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«By Kirati Khuvasanond A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Curriculum and Teaching and the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University ...»

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44, p.05 and in Part II (Meaning), F(1, 179) =.24,, p.05. There were significant differences on gender in Part III (Function of word), F(1, 179) = 5.19,, p.05 and Overall, F(1, 179) = 4.48, p.05, namely females outperformed males on both parts. The mean score of student progress by gender in the Teacher-Centered approach can be seen in Table 11.

Table 11 Mean Score of Students Progress by Gender in Teacher-Centered Classroom

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Comparing the Three Instruction Methods To examine the results between instructional techniques used in teaching vocabulary to sixth grade Thai students, the data were subjected to 2(Time) x 2(Gender) x 3(Type of Instruction) repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance with repeated measures on time (Pretest and Posttest) with each part in the test (Spelling, Meaning, Function, and Overall) as dependence variables. The results from the data analysis are described below.

Dictation (Spelling) The results from repeated measures MANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction indicated that there were significant differences on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) techniques in Spelling (Part I Spelling), F(1, 593) = 9.37, p.001.

Bonferroni post-hoc analyses indicated that there were significant differences between students‟ progress as a function of instructional technique for “Spelling” (MJigsaw = 1.195 and MCIRC = 1.6), with students studying in CIRC classrooms performing higher on spelling skill than students in the Jigsaw classroom. There was no significant difference between teacher-centered and the other instructional techniques (MTeacher-centered = 1.395).

The results of the Bonferroni post-hoc analyses of students‟ spelling performance under different instructional techniques can be seen in Table 11 and Figure 5. The results also indicated that there were no interactions on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) for gender among instructional techniques in Spelling, Instruction x Gender, interaction F(2, 593) =2.221, p.05, for Jigsaw instruction (MJigsaw Male = 1.281 and MJigsaw Female = 1.109);

for CIRC instruction (MCIRC Male = 1.51 and MCIRC Female = 1.689); and for TeacherCentered instruction (MTeacher-Centered Male = 1.25 and MTeacher-Centered Female = 1.54).

Meaning The results from repeated measures MANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction indicated that there was no significant difference on student progress (pretest and posttest) among types of techniques in Meaning (Part II), F(1, 593) =.769, p =.464 with MJigsaw = 4.555, MCIRC =4.892, and MTeacher-centered =4.466). Bonferroni post-hoc analyses indicated that there were no significant differences between students‟ progress as a function of instruction technique for “Meaning.” Table 11 shows a summary of performance with significant difference indicated across instructional methods and Figure 5 shows the comparison of mean scores across instructional technique by skills. The results indicate that there was no significant interaction on student progress (pretest and posttest) between genders among instruction techniques in Meaning, Instruction x Gender, interaction F(2, 593) =.159, p.05; for Jigsaw instruction (MJigsaw Male = 4.337 and MJigsaw Female = 4.773); for CIRC instruction (MCIRC Male = 4.38 and MCIRC Female = 5.404); and for Teacher-Centered instruction (MTeacher-Centered Male = 3.989 and MTeacher

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Use of Word (Function) The results from repeated measures MANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction indicated that there were no significant differences on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) among types of techniques in Function (Part III), F(1, 593) = 2.717, p.05. Bonferroni post-hoc analyses indicated that there were significant differences between students‟ progress as a function of instructional technique for “Function” (MJigsaw = 6.957 and MTeacher-centered = 7.676), with students who studied in TeacherCentered classrooms outperforming on word function those students in Jigsaw classrooms, and (MCIRC = 7.225 and MTeacher-centered = 7.676) and students who studied in CIRC classroom out performed on word function students in the Jigsaw classroom.

Therefore, there was no significant difference between Jigsaw and CIRC instruction technique in the Pairwise comparison results. Figure 5 shows mean score of use of words across instruction techniques. The results of the Bonferroni post-hoc analyses of students “Function” performance from different instructional techniques can be seen in Table 11 and Figure 5.

The results also indicated that there was no interaction on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) between genders among instructional techniques in Function, Instruction x Gender, interaction F(2, 593) = 2.094, p.05; for Jigsaw instruction (MJigsaw = 7.01 and MJigsaw Female = 6.905); for CIRC instruction (MCIRC Male = 7.099 and MCIRC Male = 7.351); and for Teacher-Centered instruction (MTeacher-Centered Male = 7.553 and Female MTeacher-Centered Female = 7.799).

Overall (All Three Test Parts) The results from repeated measures MANOVA with a Greehouse-Geisser correction indicated that there were no significant differences on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) among type of instructional techniques when the three test parts are combined, F(1, 593) = 2.236, p.05. Bonferroni post-hoc analyses indicated that there were significant differences between students‟ progress in each instructional technique when “Overall” parts were compared (MJigsaw = 12.707, MCIRC = 13.716, and MTeacherwith students who studied in teacher-centered classrooms outperformed Centered students in Jigsaw classrooms. However, there was no significant difference between CIRC (MJigsaw = 13.537) and Teacher-centered instructional techniques in the pairwise comparison results. Figure 5 shows mean scores for Overall across instruction techniques. In addition, the results of the Bonferroni post-hoc analyses of students “Overall” performance from different instructional techniques can be seen in Table 12 and Figure 7.





The results also indicated that there were no interaction on students‟ progress (pretest and posttest) between genders among instructional techniques in Overall, Instruction x Gender, interaction F(2, 593) = 1.832, p.05, for Jigsaw instruction (MJigsaw = 12.628 and MJigsaw Female = 12.786), for CIRC instruction (MCIRC Male = 12.99 and Male MCIRC Female = 14.443), for Teacher-Centered instruction (MTeacher-Centered Male = 12.793 and MTeacher-Centered Female = 14.282).

Table 12 A Summary of Performance from Different Instructional Techniques

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Figure 6. Students‟ Progress Mean Score across Instruction and Skills RQ2: How do students and teachers perceive the match of Thai cultural norms with the three different instruction techniques (teacher-centered (lecture), Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition, and Jigsaw)?

Student Questionnaire Results In collecting data on cultural factors, students were asked to complete the questionnaire after the treatment and posttests were done. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed using correlation to examine the relationship among cultural factors and overall students‟ views of the class. Items in the questionnaire were classified into three parts (each part consisted of four questions) which are: overview of the class, the save face concept, and the Kreng Jai concept.

To examine relationships, correlation analysis was used to determine if two concepts of culture are related or if any of these two concepts are related to how students think and feel when learning vocabulary with the assigned instructional technique. The results indicated that overview of the class and save face, were correlated r(597) =.16, R2 =.0256, p 0.001; overview of the class and Kreng Jai, were correlated r(597) =.16, R2 =.0256, p 0.001; and the concept of save face and Kreng Jai, were strongly correlated r(597) =.44, R2 =.1936, p 0.001.

To examine the difference in the overview of the class and two cultural concepts between three instruction groups, the data were subjected to a 3(instruction) x 3(part of questionnaire) Analysis of Variance. The results indicated that there were significant differences between these three instructional methods, F(2, 598) = 8.19, p.001. The results from the pairwise comparison indicated that there were significant differences in “overview of the class” between Jigsaw (MJigsaw = 9.66) and Teacher-centered (MTeacherwith p 0.001, and between CIRC (MCIRC = 10.01) and (MTeacher-Centered = Centered 10.71) with p 0.001. Among these three instructional techniques, students reported more positive views toward Jigsaw than other instructional techniques. However, there were no significant differences between Jigsaw and CIRC in terms of overview of the classroom instructions with p 0.05. The results from the analyses indicated no significant difference among the three instructional groups on the save face concept, F(2, 598) =.19, p.05, (MJigsaw = 10.84, MCIRC = 10.84, MTeacher-Centered = 10.65). The results from the analyses indicated that the last part of the questionnaire, Kren Jai concept, were significantly different among these three instructional methods F(2, 598) = 3.52, p.05.

The results from the pairwise comparison indicated that there were significant differences in “Kren Jai” between CIRC (MCIRC = 11.39) and Teacher-centered (MTeacher-Centered = 10.48) with p.05. The results of the Bonferroni post-hoc analyses of questionnaire from instructional techniques can be seen in Table 13.

Table 13 Summary of Questionnaire Mean Difference Among Instructions Techniques

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*Underline indicates significant differences between two instructional technique results ** Lower mean score indicated more positive view toward instructional technique *** Lower mean score indicated lower level of concern on culture factor in each instruction Note: First three questions in questionnaire were reversed in score The Interviews: Background In using the interview as a qualitative method, both students and teachers were interviewed and asked to provide feedback on the instruction used during the experimental period and cultural issues they experienced in the classroom. In this phase of the research, there were total of 84 students randomly selected for the interview. A total of 10 teachers were interviewed with a purpose similar to the student interviews. In addition, teachers were asked to share their opinion on how their students reacted in the classroom toward the instructional technique used and the effect the culture factor may have had on students learning and participation in the class.

Student Interviews Overview of the Class In the first part of the interview, students were asked to provide feedback on the class where the instruction was applied in the experimental period. Students in the class reported 100% positive feedback on the jigsaw technique. Most of students (93.33%) stated that learning with jigsaw was “fun.” For example, students expressed their experience on the jigsaw instruction technique as “Me and my friends had so much fun working together. We talked and shared our ideas within our group.” Forty percent (40%) of the students mentioned that they got the chance to work as a team member and they believed that it helped improve their work quality. As one student stated, we did not get much chance to work as a group in a regular based, so most of the time we have to finish tasks by our own. This instruction allowed us not only working together, but also learned from each other. One-third of the students in the jigsaw classroom (33%) indicated that they liked and enjoyed jigsaw methods more than the method they usually experienced (teacher lecture) in their regular classroom. Students stated that they enjoyed the time spent with their friends while getting the task done. As one student said, “I enjoy the class which me and my friends were involved in getting the task done and not just copy from friends or from the blackboard.” Another student mentioned that they enjoyed moving around doing activities rather than sitting still in the class and just listening to the teacher‟s lecture. Other comments students gave were “understood and learned in the class” (26%), and “help each other” (26%). Figure 8 shows students‟ overview toward the class using the jigsaw instructional technique.

Figure 8. Students‟ Feedback toward Jigsaw Classroom Instruction Students in classrooms in which the CIRC technique was applied reported 100% positive feeling toward the CIRC technique.

About one-third of the students‟ feedback toward this form of instruction showed that they had fun in the class (34.67%). Twenty percent (20%) of students reported that they liked CIRC better than the usual technique where they passively listened to the lecture and memorized information from the lectures.

Teamwork and group work were other areas of feedback that students stated they experienced favorably in CIRC classrooms. Twenty percent (20%) of the students said that learning under CIRC instruction allowed them more chances to interact with their friends as a team. Sixteen percent (16%) of students felt that they understood and learned well with the CIRC technique. As one student said, “I get to apply what I learned by trying it out together with my friends.” In addition, students also mentioned that they enjoyed the time learning vocabulary in the class while getting to help other friends learn. Students noted that they learned more effectively when they got to discuss and use information with their team members. Figure 9 shows students‟ feedback toward the CIRC technique.

Figure 9. Students‟ Feedback toward CIRC Classroom Instruction On the other hand, 42.

85% of students reported negative feedback, 19.05% neutral feedback, and 38.09% positive feedback toward Teacher-Centered instruction.



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