine students‟ achievement in learning vocabulary by using the TeacherCentered technique, the data were subjected to a 2 (Time) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (test part) Repeated Measures of Analysis of Variance with a repeated measure on time of test (pretest and posttest). The results from a repeated measures ANOVA with a GreehouseGeisser correction revealed that mean scores of the Teacher-Centered technique applied in English classrooms emphasizing vocabulary were significantly different between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,179) = 146.53, p.001; in Part II (Meaning), F (1,179) = 290.65, p.001; in Part III (Function of word), F (1,179) = 75.31, p.001; and Overall, F (1,179) = 349.42, p.001. The results of the repeated measures between pretest and posttest of each part are shown in Table 10 and Figure 6.

Table 10 Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in Teacher-Centered Classroom

–  –  –

Figure 6. Mean Score by Type of Skill, Pretest, and Posttest in Teacher-Centered Classroom The results from the repeated measures ANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction revealed that there were not significant differences for gender in the TeacherCentered technique applied in English classrooms between time points (pretest and posttest) in Part I (Spelling), F(1,179) = 2.



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