«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»
The International Institute
of Teacher’s College, Columbia University
The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College,
Columbia University, was established in 19:23 to carry
out the following objects: (1) to give special assistance and guidance to the increasing body of foreign
students in Teachers College; (2) to conduct investigations into educational conditions, movements, and
tendencies in foreign countries; (3) to make the results of such investigations available to students of
education in the United States and elsewhere in the hope that such pooling of information will help to, promote and advance the cause of education.
The members of the staff of the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE, who at the same time are members of the
University faculty, are:
PAUL MONROE, Ph.D.. I.L.D., Director GEORGE S. COUNTS, Ph.D., Associate Director I. L. KANDEL, Ph.D., Associate THOMAS ALEXANDER, Ph.D., Associate LESTER M. WILSON, Ph.D., Associate MILTON C DEL MANZΟ, Ph.D., Associate RUTH E. MCMURRY, Ph.D., Associate
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYBY JULIUS KORNÍS, PH.D.
Member of Parliament; formerly Under-Secretary of State in the Hungarian Ministry of Public Instruction, Professor of Philosophy in the University of Budapest
BUREAU OF PUBLICATIONSTeachers College, Columbia University
NEW YORK CITYCopyright, 1932, by TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Printed in the United States of America by }. J. LITTLE AND IVKS COMPANY, NEW YORK PREFACE The International Institute is pleased to make available for the first time in English a full account of the history and present system of Hungarian education from the vivid and scholarly pen of Professor Kornis. Long connected with the administration of Hungarian education, Professor Kornis is now the recognized historian of Hungarian educational affairs.
This history is of significance to Western students for a variety of reasons. Few have been familiar with the development of Hungarian education, and, consequently, few have been conscious that this evolution possesses all the richness of the history of education of Western European peoples. In some respects it parallels the development of education of more Western countries.
In some respects it forms but a part of the development of the West.
Developments in the monastic cathedral burgher school and early university paralleled similar developments farther west;
that the Renaissance and Reformation affected Hungary as intimately as they affected the Germanic countries of central Europe was less to be expected. That Comenius worked, taught, and wrote in Hungary as well as in Bohemia is well known, but that the Ratio Educationis of 1777 is one of the outstanding documents of the historic development of education is not so generally known. Professor Kornis has performed a real service in making known the significance of this document. But for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in general, education follows the course of government in Hungary as well as elsewhere. Progressive when government is progressive, revolutionary with reactionary government, the history of education in Hungary forms an interesting and instructive parallel to government, politics, and thought life in general. Reaction followed too soon after the Ratio of 1777 to allow its ideas of universal instruction, free instruction, practical instruction to become valid, or, in fact, similar ideas of later reform movements. Reaction again follows after the Napoleonic period and after the revolution of the PREFACE VI middle of the century. From the nineteenth century this close relationship of education to social and political reform or reaction constitutes the chief value of the historical analysis. The more detailed account of the present system has its value in that such information is not available in English elsewhere.
While the status of education and the plan of educational and political leaders since the Great War are entitled to a clearer and more definite meaning than they have had hitherto, American students and the International Institute owe a debt of gratitude to Professor Kornis for this scholarly treatise.
Progress of the Education of Girls in Hungary—-The Principles of the Reform of 1926—The Act of 1926—Colleges for Girls —The Curricula of Girls' Schools: The Girls' Gymnasium, The Girls' Lyceum, The Girls' College
I. TRAINING OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS
II. TRAINING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Development of Normal Schools—Task of the Normal School—Curriculum— Qualifying of Teacher?*—Teachers, Administration and Supervision of State Normal Schools III. TRAINING OF TEACHERS FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLS
Organization—Curriculum—The Practice School—Qualifying of Teachers—Training of Teachers for Normal Schools IV. TRAINING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
The Training Institutions—Examinations V. TRAINING OF TEACHERS FOR HIGHER COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS…………. 234 XI CONTENTS
THE MIDDLE AGES AND THE RENAISSANCEIn Hungary schools were first established at the time when, around 1000, the Hungarian nation embraced the Christian faith and St. Stephen made Hungary a kingdom. Beginning with the eleventh century, there were in Hungary, as in the West, monastic, cathedral, and cloistral schools. First the Benedictines, then later the Cistercians, the Premonstratensians, the Augustinians, the Franciscans, and the Dominicans transplanted the European school system into their Hungarian convents; the cathedral and cloistral priests also maintained schools after the Western style, in which they taught the seven liberal arts (artes liberales)— grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy. During the thirteenth century city schools arose.
Historical research shows 275 city and village schools up to the year 1541. With the development of Hungarian social life the necessity for schools of higher learning came to the fore, and after the style of the University of Bologna, the University of Pécs was founded in 1567, which in point of time is the second university in central Europe after the University of Prague, founded in 1384. There are historical traces of a university in Ó Buda also (1389).
The frequent contacts with Italy made during the reign of the Anjou kings in the fourteenth century exercised a great influence upon the development of Hungarian culture. Among European countries the effect of Italian humanism made its first appearance in Hungary. Many young Hungarians studied in the universities at Padua and Bologna. The leading men of the Italian
2 EDUCATION IN HUNGARYRenaissance were in constant and direct touch with Hungarian church dignitaries and lords. Poggio dedicated two of his works to John Hunyady, governor of the nation and defender of Christianity against the Turks. King Matthias is an extraordinary representative of the Italian Renaissance; he surrounded himself with humanist scholars, erected magnificent palaces, and collected a wonderful library. His example was followed by Hungarian churchmen who studied especially in Italy; their courts became the home of humanistic culture. They were in constant communication with Italian humanists, who came to Hungary in great numbers. The famous Georgios Trapezuntios and Joannes Argyropulos dedicated certain of their works to Archbishop John Vitéz. One of the greatest Latin poets of the Renaissance, the Pécs.
Hungarian Janus Pannonius, was Bishop of Italian Platonism found enthusiastic followers in King Matthias and his court.
Besides studying in the universities of Italy, Hungarian students studied at Crakow and Vienna, especially. Their number in the university at Vienna during the fourteenth century was so great that they were enabled to organize themselves into a special student body called the Natio Hunganca. King Matthias in 1467 organized a university of four faculties (stúdium generale) at Pozsony, in which the very ablest scholars were employed to teach, among them the German astronomer, Joannes Regiomontanus, known throughout Europe as the inventor of many astronomical instruments and the one who introduced tangents into trigonometry and whom Matthias had previously called to Buda to arrange the Greek manuscripts that he had obtained after the capture of Constantinople. However, this Academia Istropolitana at Pozsony, through which Hungary was linked to European learning, died out toward the close of Matthias' reign. But Italian humanism had struck its roots too deep into Hungary to disappear at once with the king's death.
In 1497 there was founded the Danubian Society oj Scholars, which, under the leadership of John Vitéz the Younger, united the humanists of Vienna and Buda. The rule of weak kings, the advance of the Turks, and the tragedy of Mohács (1526) soon put an end to the renaissance of Hungarian culture. In the succeeding century and a half the finest of the nation's youth fell upon the battlefield in the struggle against the Turks.
THE REFORMATION PERIODIn Hungary, as in Europe generally, the Reformation gave a great impetus to the development of education. Protestantism spread rapidly in.Hungary, too. At first it was the German cities of Hungary that adopted the new faith, and the Lutheran form of the new faith; but very soon Magyars, particularly the pure stock living beyond the Tisza, embraced the faith of John Calvin in enormous numbers. Protestant cities and Protestant magnates seemed to vie with one another in the founding of schools. Their system and spirit were modelled on those of the Protestant schools of Germany. This fact is readily understood, since at about this time Hungarian students were studying in great numbers at German universities and other institutions of higher learning (Wittenberg, Basel, Heidelberg, Strassburg, Halle, etc.). In the sixteenth century more than a thousand Hungarians attended the University of Wittenberg. It is natural, therefore, that from the academic centres of German Protestantism they should have brought with them the academic and disciplinarian systems of the German schools, especially the spirit of the system of Sturm. In the organization and rules of contemporary Protestant Hungarian schools we can at once discover the German influence. The effect of this was heightened, moreover, by the fact that many German teachers found employment in Hungarian schools.
The cultural ideal of German Protestant humanism readily became common in the Latin schools of Hungary. Religion and the classics constituted the curriculum in the main. Melancthon strongly propagated his humanistic tendency, not only through personal contact with Hungarian students, but also through his textbooks. His Latin and Greek grammar and rhetoric were widely used as textbooks in Hungary. In logic the dialectics of Sturm was used. Of the classics, Hungarian schools read the Letters and Orations of Cicero (the edition of Sturm), especially his Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Archia Poeta, and his Pro Sex. Roscio Amerino. Of his philosophical works, the De Officiis was used.
We frequently find among the Latin readings such writers as Vergil, Terence, Cato, and Erasmus. As Protestantism returned to the Greek text of the Scriptures, the teaching of Greek found a place, after the German style, in the curriculum of Hungarian
4 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY(Aesop, Lucián, Isocrates, Protestant schools Hesiod, Homer, and the Greek text of the New Testament).
THE COUNTER-KEFORMATION—THE JESUITS AND PIARISTSProtestant schools, without a doubt, aided in a great measure the spread and development of the Reformation. The Catholic schools, on the other hand, for a time almost entirely receded into the background. The great church estates came under the yoke of the Turks; the monasteries and bishoprics maintaining schools were destroyed; the number of the priests greatly decreased; and the lower clergy were unschooled. Thus a large proportion of the Catholic schools were ruined. It was only several decades after the battle of Mohács that Catholics awakened, and, seeing the success of Protestant schools, realized the far-reaching significance of education. The laws of 1548, 1550, and 1560 thus repeatedly declared that the revenues of abandoned monasteries and bishoprics should be appropriated for the founding of schools, the care of teachers, and the education of priests. Catholic churchmen clearly saw that the chief strength of the new faith lay in its well-organized schools.
They consequently availed themselves of the same weapon, organizing new schools and reviving old ones. It was in this way, and with the backing of the Catholic royal powers, that they protected themselves against the new faith and began the Counter-Reformation.
This was set afoot by Nicholas Oláh, Archbishop of Esztergom (1493-1568), who grew up in the classical atmosphere of the humanists in the early part of the sixteenth century and who even later kept in close touch with humanists and corresponded with Erasmus. It is comprehensible, therefore, why in the Gymnasium founded by him at Nagyszombat in 1554 the study of classical writers (Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Terence, Cicero, Quintilian, Livy, Sallust, and Caesar) should have been so greatly emphasized. Since very many of the young men of noble birth were educated in the family circle, Oláh endeavoured to supplant the inferior private tutoring by organizing public education. The training of an educated clergy and a faithful Catholic intellectual class could be accomplished only by way of organized public schools and Gymnasiums. And, as the best Catholic educators in Europe at that time were the Jesuits, in 1561 he