«THE INFLUENCE OF DISCIPLINE MANAGEMENT BY HEAD TEACHERS ON STUDENTS’ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED PRIVATE SECONDARYSCHOOLS OF BUSIRO COUNTY IN ...»
5.0. Introduction This chapter is basically a discussion of the major findings of the study in chapter four in respect to the hypothesis and research questions and review of the relate literature. Conclusions and recommendations are also given.
5.1. Discussion of findings 5.1.1. Hypothesis one: The administration of school rules and regulations by head teachers enhances students’ academic performance.
The results revealed that teachers, students as well as head teacher agreed that all schools under study had well stipulated school rules and regulations. Students as well as teachers agreed that every student in the studied schools get a copy of school rules and regulations.
All the four head teachers of the studied schools agreed that all schools have school rules and regulations to act as a guiding principle for controlling students‟ behavior. These head teachers agreed with Okumbe (1998), who argued that ideally schools set rules and regulations for the proper governing of the various lifestyles of the students containing the dos and don‟ts. Adams (2003), also supports this argument by saying that, school rules and regulations are among the strategies designed to instill good conduct of students such as self control, orderliness, good behavior and obedience to school authority.
Both teachers and students also agreed that students take part in making of school rules and regulations. Head teachers agued that discipline management is a collective responsibility and therefore needs every ones‟ participation and thus an involvement of students This was also supported by Mafabi, et al (1993), who argued that management is a process of working with and through people so as to accomplish organizational goals. Through an interaction with head teachers it was discovered that through participatory management and leadership, students are able to realize mistakes from their fellow members and therefore work hard to stop them such as strikes rather than blaming the school administration when they are not involved.
Students agreed that their head teachers are strict on the dressing code where a uniform is compulsory. Some students however have been victimized over the abuse of the dressing code and thus been suspended along with other punishments making them to miss classes, tests, discussions and exam and thus developing aggressive behaviors. According to Shapiro (2002), most student strikes are directed at harming the school administration and are precipitated by hostile aggression. These behaviors are always characterized by the intense and disorganizing emotion of anger aiming at inducing certain stimuli. Such behaviors end up affecting students‟ performance in classes, their participation in class debates and class discussions and thus affecting their general academic performance.
The study also revealed that some school rules and regulations required modification so as to avoid them being so traditional to students. An example was given were students thought that today the world being a global village where communication is being made easy, they think that the regulation that restricts them from possessing mobile phones while at school by head teachers, seem to be very unfair. Students cited out that mobile phones are an easy way to be connected to the rest of the world since the have Internet from where they can access a lot of information that can assist them academically in addition to communication. They cited a great number of their friends who had fallen victims of the violation of this regulation resulting to their expulsion making many to be frustrated and react aggressively. This argument was supported by Bennaars (1993), who researched on the causes of aggressive behavior in education institutions in Kenya and discovered frustration to be among these causes. He noted that when a specific goal is thwarted, frustration is likely to result, increasing ones‟ probability to become angry and then soon act aggressively.
In addition students confirmed in an interview with the researcher that some rules and regulations lack consistence in their implementation. Students cited an example were they have a regulation that every weekend, they are entitled to entertainment. However this is very rare and thus making many students develop frustrations. For example students in one of the studied schools mentioned watching Television Films. In another school, students mentioned of having sports and games but for unspecified reasons they rarely have this entertainment. This was found to be one of the causes of misbehavior among students as they are trying to make the school administrators look for a solution or as a way of voicing out their dissatisfaction. This argument from the students was also supported by Berkowitz (1989), who explained that students are likely to become openly aggressive to some one expected to be blocking them from attaining their goals such as denying them sports and games.
The study also discovered through an interview with the students that some rules and regulations in schools are very unfair such as having all the school fees paid before students report to school at the beginning of school terms. They mentioned many of their friends who always end up missing beginning of term exams since their parents cannot afford paying all the school dues before they report to school. Students said that schools have gone a step ahead by printing fees in the pay slips using computers and thus avoiding installment payments. This may cause violence in schools as a way of students making the school administrators to change their policies.
According to Shapiro (2002) in Mpaata (2008), violence in education institutions may be methodical or random, sustained or fleeting, intensive or uncontrolled. It always harms or destroys the recipient or is intended to make administrators to initiate reform.
5.1.2. Hypothesis two: The observance of time management by head teachers enhances students’ academic performance This research hypothesis was meant to investigate how time management by head teachers affects students‟ academic performance. The researcher wanted to find out the way time is allocated to the different school activities and how this affected students‟ academic performance.
The findings are presented below;
Majority of the students in the studied schools agreed that despite the presence of a welldesigned timetable, at times the school activities do not respect it. They were also in line with their teachers who contended that all school activities are supposed to be guided by a welldesigned school timetable though this is not the case at times. They argued that every activity is allocated time. This argument is supported by who also Kajubi (1997), who also concurred with Byarugaba (1991), that time is a scarce resource and therefore requires proper apportioning so as to enable educational institutions or organizations achieve their objectives. Parkes and Thrift (2001), also supported this argument and observed that time is a mental device that gives order to events by identifying them as successive. Students gave an example of school assemblies, games and sports, cleaning or house work that do not use their stipulated time and end up encroaching on time for other activities such as lessons. This affects class time, debating time, as well as discussion time and thus affecting students‟ academic performance.
Head teachers confirmed that timetables do exist and they are the ones supposed to be controlling all the school activities. However these head teachers confirmed that in reality it is hard to respect the allocated time on the timetable at all times. An example was mentioned where at times meals are served late due to inescapable problems such as lack of flowing tap water where students have to participate and collect it from wells or when the supplied fire wood is not well dried which delays the cooking. Head teachers mentioned that delaying of only one activity may end up affecting the whole timetable and this could cause chaos in the school as it can cause a strike that affects students‟ performance as much of the school property is destroyed.
Teachers and students all confirmed that students do not enter their classes and begin their lessons on time. Their head teachers also agreed that on average students do not enter their classes and begin their lessons on time. This is already indiscipline as mentioned by head teachers. This was also supported by Docking (2000), who conquered with the opinion of Clifford (1993), who argued that a disciplined student is the one expected to arrive before lessons start and wait for the teacher. Some of the head teachers argued that some days, it becomes inevitable to enter a bit late such as Monday when students have the assembly. Head teachers argued that though it could be allocated time on the timetable like 40 minutes, at times it exceeds and thus encroaching on students‟ class time. Some times measures are put in place to recover this time like adjusting the day‟s timetable, which affects the whole day‟s activities such as class time, discussion time for students, time for tests. This however creates dissatisfaction among students that causes violence in school and thus affecting students‟ general academic performance.
Majority of the teachers confirmed that their head teachers are always not punctual on average.
Students agreed with their teachers that the head teachers of the studied schools are always not punctual on average an indication of being poor time managers. They were also supported by Kajubi (1997), who argued that punctuality needs to be observed not only by the students, but also by teachers, non-teaching staff as well as the head teachers. He further argued that head teachers need to be the role model of discipline if they are to instill it in the young generation.
This argument was also supported by Mafabi, et al (1993) who also agreed that, in the school environment for success to be achieved, the school head teacher is expected to be an example of good time manager and therefore expected to be punctual on average. However this study established poor time management in schools from head teachers. This means that any judgment carried out by the teachers in absence of the head teachers could end up in total chaos in schools with violence that also could cause massive damages which affects student‟s academic performance.
5.1.3. Hypothesis three: The administration of punishments by head teachers enhances students’ academic performance.
This research hypothesis was meant to investigate how the administration of punishments by head teachers affects students‟ academic performance. The researcher wanted to find out the way punishments are administered to students and how this affected students‟ academic performance.
The findings are presented below;
A great number of teachers agreed that students are punished for the right cause. Teachers had a strong belief in the effectiveness of punishment as a way of safeguarding discipline. They were also supported by Horny (1993), who argued that punishment should not be a source of merriment, but should be made to fit the crime. Teachers contended that good behavior could only come about after several punishments, corrections and advises as well as counseling. They listed the various forms of punishments that are commonly used that included canning, hard labor, demotions, removal of privileges, cleaning the compound and toilets, washing the floor, suspension from school, to mention but a few.
Majority of the students confirmed that they are punished for the right cause though at times they are not and in addition the punishments are very hard and excessive where teachers put in some bit of cruelty and brutalism. Students therefore after developing anger, join together and show openly their dissatisfaction to school administrators through the language which they think is understandable for appropriate change and this involves striking which affects student‟s academic achievements. This argument was also supported by Mpaata (2008) who noted that an aversive event produces a negative effect to psychological discomfort. For example once some one develops the feeling that he /she has not been rewarded fairly, a variety of feelings, thought, and memories associated with fear (flight) and anger (fight) tendencies. He further said that some students might quickly act on the basis of these emotions and thus engaging in violence that affects not only their class performance but also the general performance as well.
Head teachers also confirmed that much as punishments had long lasting effects on students, students at times are not given punishments for the right cause. Head teachers believed that punishments that followed any misconduct were painful experiences that tended to weaken the existing connection between the stimulus and the response. This would help to reduce on the chances of punished students from repeating such behaviors. They were also supported by Cotton (2000), who argued that punishments are necessary as long as they are free from harshness and caprice. Head teachers further said that punishments should be neutral and the personal factor should be non-existence.
The argument was also in line with Cotton, et al (2000), who noted with concern that, in the school system, punishments are expected to teach students the relationship between their behaviors and the outcome or accountability for their mistakes. They argued further that punishments could be an effective means of remediating individual behavior and therefore improving school order if they commensurate with the offence committed. Therefore since at times these punishments are not given for the right cause, students could develop a state of discomfort that might lead into violence that affects students‟ academic performance.
Through interviewing with the head teachers, the researcher found out that in schools some teachers end up punishing students severely because they were also brought up in schools where caning was a culture of maintaining discipline and therefore attributes their success to the type of authoritarian discipline to which they were subjected while still in schools. Such teachers would also want to bring up their students in the same way and thus end up punishing students for almost every offence. This could end up generating anger among students prompting them to engage in acts of indiscipline, which could involve school property damage, and vandalism that affects students‟ academic performance.