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1.8. Significance of the study The findings of the study are expected to be beneficial to school head teachers, policy makers in the Ministry of Education and Sports, parents and other stakeholders in Uganda. Secondly the study findings will be helpful to the Government of Uganda in solving the escalating problems of indiscipline that are widely spread in most schools. Thirdly the study has helped to provide a guide to head teachers not only in Busiro County on how to manage school rules and regulations, but also in other schools in the whole country at large and has also provided preventive measures against indiscipline

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2.1. Theoretical framework This study was informed by McGregor‟s theory X and Y which is an alternative to the classical organizations theory of Max Weber (Okumbe, 1998). In this study, the application of theory X viewed a school as an organization composed of different categories of people namely teachers, students and non-teaching staff. All these groups of people need discipline as a means of achieving the desired organizational goals and objectives through setting for them rules and regulations and once broken to be followed by prescribed punishments. Theory Y on the other hand viewed a school as an organization with a head teacher able to apply leadership skills so as to gain willing cooperation from teachers, students and non-teaching staff through the use of rules and regulations set by management (Okumbe, 1998). The fundamental concepts in McGregor‟s Theory X and Y are rules and regulations, disciplinary actions mainly punishments and time management especially when administering punishments in the school.

In application of McGregor‟s theory to this study, the main variables were school rules and regulations for efficient management and administration of punishments to students who do not abide by school rules and regulations and time management that refers to the effective utilization of time allocated to individual activities in an education institution. These activities include both classroom and outdoor work such as sports, gardening and cleaning work or house work (Mafabi, et al 1993).

2.2. The conceptual framework

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Figure 2.1: The relationship between discipline management and academic performance.

Source; Adopted from McGregor‟s Theory X and Y (Okumbe, 1998 Figure 2.1 shows concepts of the independent variables as time management, observance of school rules and regulations as well as the administration of punishments. The dependent variable is academic performance. This study therefore investigated the relationship between the independent variable on the dependent one. The extraneous variables included teaching methods, teachers‟ motivation and teachers‟ qualification. Their effect on the study variables was controlled through elimination or holding them constant since they were more than one. This was supported by Amin (2005), who argued that, the effects of extraneous variables on the study when they are many can best be controlled through elimination.

2.3. Review of related literature This section is presented in three sub topics namely; the effect of discipline management by head teachers on students‟ academic performance, the effect of administration of school rules and regulation by head teachers on students‟ academic performance and the effect of administration of punishments by head teachers on students‟ academic performance.

2.3.1. The effect of management of school rules and regulations by head teachers on students’ academic performance.

According to Mafabi, et al (1993), management is the process of working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals. Management deals with the establishment of rules and regulations as well as planning activities that aim at fulfilling the objectives of a particular organization. Rules are suggested or self-imposed guides for a scientific communication for conduct or action or an accepted procedure and custom. Rules or standards of behavior can be defined as the shared expectations of a group of people. These include what the group regards as a socially acceptable pattern of behavior expected of every individual in the group (Harris, 2005).

Ideally, schools set rules and regulations for the proper governing of the various lifestyles of students containing the dos and don‟ts (Okumbe, 1998). Regulations on the other hand are authoritative orders with a course of law intended to promote order and efficiency in an organization. Lupton and Jones (2002), also concurred with Okumbe (1998), and argued that effective schools demonstrate sound inclusive practices, which includes emphasizing school rules and regulations, collaborative leadership and their good practice. The school rules and regulations therefore prescribe the standard of behavior expected of the teachers and the students.

However these researchers did not say any thing on the effect of school rules and regulations on students‟ academic performance and thus a need for this study.

According to Adams (2003), schools rules and regulation are among the strategies designed to instill good conduct of students. This implies self-control, orderliness, good behavior and obedience to school authority (Adams, 2003). Also on admission schools especially at secondary level, students are given prospectuses, which spell out some of the expectations (Adams, 2003).

These rules and regulations specify in most cases what school members should do and what they should not do. Despite this expectation, in most secondary schools in Busiro County, students break these rules and regulations with wide spread indiscipline acts such as escaping from schools, taking of alcoholic drinks, participating in frequent strikes with closure of schools and suspension of students that affect students academic performance.

Kabandize (2001), carried out a study on students control through rules and regulations set by individual schools in Uganda and observed that, rules and regulations are enforced through prefects‟ bodies and councils, disciplinary committees, teachers and involvement of parents.

Cotton (2001), also argued that the best results could be obtained through vigilantly reminding students about rules and regulations of the school and monitoring their compliance with them.

How ever it has become normal in many secondary schools for students to break school rules and regulations with impunity, showing lack of respect to school authority, damaging of school property, beating up their teachers, rioting at any slightest opportunity and even inflicting harm on one another to the extent of using acid as a means of defense. The consequences from such undisciplined behaviors may result into poor students‟ academic performance.

According to Matsoga (2003), during his study on discipline in schools of Botswana, he discovered the wide spread violence and misbehavior that existed in many secondary schools.

This lack of discipline, which interfered with the teaching and learning process, manifested itself in various ways including bullying, vandalism, alcohol consumption and substance abuse, truancy, inability or unwillingness to do class work at home. Theft was also identified as a common activity among secondary school students. An example was cited in 2003 where students of one of the secondary school in Botswana, broke into a biology lab to steal ethanol (Banda, 2004). Some of these students lost their lives, and others lost their sight. In another secondary school, a 19-year-old boy committed suicide after fighting with another student over a borrowed plate (Maleke, 2003). These were due to students disrespecting the formulated school rules and regulations that could assist them guide their behaviors at school. However these researchers concentrated on discipline in schools without studying its effects on students‟ academic performance, which called for this study.

Cotton, (2000) in his study about the modes of students‟ control in Public Schools in the United States of America, shares the same opinion and recommends an open minded approach to school rules and regulations as a way of minimizing unwanted students behavior in schools. However since most school rules and regulations are set without students‟ participation (Kabandize, 2001), students tend to resist them and at times break them leading to indiscipline acts that could result into suspension, dismissal of students that might affect their academic performance.

Salzer-Morling (2000), also conquers with Cotton (2000), and believes that, responsiveness to rules can become a consequence of how managers view them. Harris (2005), carried out a study on discipline among learners in a state funded secondary school in Oxford, United Kingdom and established that, the collapse of discipline in the classroom order, classroom hooligans was an indication of students disrespecting classroom rules and regulations. Much as Harris (2005)‟s study concentrated on discipline and established that it was declining among students, it did not focus on how indiscipline affect students‟ academic performance and hence a need for this study.

The Elton Committee carried out research on the standards of discipline in Scotland and Wales in 1989, and reported that students were cited with violence that involved verbal and physical aggression to teachers. According to Adeyemo (1985), who carried out a study on the level of discipline in secondary schools in Nigeria, established that, there was wide spread violation of school rules and regulations which was capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system. This argument was also supported by Mukharjee (1985), who carried out a study on the standards of discipline in secondary schools in Mexico and noted that certain changes signaling maturity in the course of growth and development of students in secondary schools tend to make students misbehave by faulting school rules and regulations.

These researchers however only attempted to establish the level of discipline in schools but with out studying its effects on students‟ academic performance and this called for this study The question was how does the management of school rules and regulations by head teachers affect students‟ academic performance? A critical analysis of the above studies did not provide a clear answer. Much as the researchers had studied the way school rules and regulations control the students‟ behavior in schools, a gap remained undiscovered on how the administration of rules and regulations affect students‟ academic performance. This study therefore investigated the existing relationship between the management of school rules and regulations by head teachers and students‟ academic performance.

2.3.2. The effect of time management by head teachers on students’ academic performance In a proper learning situation, a disciplined student is the one expected to do the right thing at the right time (Kajubi, 1997). Bratton and Gold (2003), also shared the same opinion with Kajubi (1997), where they argue that, a disciplined student is the one who is in the right place at the right time. However in most schools in Busiro County, students misuse time through loitering in villages and yet time is a factor for achieving success, others arrive very late for classes missing lessons, which seems to affect their academic performance.

According to Byarugaba (1991), time is a scarce resource and therefore requires proper apportioning so as to enable any organization achieve its objectives. Punctuality needs to be observed not only by students but also teachers, head teachers and non-teaching staff in an educational institution. Mafabi, et al (1993) also agreed with this idea and argued that, in the school environment for success to be achieved, the school head teacher is expected to be an example of good time management. Despite this expectation, the practice in most secondary schools in Busiro County is that, most of the school activities seem not to respect the designed time table. There was a need therefore to establish the effect of this poor time management on students‟ academic performance.

Clifford (1993), also conquered with Mafabi et al (1993), where he noted that discipline should take precedence over other activities and must be enforced. He argued further that, much of time management in schools is guided by school timetables that indicate time for every activity in the school such as teaching, break time, assembly, lunchtime and sports. Parkes and Thrift (2001) also shared the same opinion with Clifford (1993) during their study on time management in public schools in the United States of America and established that, time is a mental device that gives order to events by identifying them as successive. But in reality, in most secondary schools in Busiro County for example assemblies tend to encroach on the time for other activities an indication of poor time management. The effect of this poor time management on students‟ academic performance remained undiscovered and thus a need for this study, Docking (2000), conquers with the opinion of Clifford (1993), and argues that, a disciplined student is the one expected to arrive before lessons start and wait for the teacher. At the same time a disciplined teacher is the one expected to respect all the time allocated to him or her on the timetable. Despite this belief, most teachers in the secondary schools in Busiro County are also reported to attend lessons late and leave classes before the end of lessons. This generally seems to have an effect on students‟ academic performance. Therefore this study investigated the relationship between time management by head teachers and academic performance of students.

According to Cotton (2000), lack of discipline is the most serious problem facing the education system in America‟s schools with many educators and students gravely concerned about disorder and dangers in school environment. Poor time management, insubordination and intimidation by students result in countless school and classroom disruptions leading to many suspensions in a year (Cotton, 2000). However she did not mention the effect of such indiscipline on students‟ academic performance and therefore a need for this study that investigated the relationship between time management by head teachers and students‟ academic performance.

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