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Sines and cosines of spherical trigonometry. Computation and adaptation of true distances, (b) Algebra. Variation, permutation and combination, binomial theorem, theory of probability.
Grade III, 2 periods. Important phenomena in mechanics, heat, sound, light, and electricity. Introduction to the most common simple and complex machines.
Grade VII, 4 periods. Mechanics: fundamental conceptions, motion, Kepler's laws, Newton's axioms, work, energy, equilibrium, angular velocity, pendulum, gravitation. Hydrostatics, capillarity. Aerostatics, diffusion, vibrations. Sound: origins of sound, diffusion, diffraction, pitch, Dopple's principle, analysis of sound, the ear. Light: rectilinear diffusion and consequences, velocity, intensity, diffraction; the eye, accommodation, spectacles, magnifying lens and telescope; reflection, achromatism, spectral analysis, chemical effects, interferences, diffraction, and polarization.
Grade VIII, 4 periods. Heat: fundamental conceptions, conduction and convection, thermometer, laws of gases, specific heat, moisture of air, liquefaction of gases, diffusion of heat, mechanical equivalent of heat, theories of heat, geysers, steam engine, gas engine. Magnetism: fundamental conceptions, Coulomb's law, molecular theory, the earth's magnetism. Electricity: the fundamental phenomena, electroscope, attraction, electrophorus, condensers, atmospheric electricity, potentiality, capacity, spherical condenser, stationary current, experiments of Galvani and Volta, Ohm's law, galvanometers and batteries, effects of the current, magnetic field, telegraph, telephone, microphone, dynamos, generator and motor, wave telegraphy, cathode and Roentgen rays, radioactivity. Astronomy: the starry sky, Copernicus, the sun and the year, time computation.
Philosophy Aim: Knowledge of the chief phenomena of mental life and a systematic survey of the general forms of thought as a comprehensive climax of secondary school education.
Grade VIII, 2 periods. The problems and divisions of philosophy. I. Psychology: subject matter and method; thinking, emotion, will. II. Logic: subject matter and problems; the elemental forms of thought, systematic forms of thought, the system of sciences, the relation between philosophy and the sciences.
Note. The discussions of psychological and logical questions will occasionally include examples taken from the history of philosophy.
SECONDARY EDUCATION 93 Drawing Aim: Readiness in drawing as a method of expression, and an understanding of artistic expression; solution of characteristic tasks of simpler artistic problems and the development of the aesthetic sense through the study of masterpieces.
Grade I, 2 periods. Exercises in drawing lines; plane drawings, exercises with accurate measuring instruments; decorative designs; drawing from memory and imagination.
Grade II, 2 periods. Plane drawing; projections; decorative designs; drawing from memory and imagination.
Grade III, 2 periods. Plane drawing; perspectives; projection's; decorative designs; drawing from memory and imagination; study of masterpieces.
Grade IV, 2 periods. Plane drawing; perspectives; projections; decorative designs; drawing from memory and imagination and study of masterpieces.
Physical Training Two periods per week in all grades.
Aim: A well-developed, healthy, hardy, trained body; courageous and disciplined conduct and esprit de corps.
I. Special exercises: (a) neck; (6) finger, hand, arm, and shoulder; (c) trunk; (d) leg; (e) breathing.
II. General exercises: (a) Individual exercises with gymnastic apparatus; lifting, carrying, throwing, supporting, suspension, walking, running, hopping, jumping, equilibrium, skating, sledding, skiing, swimming, rowing, (b) Group exercises: dancing, games, drills, wrestling, pull and push, and fencing.
III. Exercises designed to prepare for life and occupations.
Scouting: (a) excursions; (b) self-defence; (c) first aid. In coni unction with the exercises explanations are given from time to time about hygienic living, the proper spirit of competition, and protection of country.
Note. Athletic events are arranged from time to time.
Hygiene Obligatory extraordinary subject.
Grade VII, 2 periods during the second semester. The human body, condition's of good health, nutrition, water and soil, the home, care and discipline of body, rest, recreation, sleep, sickness 94 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY and its causes, prevention of sickness, nursing, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and its prevention, accidents, first aid, the more dangerous cases of poisoning, first aid for poisoned, transportation of sick, regulations in the interest of good food, the town and village street, the hygienic conditions of a good home.
Grade VIII, 2 periods during first semester. Public health, decrease and increase of population, babies, children, adolescents, abstinence, health of adults and aged, occupational hygiene, health of cities and villages, the rôle of society in the interest of health, survey of health laws and regulations.
Singing Obligatory extraordinary subject.
Grades I and II, 1 period. The elements of writing and reading notes; development of the sense of rhythm and song according to Dalcroze's method; singing of one-part songs, among which are included the National Anthem and patriotic songs.
Singing in the remaining classes is taught in the form of chorus work and is not required.
Hungarian Language and Literature Grade I, 5 periods; II-III, 4 periods; VI-VIII, 4 periods. As in the Gymnasium.
Latin Language and Literature Grades I-IV, 6 periods; V, 5 periods; VI-VIII, 4 periods.
The subject matter is the same as that in the Gymnasium, except that Plautus' Captivi is read in the fifth grade instead of lyric poems, while other lyric poets are studied along with Horace in the eighth grade.
French Language and Literature Aim: Acquaintance with modern French literature; knowledge of French grammar; familiarity with French life and genius;
practice in writing and speaking correct French.
Grade V, 5 periods, (a) Readings: simple descriptions drawn from the pupils' daily life; stories, dialogues; short poems committed to memory. (6) Conversation based on the reading, (c) Pronunciation, reading. Grammar: elementary forms, auxiliaries, regular verb inflections in simple forms and compounds, the past indefinite, (d) Written exercises. (Dictation, copying, translation.) Grade VI, 5 periods, (a) Readings: short narratives, dialogues, letters, easy essays on the geography, culture, and social
life of the French; poems. (6) Conversation, (c) Grammar:
irregular verbs. Written exercises as in grade V, and also writing of simple letters.
Grade VII, 4 periods, (a) Readings: selections from nineteenth century writers (Balzac, Flaubert, Daudet, Maupassant, Theuriet, Loti), dramatists (Auglier, Coppée, Rostand), lyric poets (Bérariger, Lamartine, Hugo, Leconte de Lisle, Heredia, Sully-Prudhomme, Coppée). The elements of French prosody.
(6) Conversation, (c) Systematic grammar, synonyms, proverbs, and idioms. Written exercises: Translations and composition.
Grade VIII, 4 periods, (a) Readings from seventeenth and eighteenth century prose writers (Pascal, Mme. de Sevigné, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau) and dramatists (Corneille, Racine, Molière). (6) Conversation, (c) Completion of grammar; synonyms and idioms. WTritten exercises as in grade VII.
Note. The language of instruction, whenever possible, is French.
English Language and Literature Aim: Acquaintance with modern English literature; knowledge of English grammar; familiarity with English life and character; practice in writing and speaking correct English.
Grade V, 5 periods, (a) Readings: simple descriptions drawn from the pupils' daily life, short stories, dialogues; poems committed to memory; conversation on the basis of the reading.
(£) Grammar: pronunciation, reading, elements of form, conEDUCATION IN HUNGARY
jugation of auxiliary and regular verbs, (c) Written exercises:
dictation, easy composition, translation into English.
Grade VI, 5 periods, (a) Readings: short narratives, dialogues, letters, easy essays on the geography, culture, and social life of the English; poems; memorization. (6) Conversation.
(c) Grammar; impersonal and important irregular verbs, (d) Written exercises as in grade V, and writing of easy letters.
Grade VII, 4 periods, (a) Readings: selections from nineteenth century prose writers (Dickens, Thackeray, Scott, Irving, Kipling, Wilde) and poets (Byron, Moore, Shelley, Wordsworth, Tennyson, Poe, Longfellow). The influence of these writers on Hungarian literature, (b) Conversation, (c) Systematic grammar, synonyms, and idioms; elements of English prosody, (d) Written exercises: translations and composition.
Grade VIII, 4 periods, (a) Readings: selections from sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth century prose writers (Goldsmith, Johnson', Fielding, Sterne, Swift, Defoe, Spectator, Bacon, Sidney) and poets (Burns, Scotch ballads; Pope, Thomson, Gray, Goldsmith; Milton, Shakespeare). Their influence on Hungarian literature, (b) Conversation, (c) Systematic grammar, (d) Written exercise as in grade VII.
Note. The language of instruction, whenever possible, is English in all grades.
Italian Language and Literature Aim: Acquaintance with modern Italian literature; knowledge of Italian grammar; familiarity with Italian life and character; practice in writing and speaking correct Italian.
Grade V, 5 periods, (a) Readings: simple descriptions from the daily life of the pupil, short stories, dialogues, short poems, memorization, (b) Conversation on the basis of the reading.
(c) Grammar: pronunciation, reading, elements of form, conjugation of auxiliary and regular verbs, (d) Written exercises: dictation, composition, and translation'.
Grade VI, 5 periods, (a) Readings: short narratives, dialogues, letters, easy essays on the geography, culture, and social life of Italians, poems, memorization, (b) Conversation, (c) Grammar: impersonal, passive, and the more important irregular verbs, (d) Written exercises as in grade V and simple letter writing.
SECONDARY EDUCATION" 97 Grade VII, 4 periods, (a) Readings: selections from eminent writers, from modern writers (de Amicis, Cantu, Pellico, Manzoni, etc.); shorter poems (Carducci, Giusti, Manzoni, etc.);
selections from some comedy by Goldoni (La Locandiera, Pamela Fandulla). The elements of Italian verse, (b) Conversation.
(c) Systematic grammar, synonyms, idioms, (d) Written exercises: translations and reviews, compositions.
Grade VIII, 4 periods, (a) Readings: selections from older writers (Boccaccio, Villani, Machiavelli, Galilei, etc.); older poets (Dante, Ariosto, and Tasso); selections from some tragedy by Alfieri (Saul or Orest); short poems by older poets (Petrarch, Parini, Monti, Foscolo, Leopardi, Metastasio, etc.). Memorizing, (b) Conversation, (c) Systematic grammar, (d) Written exercises as in grade VII.
History Grades III, and V-VIII, 3 periods; IV, 2 periods.
The aim and subject matter are the same as those of the Gymnasium.
Geography Grades I-II, 3 periods; III, 2 periods; IV, 1 period. The object and subject matter are the same as those of the Gymnasium.
Grade VI, 1 period. General knowledge of the geography of the modern world. Plant and animal world and their relation to human life. Natural geographical regions. Distribution of plants significant in human civilization. Distribution of wild animals and useful domestic animals. Geographical distribution of important minerals: coal, petroleum, iron, copper, and gold. Distribution of the human race. Primitive people and their mode of life. The necessities of life, how provided. The different regions of civilization. Distribution by occupations.
Economic differentiation, division of labor. Forms and conditions of colonization. Commerce. Emigration and immigration.
Man as a social being, the family, race, and nation.
Grade VII, 2 periods. Geography of the modern world with special regard for Hungary. 1. Survey of the geography of Europe and other continents for understanding the geographical status of Hungary. 2. Geographical survey of the Hungarian basin. 3. The economic coherence of the various parts of HunEDUCATION IN HUNGARY gary, and changes which have come about. 4. Present relation of Hungary to neighbouring countries; the Trianon treaties.
Natural History Grades I-II, 2 periods; IV, 4 periods; V-VI, 3 periods. Object and subject matter the same as those of the Gymnasium.
Mathematics Grades I, 6 periods; II-IV, 4 periods; V-VIII, 3 periods. Object and subject matter the same as those of the Gymnasium, except that complex numbers are added in grade VIII.
Physics Grade III, 2 periods; VII-VIII, 4 periods. As in the Gymnasium.
Philosophy Grade VIII, 2 periods. As in the Gymnasium.
Drawing Grades I-IV, 2 periods. As in the Gymnasium.
Grades V-VIII, 1 period. More practical objects are used for models, and emphasis is laid upon practical art work; masterpieces are not studied.
Physical Training Same as in the Gymnasium.
Hygiene Same as in the Gymnasium.
THE REAL SCHOOLReligion and Ethics Grades I-VIII, 2 periods. Instruction is carried on according to the program of the respective denomination's.
Hungarian Language and Literature Grades I-II, 5 periods; III-VIII, 3 periods. Same as in the Gymnasium.
German Language and Literature Aim: Same as in the Gymnasium.
Grades I-II, 5 periods, (a) Conversation and readings: school life, stories, narratives, legends (Grimm, Hebel, Lessing). LetSECONDARY EDUCATION 99 ters; descriptions from nature and geography; songs (Goethe, Uhland, Rückert, Hoffmann v. Fallersleben); short epic poems, (b) Grammar: reading, writing; conjugation; declension of nouns and adjectives; comparison of adjectives, pronouns, numerals,
prepositions; order of words, (c) Two written exercises monthly:
dictation, composition, answers to questions, sentences, and conversation on the basis of the reading.
Grade III, 3 periods; IV, 4 periods. Subject matter same as in the Gymnasium.