«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»
The course of study includes (a) in physics and chemistry— air, water, fire, metals, deterioration, and important organic compounds in the fifth year; in the sixth year, the general characteristics of bodies, the simple laws of mechanics with reference PUBLIC EDUCATION 57 to solids, liquids, and gases, principal laws of heat, sound, light, and the application of magnetism and electricity in everyday life; (b) in natural history, economics, and home economics in the third year, the study of fruits, domestic animals, and observations in the garden; ventilation, heating and lighting the home, and cleaning clothes; in the fourth year, a study of the produce of the soil and practical work in the garden, care of linen, washing; in the fifth grade the care of the soil, trees, minerals, bees, growing and protecting trees, diet, and simple foods; in the sixth year, a comprehensive study of vegetables, grains, plants, and animals of other lands, co-operative stores, farming, production, and diet for children and the sick.
7. The aim of instruction in drawing is to develop manual skill, observation, and judgment, and the use of drawing as a medium of expression, and to stimulate and foster the sense of form and color.
Its course of study consists of exercises in line drawing, observational drawing, and decoration' distributed in graded form through the grades. Playful and explanatory drawings are used in every case.
8. The purpose of musical instruction is to impart a knowledge of valuable Hungarian songs; to instil a liking for the Hungarian song, stimulate the musical sense, and cultivate the voice; to deepen the aesthetic sense, religious and patriotic feeling, and the social mind.
Its course of study from the first to the third grade consists of simple songs and from the third to the sixth year, of the reading of notes, of the study of time and rhythm, and two-part melody.
9. The objective of instruction in handwork is to satisfy the child's desire for activity and to divert it into proper channels, to develop manual skill, eye measurement, and a sense and taste for form, and to teach pupils how to do the most necessary common work.
The content of instruction in the first and second years consists of playful occupation with paper and clay; from the third year on the children are separated according to sex, the boys continuing to make useful objects out of paper and clay and the girls sewing, crocheting, and knitting.
10. The aim of physical training is to develop the health, 58 EDUCATION" IN HUNGARY
A. Schools using the minority language, where teaching of the Hungarian language is a prescribed subject, but all other subjects are taught in the mother tongue.
B. Mixed schools using Hungarian and the minority tongue, in which the minority language, natural and economic sciences, drawing, and handwork are taught in the mother tongue, and Hungarian, geography, history, and physical training must be taught in Hungarian, while arithmetic and music are taught in both languages.
C. Schools using Hungarian, in which the minority tongue is an ordinary and prescribed subject.
In 1929 these three types were divided as follows among the
various national minorities:
Continuation Schools The law provides for a three-year continuation course following the six years in an elementary school for concentrating and supplementing the work of the latter school. From the point of view of national education, the continuation school is very important, for only 5 per cent of those completing the elementary school continue their studies in higher institutions; the others can be educated further only in continuation schools. Boys and girls between the ages of twelve and fifteen are particularly in need of moral guidance and instruction.
Since the World War, the schooling of children has received a significant impetus as a result of the Act of 1921; and the effect of the Act is also to be felt upon the continuation schools. In the year 1924-1925 there were 178,048 children attending general continuation schools and 98,346 attending agricultural continuation schools.
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYThese types of schools exist throughout the country. Their curriculum is determined by law. Four hours of teaching per week are required in agricultural continuation schools during the months of September, October, April, May, and June, and seven hours during the other months. The school is divided into three grades with a preparatory class where conditions require.
The subjects fall into two groups:
a. General subjects—religion, reading, geography, history, hygiene, spelling, and grammar, arithmetic for boys and girls in all grades; natural sciences for boys and girls in the second and third grades; geometry and civics only for boys in every grade; care of babies for girls in the first and second grades.
b. Agricultural subjects in all grades—(1) For boys: I. Care of the soil, vegetation, and animal husbandry; II. Farm vegetation, cattle and horse breeding, gardening, fruit-growing, apiculture, sericulture; III. Husbandry, pig and sheep breeding, fruit-growing, forestry, apiculture, sericulture, and agricultural industries. (2) For girls: I. Gardening and growing of medicinal plants, vegetables, dairy farming, housekeeping, and needlework, sericulture; II. Gardening, poultry farming, dairy farming, housekeeping, needlework, sericulture; III. Gardening, poultry fanning, pig breeding, dairy farming, housekeeping, needlework, and sericulture.
Two hours a week are to be devoted to the agricultural and the rest to the general subjects; in preparing the schedule local conditions are to be considered.
Children's Societies Children's Societies exist in connection with public schools to train adolescent boys and girls along religious and patriotic lines and to acquaint them with practical knowledge and skill. After the War the Levente (Cavalier) Societies were formed for the purpose of physical and moral training of boys beyond school age. (See page 244).
Children's Libraries In State and parish schools every student pays a sum of sixty fillers for the benefit of the children's library. Out of these sums have grown, in connection with every elementary school, children's libraries for which books are selected by a special comPUBLIC EDUCATION mittee. These libraries aim to serve the children in the day and continuation schools; the organization of libraries for adults as well is now under process of development.
Only teachers holding normal school diplomas may teach in elementary schools. Diplomas received in foreign countries can be made valid only- by "nostrification" (incorporation). The State appoints its teachers through the Ministry of Education, while communities and denominations elect their teachers through the school council. Appointments are for life and dismissals occur only for moral transgression, crime, or misdeed. In case denominational or community schools are unable to pay the salaries of their teachers, they can apply for State aid. Teachers form in every school district a Teachers' Association, which aims to promote the interests of both school and teacher. Provincial teachers maintain a home in Budapest called the Francis Joseph Teachers' House, which provides board, lodging, and supervision without cost or for a nominal sum to capable and deserving children of teachers while they are studying in the Capital.
Administration and supervision of elementary schools is of three kinds—local, intermediate, and supreme. Local administration and supervision is in the hands of the community or denominational school board and of a school board for state schools. The school board and the community school board are directly subject to the royal inspector, while the denominational school board falls under denominational authority.
62 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN REMETE-KERTVÁROS
The intermediate administrative and supervisory body comprise the royal superintendent and the city and county executive committee of administration. The superintendent has authority over a school district; each county (also Budapest) constitutes a school district. The inspector is the controlling officer of the State, and it is his duty to visit all schools within his jurisdiction once a year. He has administrative power in State and parish schools, but only controlling and directing power in denominational schools. His reports are made in part to the county administrative committee and to the Ministry of Education.
Under his jurisdiction there is a network of assistant inspectors and clerks.
The county administrative committee is an executive body in all matters over which the inspector has authority. It is the lowest judiciary body in questions of the organization of schools, obligations, and legal status of school supporters, state subsidies for teachers' salaries, differences between the school council and teachers, and the discipline of teachers. In cases of appeal against decisions by the school board or the royal inspector, it is the higher judiciary body.
Denominations have autonomy in matters relating to the organization of schools, the appointment of teachers, the selection of textbooks, and discipline; in their curriculum, school discipline, time-schedule, school organization, and the appointment of teachers, they bear in mind the legal situation of State and community schools.
The supreme control of elementary instruction is vested in the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, who exercises the power of Supreme State supervision and ensures the development of the school system on uniform principles.
III. PUBLIC EDUCATION OUTSIDE OF SCHOOLS
ORGANIZATIONMovements for adult education outside the organized school system were started in the latter half of the nineteenth century;
and they became effective in various independent directions.
Their significance,, however, was made manifest only during the World War. Conditions created by the World War made the reorganization of the whole matter an urgent need of the times.
PUBLIC EDUCATION 65 Accordingly, the State undertook to reorganize it by removing all matters relating to adult education from the jurisdiction of scattered bureaus and placing them under the control of the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, thus unifying both task and method. The Ministry, furthermore, formed the National Committee for Extra-Mural Adult Education, whose task it was to study the problem, make suggestions, and take part in the matter of supervision and direction. This measure was by no means intended to shift responsibility from society to the State;
the State merely desired to systematize and unify this social task in co-operation with society.
The program of adult education is under the jurisdiction of the "committees on adult education." These committees are responsible for arousing popular interest, enlisting the moral and material support of society, drawing into this work all social institutions, organizations, and individuals, and, by creating a balanced relationship among them, ensuring the systematic and harmonious functioning of the whole idea. Each committee is composed of State educational officials, the representatives of social institutions, local educational officials, and prominent individuals either appointed by the Ministry or selected by the committee.
MATERIAL AND METHODThe principal aim of adult education outside the regular school course is to supply any existing lack in the elementary education of those past school age, to provide continued education, and, in general, to enable citizens intelligently to serve the moral and material interests of themselves and of the nation.
Adult education, therefore, draws its material from various sources; but strict attention is always paid to local conditions and needs. It has two means at its disposal—individual lectures and courses. The subjects of the lectures, which are designed chiefly to stimulate interest in study, are determined by local circumstances. Care is taken that the various lectures shall conform to a certain general theme and program. They are of one hour's duration. The courses also take their subject matter from various sources and are worked out to follow a systematic order and each to compose a unit. They may be (a) courses for illiterates, (6) elementary courses, and (c) general courses. The course for illiterates aims to teach reading and writing and,
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYwhere possible, the four fundamental operations with numbers.
The total number of hours cannot be less than 60 when only reading and writing are taught or less than 80 when arithmetic is included. In a course for illiterates no more than 30 may be enrolled at one time. The elementary courses aim to review the elementary subjects on a level with the adult mind and to make up any possible deficiency. The subjects for the general courses are selected with a view to local circumstances, so that they may be of practical use and serve to supplement previous knowledge and develop the mind in general. A minimum of 60 hours constitutes a year's course.
Attendance at these courses does not serve as a substitute for regular school attendance; therefore they can be attended only by those who have passed the school age. Where circumstances allow, the men and women are separated, and appropriate courses are given for both groups. The lecturers are chosen on the basis of their acquaintance with their subjects. The lectures are informal and designed to meet the mental level of the audience;
they do not exceed two and a half hours a day.
In communities where the movement has not been started, every effort is being made to stimulate interest and confidence in adult education. Entertainments and lantern-lectures are arranged to convince people of the benefits (in the way of increased production and profit and decreased labor and expense) that would be derived from a knowledge of improved methods and modern scientific methods. Exhibitions and illustrations of achievements in more advanced communities are used, and health subjects are discussed as a means of awakening an interest in the movement.