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Although these suggestions are issued as guides, they nevertheless are not intended to restrict the individual conceptions of teachers, but give ample opportunity to the educational insight of each teacher to manifest itself. They aim, rather, to stimulate teachers to study their subjects from the point of view of pedagogy and methods, to provide a chance to discover the relations of the various subjects, and to keep alive the idea that only systematic teaching, based upon a principle yet wTorked out in detail, can be successful.
Success in teaching is also ensured by semi-annual faculty meetings, by the reading of pedagogical periodicals, and by summer courses in pedagogy.
School Discipline Discipline in secondary schools is governed by a regulation, issued from time to time and modified according to advances in educational theory. It serves as a guide to the work of both teachers and students. The school year begins on September 1 and lasts until the end of June, being divided into two semesters and allowing for only two vacations of ten days each at Christmas and Easter. The length of a period is fifty minutes; they extend from eight to one o'clock with a ten-minute interval after each period, while the afternoon is devoted to extra subjects, play, and excursions. Students are enrolled on the first two days of July and September. Co-education is barred, but girls may SECONDARY EDUCATION 109 become private students by special permission. Only such students may be received into the first grade of the secondary school as have completed their ninth year and have been graduated from the fourth year of the elementary school in good standing or, in the absence of such a certificate, pass an examination in the subjects of the fourth grade. Each school prepares its own rules relative to the conduct of students. Teachers are responsible for the religious and patriotic training of students. At the head of each grade is a faculty advisor, who takes special care of his pupils, looking out for their best interests; it is his duty also to visit the classes of other teachers in the grade entrusted to him and the homes of students. In the interest of good discipline and scholarship the faculty from time to time holds conferences, in which conduct and progress of students are individually discussed. Discipline is in the hands of the faculty.
Physical punishment is prohibited.
The various degrees of punishment, aside from the individual warning and admonishing by the teacher, are: 1. Repróval before the class by the faculty advisor. 2. Admonishment by the principal. 3. Reprimand before the class by the principal. 4. Calling before the principal in the presence of a parent, with the possible warning that another misdeed would mean dismissal from the institution. 5. Calling before the faculty and repróval or serious reprimand, possibly expulsion. 6. Expulsion from the institution in cases of misconduct likely to make the presence of the pupil detrimental and dangerous to his fellow students.
7. For undoubted moral degeneracy or incorrigibility, exclusion from the local or all the secondary schools of the country.
Moral Instruction The law makes moral instruction obligatory and for this reason religion even in the State schools is included among the ordinary subjects, from the study of which no one can be exempted. Moral instruction is provided by the individual denominations. Instructors in religion are nominated by the respective denominations; their salaries are paid by the State if instruction is their chief occupation. For the deepening of the religious life of the pupils, religious groups or societies may be formed within the walls of the school.
At the end of the first half-year each student receives a report 110 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY and at the end of the second semester, a certificate regarding his conduct and scholastic progress. The scheme of grading for conduct is: exemplary (1), good (2), regular (3), irregular (4);
for scholastic progress: excellent (1), good (2), satisfactory (3), and unsatisfactory (4).
Examinations at the end of the year for grading (except in cases of private students) are not recognized, for it is held that knowledge and ability of a student are not to be judged from incidental answers made under the nervous tension of examination but rather from the progress shown throughout the year.
Instead, surveys are held in the various groups of subjects at the end of the year. These have a twofold purpose: first, to accustom students to a systematic review and a synthetic survey of the subjects, which at the same time serve as a gradual preparation for the maturity examinations; and second, to allow the school to show the progress of its work to parents and those interested by having its students give open answers to questions at a general meeting, thus giving account of their knowledge and progress before the general public.
Pupils for any reason unable to enrol as ordinary pupils may have private tuition. As a rule, such pupils do not attend the classes, but at stated times may take written and oral examinations at the school in which they are enrolled. In addition to the schooling and admission fees, they must pay examination fees.
MATURITY EXAMINATION (HIGHER CERTIFICATEMATRICULATION) A pupil who has satisfactorily passed the eight grades of the secondary school is eligible to take the maturity examination.
The object of the maturity examination is to prove whether or not knowledge and ability of a pupil, according to the curriculum of the secondary school, come up to the requirements for university work. These examinations are held by the faculties of accredited secondary schools. Since the Act of 1924, which reorganized the secondary schools and which is to be put gradually into force, the rules appointed by the Act of 1883 will be in effect for the next four years. According to this law, the maturity examination consists of a written and an oral examination.
The subjects of the written examination are: A. In the Gymnasium: (a) an essay in Hungarian on a subject of Hungarian SECONDARY 111 EDUCATION literature; schools using other than the Hungarian language may use the language of instruction; (6) translation from Latin to Hungarian; (c) the solution of two problems in algebra and geometry. B. In the Realgymnasium: (α) same as in the Gymnasium; (6) composition in German on a subject taken from the sphere of the German language and literature or translation from Hungarian into German according to the choice of the student;
(c) the solution of a problem in algebra and geometry. The subjects of the oral examination are: A. Tn the Gymnasium: (a) Hungarian language and literature; (b) Latin language and literature; (r) Hungarian and world history; (d) mathematics;
(e) physics. B. In the Real school: (a) Hungarian language and literature; (b) German language and literature; (c) Hungarian and world history; (d) mathematics; (e) physics. In schools using other than the Hungarian language the language of instruction is also included among these subjects. A student failing in two or more subjects in the written examination is not eligible for the oral examination and can repeat his examination only a year later. If at this time he fails in more than one subject, he is no longer eligible for maturity examinations. A pupil who fails in more than one subject in the oral examination falls into the same class.
Since September, 1924, the holder of a higher (matriculation) certificate is admitted without further examination to any institution of university rank.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AESTHETIC SENSEIt is considered a matter of primary importance from a pedagogical and also from the national point of view to develop the interest of students in arts as early as possible. For this reason students and teachers make systematic trips to the museums and art exhibits. Instruction in drawing and the history of art as well as the use of slides and educational films also serve this purpose.
PARENT CONFERENCESIn order that the faculties may discuss certain educational problems with parents, at least two meetings of parents are held every year. At these meetings parents may contribute their ideas to the subjects under consideration. Furthermore, the principal and members of the faculty hold private conferences 112 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY with individual parents and to this end each teacher sets special conference hours.
EDUCATIONAL EXCURSIONS AND TRIPSTo increase the knowledge of pupils, especially of their country and race, and to develop them physically, teachers may conduct excursions during the year either in the immediate vicinity or at greater distances. Individual classes or the entire school may participate in such excursions. Excursions of one or two hours in the field of special subjects are made by the respective teachers in the town or its immediate vicinity. They aim to bring the student and the subjects studied into close touch with actual life. These excursions are considered as regular instruction and are therefore arranged to suit the schedule. Excursions of a whole or half day may be arranged for greater distances. Their program is to be organized in cycles so that at the end of a certain time the student can become thoroughly acquainted with his town and its vicinity. Excursions to more distant sections of the country may be made during the year. Trips to foreign countries may be arranged only by the permission of the Ministry.
STUDENTS' CLUBS Under the supervision of the principal and the teachers students may form clubs. These may be scientific groups with their members drawn from the seventh and eighth grades, devoting themselves to the special study of certain fields; debating clubs with their members drawn from the sixth grade up, devoting themselves to literary activities and having their own supervised libraries; relief societies, which provide assistance for poorer pupils. Students of secondary schools may not be members of organizations outside their school.
SCHOLASTIC COMPETITIONSOn the model of athletic competitions, secondary schools carry on scholastic competitions. Their object is to give special ability an opportunity to manifest itself and to bring students of special ability to the attention of interested organizations. The national competition is held at Budapest during the last week of May of each year. This is preceded by competitions in the individual 114 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY schools for the selection of representatives in each subject. Each school is allowed to send only one representative in each subject to the national competition. The names of the winners are recorded and certificates of award are given by the Ministry.
Along with instruction in other subjects run the courses in physical training. Sport clubs and Scout work supplement the courses. Teachers of physical training are required to take pertinent courses in schools provided for this purpose. The matter of physical training is in the hands of the National Council on Physical Education, which has advisory and, in some cases, executive powers.
In close connection with physical training is the care of the health of students. Special regulations exist with reference to the training of school physicians and teachers of hygiene in the secondary schools. Only persons having a diploma from one of the universities may be employed as school physicians and teachers of hygiene in secondary schools. The duties of school physicians are clearly specified and the courses in hygiene are given' according to the curriculum determined by the state.
THE HOUSING OF, AND ASSISTANCE TO, STUDENTS
Inasmuch as the secondary schools of Hungary are predominantly day schools and students residing outside of the precinct of the school locate in private homes, there are comparatively few state schools of the boarding type. In denominational schools boarding homes or at least refectories are found in considerable numbers. There are also dormitories, which provide rooms but no board. These institutions are maintained from various sources such as state aid, donations, and funds. Private individuals may maintain boarding homes provided they comply with the requirements of the state. The organization and equipment of these homes vary according to circumstances, some aiming to meet only the basic needs and others extending their activities to meet the minutest desires of the students (sports, music, study of foreign languages, etc.).
There are also scholarships which aim to help poor but able students. The state expends vast sums for this purpose. This sum is supplemented by private and family funds and by the SECONDARY EDUCATION 115 116 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY funds of student aid clubs, while another form of aid is to exempt poor students from tuition fees in part or in whole; this is done on the basis of definite rules and regulation's.
NATURE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE STATEIn connection with the discussion of the Act of 1883 we have sketched the relation of secondary schools to the state. From this point of view, it was shown that secondary schools fall into three divisions: (a) those under direct state control; (b) those under state guidance; (c) those under state supervision.
To the first group belong two State and two royal Catholic Gymnasiums, 28 State and 5 royal Catholic Realgymnasiums, and 18 Real schools. State institutions are maintained by sums provided in the budget, and royal Catholic schools are maintained out of the Catholic school fund created out of the property of.
the Order of Jesuits, which wras disbanded in 1773. In the second group there are at present 39 schools, distributed among Catholics, Jews, towns, and private individuals. The third group consists of autonomous denominational schools, of which at present there are 17 Reformed and 7 Lutheran institutions. These schools enjoy absolute autonomy in all matters and are supervised by an appointee of the Ministry.
ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS