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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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Grade IV, 3 periods, (a) Reading of poems: "Toldi" by Arany, and popular romances of Vörösmarty and Petőfi. Lyrical poems by Berzsenyi, Kölcsey, Vörösmarty, Garay, Kozma, Charles Kisfaludy. Prose: stories, character sketches, and SECONDARY EDUCATION 85 essays on Hungarian history and nature. (6) Elements of style and poetry, (c) Written exercises; business correspondence.

Grade V, 3 periods, (a) Poems: Ballads and romances, popular and literary. Historical and folk ballads of John Arany. A Historical Song of Tinódi. National lyrics from the works of Balassi, Berzsenyi, Kölcsey, Vörösmarty, Petőfi, Arany, Tompa, Gyulai. (6) Prose: Stories, essays, letters, speeches and dissertations, e.g., Letters from Turkey by Mikes, letters of Francis Kazinczy, Parainesis by Kölcsey, speech of Louis Kossuth on national defence, Francis Deák's memorandum to the king, Hungary During the Turkish Domination by Salamon, The National Mission of Science by Baron' Joseph Eötvös, works on natural science by Otto Herman, (c) Monthly written exercises.

Grade VI, 3 periods, (a) Poetry—1. Epic: Selections from Homer, Dante's Divine Comedy, Zrinyi's Tragedy of Sziget, Arany's Death of Buda; 2. Lyric: One or two psalms, smaller poems; 3. Drama: Antigone by Sophocles, Coriolanus or Julius Cœsar by Shakespeare, Learned Women by Molière, The Suitors by Charles Kisfaludy; 4. Prose: Essays on aesthetics; Biography of Vörösmarty and essays on the drama by Gyulai and on tragedy by Beöthy. Home reading: The Village Notary by Eötvös, Hard Times by Kemény, The Pagans by Herczeg.

(6) Poetics, (c) Written exercises.

Grades VII and VIII, 3 periods, (a) History of Hungarian literature to the nineteenth century. In the eighth grade the history of Hungarian literature from the nineteenth century to modern times. (6) Study of the historical development of the Hungarian language. (VII.) (c) Written exercises in composition and collection of material.

Note. Ten to fifteen classical poems must be memorized in each grade. Students are required to know by heart the Magyar (Kölcsey), (Vörösmarty), Hymn Appeal National Anthem (Petőfi), and Adoration (Berzsenyi). Also ten to sixteen poems by Petőfi, Arany, and Vörösmarty.

Greek and Latin Language and Literature Aim: Ability to understand and translate Greek and Latin writers on the basis of a sound knowledge of grammar; familiarity with the most important literary products of both languages and with the life and outlook on life of Greeks and RoEDUCATION IN HUNGARY mans; an understanding of the Greek and Roman elements in Hungarian culture.

Creek Language and Literature Grade V, 6 periods, (a) Greek legends, myths, and history.

Simplified prose. (b) The Attic dialect, (c) Written exercises fortnightly for practice in grammar. (Translation, Hungarian into Greek.) Grade VI, 6 periods, (a) Selections from Xenophon, Herodotus; Homer's Odyssey, (b) Grammar completed. Exercises as above. (Translation, Hungarian into Greek and Greek into Hungarian.) Grade VIII, 5 periods, (a) Readings: Plato, Aristotle, related selections from the history of science. Selections from the Bible and Church Fathers, (b) Grammatical explanations, and {c) written exercises as in grade VII.

Note. Readings are in the form of a chrestomathy. Selections are sometimes memorized.

Latin Language and Literature Grade I, 6 periods, (a) Simple readings. (6), Declension and conjugation of active verbs; vocabulary, maxims, collection' of proverbs. Exercises in speaking, (c) Written exercises. (Translation, Hungarian into Latin.) Grade II, 6 periods, (a) Simple readings, (b) Continuation of declensions and conjugation and review. Vocabulary, maxims, and proverbs with exercises in speaking, (c) Written exercises as in grade I.

Grade III, 6 periods, (a) Reading: Phsedrus and selections from Roman life and history. (6) Study of the simple sentence.

Word study. Maxims, proverbs, and exercises in speaking, (c) Written exercises. (Translation into Latin for practice in sentence structure.) Grade IV, 6 periods, (a) Readings: Selections from Ovid and prose as in grade III. (b) Study of compound sentences. Exercises in speaking. Elements of prosody, (c) Written exercises as in grade III.

Grade V, 6 periods, (a) Readings: Selections from lyrical poetry; coherent parts from Livy, Books XXI-XXII. (b) Exercises in speaking on the basis of readings. Further study of prosody, (c) Written exercises. (Translation into Latin.) SECONDARY EDUCATION 87 Grade VI, 5 periods, (a) Readings: Virgil's Mneid, Books I—V; Cicero's Orations; a work of Sallust. (b) and (c) as in grade V.

Grade VII, 5 periods, (a) Readings: Virgil's Mneid, Books VI—XII; Cicero's De Signis; Letters of Pliny the Younger, (b) and (c) as in grade V.

Grade VIII, 5 periods, (a) Readings: Horace, selections from Roman philosophers (Cicero, Seneca); Tacitus and Church Fathers. (6) and (c) as in grade V.

Note. Ancient life and important movements in literature are taught in connection with the readings. Well-known poems are memorized in each grade.

German Language and Literature Aim: An understanding of the works of modern German writers on the basis of a thorough knowledge of grammar and familiarity with the intellectual life of the Germans; and practice in the use of the German language both in speech and in writing.

Grade II, 3 periods, (a) Conversation and readings: The school and family life, stories, narratives, essays on geographical and nature subjects; short poems and simple letter forms, (b) Grammar: reading, German script, the principal noun and verb forms, frequently prepositions, pronouns, and numerals and word order, (c) Two written exercises monthly; dictation, composition, replies to questions, sentence structure on the basis of conversation and reading.

Grades III-IV, 3 and 4 periods, (a) Readings: Easy stories, legends and narratives (Grimm, Hebel, Lessing, Bechstein, Schwab). Descriptions; songs (Goethe, Uhland, Hoffmann von Fallersieben, Ruckert) and short narrative poems (Goethe, Schiller, Uhland, Chamisso). ( b ) Grammar: word formation, word order, the simple sentence, (c) Two written exercises monthly: review, exposition, narratives, simple letters, sentence formation on the basis of readings.

Grade V, 3 periods, (a) Readings: Easy reading in the history, geography, customs, and social conditions of Germany.

Narratives; songs (Goethe, Heine, Lenau); ballads and romances (Goethe, Schiller). (6) Grammar: Compound and complex sentences with emphasis on characteristics not found in Hungarian.

88 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY (c) Two written exercises monthly: reviews, experiences, translation of text.

Grade VI, 3 periods, (a) Readings: prose narratives (Tieck, Freytag, Keller); songs (Brentano, Eichendorff, Heine, Lenau, Mörike, Storm, Liliencron); ballads and romances (Goethe, Schiller, Unland, Chamisso); Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea, Pts. I, II, IV, and VII. (b) Further study of grammar; study of elements of German verse, (c) One written exercise every month.

Grade VII, 2 periods, (a) Readings: Selections from ancient literature {Hildebrandslied, the Nibelungenlied, and the legend of Gral and Artus). Selections from Klopstock, Chaps. XIIIXVI of Lessings' Laokoón, the Hamburg dramaturgists (Voltaire, Semiramis), Herder, A. von Humboldt, and Grimm. Schiller's Wilhelm Tell, (b) Study of grammar continued, (c) Written exercises twice monthly either as school work or as home work: reflections on reading, descriptions and exposition, translation of texts.

Grade VIII, 2 periods, (a) Readings: Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris or Torquato Tasso; selections from Goethe's Faust, H. von Kleist, Novalis, Grillparzer, Hebbel, Ranke, Mommsen, Kant. Survey of the history of German literature on the basis of the readings. (5) Grammar, (c) Written exercises as in grade VII.

Note. The language of instruction, whenever possible, is German in all grades; some poems are memorized.

History Aim: A general survey of world history with special study of the history of Hungary.

Grade III, 3 periods. History of the Hungarian race to our day.

Grade IV, 2 periods. Ancient history to the death of Marcus Aurelius.

Grade V, 3 periods. History of the Middle Ages from the Migration of Nations to the sixteenth century with special reference to the history of the Hungarian nation.

Grade VI, 3 periods. World history from the dissolution of the institutions of the Middle Ages to the formation of the great powers; in connection with Hungarian' history.

SECONDARY EDUCATION 89 Grade VII, 3 periods. The French Revolution and modern history in connection with Hungarian history.

Grade VIII, 3 periods. History of Hungary with special regard to social life and institutions.

Geography Aim: Knowledge of the earth and life upon it; a clear understanding of the geographical, historical, and economic situation of the country, especially on the basis of map study.

Grade I, 3 periods. I. Introduction: Study of the immediate environment. II. CTeneral characteristics of the Carpathian or Hungarian basin. Upper and lower plains, the Transylvanian basin', the mountainous southwest, and the coast. III. Elementary geography of geographical units. Political relationships in their present form.

Grade II, 3 periods. Europe and Asia.

Grade III, 3 periods. Africa, America, Australia, the polar regions; elements of astronomical geography.

Grade IV, 1 period. Descriptive geography summarized.

Grade VII, 1 period. Study of geographical factors in the oldest and classical areas of civilization, as the Mediterranean and adjoining countries, Primeval Asia, North Africa, Western Europe and the Danube Valley, Mesopotamia and Egypt, Greece, Italy, etc.

Natural History Aim: Study of the most common minerals and rocks, plants and animals, with observations; their practical significance and use.

Grade I, 2 periods. Presentation of the most common fruits and grains; agriculture. The human body and the care of health. Domestic animals. Blossoms of fruit trees, fruit growing, the morphology and ecology of blooming plants.

Grade II, 2 periods. Some mammalia (apes, camels, yak, llama, elephant, etc.). Home birds. Typical members of the reptile and amphibian' orders. Fresh and salt water fish, shellfish, snails, insects, crabs, spider, earthworm, leech; trees, care of forests, kitchen garden, forage, industrial and medicinal plants. Excursions and collections.

Grade IV, 4 periods. Mineralogy and chemistry. Water;

hydrogen. Air; oxygen, nitrogen. Simple and compound subEDUCATION IN HUNGARY stances. Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, crystals, metals, acids and bases, salts. Hydrocarbons, natural gas, petroleum, lighting gas, carbohydrates, fermentation, fats, soap, alkaloids. Volcanoes, water, air, and organisms as geological factors. Brief study of mountain structure and of the history of the earth's formation; fossils.

Grade V, 2 periods. Botany. Study of spores and seminiferous plants. The cell and tissue. The natural system and the relation of plants. One natural system, characteristics of the important groups. Plants important in practical life, their distribution. Characteristic plants of Hungary. Collection of plants.

Grade VI, 3 periods. Zoology: The organism and functions of the animal body on the basis of a study of the human body.

Animal groups, discussion of the important classes on the basis of types, with regard for the most important and common native animals. Geographical distribution of animals. Excursions, collections, laboratory work.

Mathematics Aim: Accuracy and skill in computation; comprehension of the simpler numerical relationships of practical life; readiness in the expression and practical use of mathematical functions.

Grade I, 6 periods, (a) Arithmetic: The four fundamental operations with whole numbers, decimals, and common fractions.

Study of the coinage, linear, area, space, weight, and time system of the country, (b) Geometry. The most important plane figures (quadrilaterals, triangles, polygons, circle). Fundamental study of congruence, similarity, and symmetry of figures. Drawing of figures.

Grade II, 4 periods, (a) Arithmetic. Direct and inverse proportions, simple proportion, ratio and proportion, percentage, weights and measures, old but still useful measurements, graphs.

(6) Geometry. Hexahedron, prism, and pyramid. Construction of these objects.

Grade III, 4 periods, (a) Arithmetic. Interest, stocks and bonds, notes, graphs, algebraic symbols, (b) Geometry, cylinder, cone, and sphere.

Grade IV, 4 periods, (a) Algebra. Addition and multiplication, subtraction and division. Powers, arithmetical and geoSECONDARY EDUCATION 91 metrical progressions, binomial and trinomial squares and cubes.

Graph of functions. Simple equation with one unknown quantity; proportion. Simple equation with two unknown quantities.

Solution by graphs, (b) Planimetry. Summary of planimetry.

Triangles, the circle, geometrical positions, quadrilaterals, and polygons.

Grade V, 3 periods, (a) Algebra. Square roots, irrational numbers, equations of the second degree and graphical representation of functions of the second degree, solutions by graph, zero and negative exponents. The decimal and other numeral systems. Powers with fractional and irrational exponents, (b) Planimetry. Similar figures, triangles, the Pythagorean theorem, area of rectangles.

Grade VI, 3 periods, (a) Algebra. Infinite series, infinite geometrical progressions, logarithms and logarithmic operations, compound interest, and annuities, loan's, notes. (6) Trigonometry. Trigonometrical functions, the circle and polygons, circumference and area of the circle. Segments. Trigonometric computations and measurements in the open.

Grade VII, 3 periods, (a) Analytical geometry. Rectangular co-ordinates, distance between two points, relationships of the straight line, equations of a straight line, equations of a circle, parabola, vertices and tangents, differential quotients, differentiation of simple functions, ascending curves, maximum values, indeterminate integral, (b) Stereometry. Areas, calculation of areas from given dimensions, straight lines and planes, correlative positions of planes, angles of lines and planes, convex polyhedrals, Euler's theorem, the surfaces and cubic contents of prisms, pyramids, and truncated pyramids.

Grade VIII, 2 periods, (a) Stereometry. Cylinder, cone, truncated cone and sphere and their surfaces, surface of spherical segments, spherical segments, area and volume of the frustrum.

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