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3.6. Validity The validity of research instruments was ensured by assessing the questionnaire items during their construction. Questions were discussed with the supervisor before giving them to two independent lecturers from the school of Education, Makerere University for verification. This was to clear any lack of clarity and ambiguity. The content related validity of the questionnaire was determined by giving questionnaires to two different and independent professors from school of Education, Makerere University. These professors examined them to assess the relevance of the questions with the objectives of the study and the content validity index was computed. The formula for validity is indicated below;

Content Validity Index (CVI) = No of items rated relevant

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The content validity index was calculated basing on the different sections of the questionnaire (Appendix A). Section A had 4 valid items, Section B1 had 6 valid items, B2 had 5 and Section B3 also had 4 valid items, as well as Section C which had 4 valid items, out of the total 28 items of the instrument. The results were 0.82 indicating that the instrument was valid. This is supported by Amin (2005), who stated that for any instrument to be accepted as valid, the average index should be 0.7 and above. Since the index value was 0.82, this meant that, the items of the instrument were proved valid.

3.7. Reliability Reliability refers to the consistence of the research instruments. For the questionnaire, the researcher carried out a Test-Retest method where a respondent who had completed the questionnaire was asked to complete it again after two weeks and his/her choices compared for consistence. According to Amin (2005), test-retest or stability test provides evidence that scores obtained on a test at one time (test) are the same or close to the same when the test is readministered some other time (re-test). For consistence of research results from the study instruments, the researcher used Cronbach Coefficient alpha method so as to determine reliability of these instruments. The Formula is indicated below.

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A pilot study was conducted in two schools, St Mark School-Namagoma and Central College School-Kyengera that were not part of the sample and 20 students were selected as respondents.

The collected data was coded and entered into the computer using an SPSS program. Reliability was thereafter computed and the following were the results: Section A‟s, =0.75, Section B1‟s =0.83, B2‟s =0.83, B3‟s =0.83 and Section C‟s =0.75. According to Amin (2005), a perfect reliable instrument has a coefficient alpha of 1.00, meaning that all values close to 1.00 are reliable. According also to Kothari (2004), if 10-20 items are used, the minimum reliability value should be between 0.6-0.80. Since over the required items were used and their values were above 0.6, therefore the instruments were proved reliable. The researcher chose the above formula because according to Gay (1996), the formula requires less time than any other methods of estimating reliability.

3.8. Research procedure When the data collecting instruments were ready after validating and testing their reliability, the researcher got a letter of introduction from the Dean, school of Education, Makerere University (Appendix D). This was presented to head teachers of the school included in the sample.

Questionnaires were administered in the first two weeks of the study in October 2008 and were collected after one week. A total of 340 questionnaires were administered to students and were returned fully filled and acceptable for analysis by the researcher. Interviews were conducted a week after collecting the questionnaires with the four head teachers and the teachers in October 2008 so as to supplement the collected data. Information obtained from the questionnaire was compiled into statistical data for analysis. Continuous consultations with the supervisor were made until the dissertation was typed and submitted. An additional letter was attached promising confidentiality to the respondents.

3.9. Data analysis In this study, quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using frequency counts and frequency tables derived from the responses to the research questions. Then Pearson product moment correlation was used to determine the existing relationship between discipline management and students‟ academic performance since the study was involving two variables.

Qualitative data from interviews was also analyzed descriptively and information presented in the narrative form.

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4.0. Introduction This chapter is a presentation of data from interviews with head teachers, students as well as teachers. It also presents data collected through questionnaire given to students. Descriptive statistics, frequencies and Pearson correlation coefficient tests are also presented. The relationship between study variables was guided by research hypothesis and results are presented

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Out of the 340 respondents as shown from table 4.1 above, 139 (40.9%) were males while 201 (59.1%) were females. This was an indication that female students dominated relatively in the study. Males normally dominate females in secondary schools according to enrollments by Ministry of Education and Sports Report (2005), but in this study the females dominated due to the girls‟ school that raised their percentage in the study.

Students between the ages of 15 but below 20 dominated the study with 303(89.1%) students as shown in table 4.1 above. This is the common age in secondary schools explained by the age at which pupils in Uganda join primary section at the age of six where they spend seven years.

Senior six students dominated the study with a total of 209(61.5%) compared to 131(38.5%) of senior four as shown in table 4.1 above. This is because one of the selected schools had only Advanced Level students and this was the Cream land Campus of St.Lawrence.

4.2. Hypothesis one: Administration of school rules and regulations by head teachers enhances students’ academic performance This hypothesis intended to find out the relationship between the administration of school rules and regulations in schools by head teachers and students‟ academic performance. The researcher administered questionnaires to students and the responses given were;

Table 4.4 showing responses on how administration of school rules and regulations by head teachers enhances students’ academic performance.

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This hypothesis intended to establish the relationship between school rules and regulations and students‟ academic performance. When asked whether the head teacher ensures that all students have a copy of school rules and regulations, majority of the students 283(83.2%) agreed. These were compared with 57(16.8%) who disagreed with the question implying that indeed rules and regulations are given to students in schools. Students end up just violating some of them with consequences that affect their general academic performance as they are serving punishments.

The study wanted to establish further whether the head teachers of the studied schools are strict on the dressing code of students. Majority of the students 290(85.3%) agreed compared to 50(14.7%) who disagreed. This means that students must have uniforms in the school and when they violate this regulation, they can be suspended or dismissed which affects their class work, tests performance, examinations and hence the general academic performance.

Further respondents were asked whether head teachers maintain the required size of hair for the students. Most of the students 235(69.1%) agreed compared to 105(30.9%) who disagreed. This means that those students who fail to abide by this rule or regulation, they are likely to face a suspension or any other consequence, which is likely to affect their academic performance.

Students were further asked whether the head teachers are strict on possession of mobile phones by students, and majority 302(88.8%) agreed compared to 38(11.2%) who disagreed with the question. This meant that once arrested with a phone in the school, students are supposed to face a penalty, which could be dismissal or suspension that affects their academic performance.

The researcher wanted to establish further whether head teachers of the studied schools are strict on students seeking for permission before leaving the school compound and majority 300(88.2%) agreed compared with40(11.8%) who disagreed. This implies that any one who violates this rule is supposed to face the charge, which could affect his/her academic performance.

A correlation test was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, although before this was done, a scatter graph was used to prove whether there was a relationship between enforcement of school rules and regulation, and students‟ academic performance as shown below;

Figure 4.1 shows a scatter graph reflecting the relationship between school rules and regula tions and students’ academic performance.

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30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00

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The scatter graph above proves that linearity existed between the study variables. This is because dots were able to exist on the drawn straight line. This is supported by Amin (2005), who argued that, for the bivariate plots, results could be approximated by straight lines for linear relationships. Therefore it can be concluded that the administration of school rules and regulations had a relationship with students‟ academic performance. Further verification of the hypothesis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation test, and the results are presented in the table below;

Table 4.5 showing the relationship between administration of school rules and regulations and students’ academic performance.

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* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Results from the table 4.5 shows that a significant relationship existed between the school rules and regulations and students‟ academic performance. This is because the calculated value of Pearson.110(*) had asterisk, which is an indication of significant relationship. According to Amin (2005), a relationship exists between study variables if the calculated value for significance is between –1.00 and 1.00. Since the calculated value.043 which is between the –

1.00 and 1.00, therefore there is a positive relationship between the school rules and regulations and students‟ academic performance. Also the correlation tables flag out significance with asterisk (*) next to the coefficients (Sweet & Karen, 2003). Also as the significance level.043, is close to 0.00, there is confidence that the relationship is real (Sweet & Karen, 2003). Therefore the research hypothesis was accepted that school rules and regulations enhance students‟ academic performance. That is, as students obey the school rules, their academic performance improves.

The quantitative data also did correspond with qualitative data collected from the interviews. The study revealed that all students have school rules and regulations though students violet them. An example was cited for compulsory prayers no matter whether the student belonged to that religion affiliated to the school or not. Interviews from students also revealed that some rules and regulations are traditional and need modification in this world of science and technology. An example was cited of a rule that restricts students from possessing mobile phones while at school. Out 340 Students, 283(83.2%) had a belief that mobile phones can easily connect any body to the rest of the world through Internet since some phones have Internet access, which is lacking in many school. Since this is a school rule or regulation, many students have fallen victims and have been expelled creating undisciplined behaviors among students in schools such as strikes with their aftermaths that affect students‟ academic performance.

From the interview carried out from teachers they agreed that students‟ behaviors are controlled by the designed school rules and regulations. They also confirmed that students much as they take part in enforcing school rules and regulations, their powers are minimal to initiate change and even implement policies in the school. Students feel deprived of their rights and feel dissatisfied with the operation of their school but when they cannot do anything. Therefore to demand for change, such students resort to aggressive behaviors as a solution to their demands from school administrators. Such misbehaviors could involve damaging school property like classes, library, dormitories and others and this may end up harming students‟ academic performance.

The study also revealed students thinking about some regulations in some schools, which are very unfair and their administrators. For examples in some schools students have to report when they have fully paid all the school dues. Students mentioned that schools have gone a step ahead by printing the total amounts of fees in the pay slips avoiding parents to pay in installments.

Students think that such a policy is very unfair to poor parents and their children since they are likely to miss beginning of term exams. Thus the academic performance of such students is likely to be affected as results for beginning of term are computed with final term exam results.

Research also revealed that some school rules and regulations lack consistence in their implementation. Out of 340 Students, 278(81.2%) were able to identify regulations such as students are supposed to get entertainment such as watching television on weekends. However to their dismay many of the school administrators never respect such a regulation. As if this is not enough, schools lack enough forums for learners to channel their grievances and attempts by learners to express their grievances are in some cases not responded to adequately. This could easily spark off students‟ aggressive behaviors with their consequences that involve damages and vandalisms of school property that eventually affects students‟ academic performance.

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