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«The International Institute of Teacher’s College, Columbia University The INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE of Teachers College, Columbia University, was ...»

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The Gymnasium for girls, stressing Latin and modern languages, offers the following regular subjects: (a) religion and ethics; (b) Hungarian language and literature or, in schools of another language of instruction, the language and literature in use; (c) Latin language and literature; (d) German language and literature; (e) French language and literature; (/) Hungarian and world history; {g) geography; {h) natural science, chemistry, and hygiene; (i) physics; (j) mathematics; (fc) philosophy; (I) drawing; (m) music; (n) physical training.

The Lyceum for girls, stressing modern languages, offers the same courses as the Gymnasium, with the addition of English and Italian languages and literatures and the history of art and the omission of Latin.

Opportunity must be given for the study of Greek as an extra subject in the Gymnasiums and of Latin in the Lyceums. The number of periods per week is set at a maximum of 28 for the first four grades and 30 for the rest. A comparison of the curricula of the Lyceum for girls and the Real school for boys reveals the fact that the former is not a copy of the latter. The Real school was originally organized to prepare students for the technical university and lays chief stress upon the natural sciences. The Lyceum, on the contrary, is characterized by its emphasis upon modern languages, while at the same time the natural sciences are given no less a conspicuous place than in the Gymnasium for girls. In this way the tendency of education of girls in the future will be principally of a literary and artistic 124 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY nature, especially since most of the secondary schools have switched over to the Lyceum type.

If at all possible, Gymnasiums for girls are located in towns where there also are Lyceums. Each type consists of eight grades; no more than 40 students may be enrolled in one class.

Only students who have completed their tenth year and have received a certificate from the fourth grade of the elementary school are accepted. Aside from the teacher of physical training, who is always a woman, there must be as many women teachers as there are classes. The certificates of maturity, granted by girls' schools, are on a par with those of boys' schools; nevertheless the Ministry is empowered to limit the number of girls to be enrolled in certain faculties of the university.

COLLEGES FOR GIRLS

The colleges for girls, established by the Act of 1926, aim to give higher cultural training of a kind that has reference to the peculiar mission of women and their rôle in the home and society. Thus, as secondary institutions, they gather students who strive for a higher culture but do not desire to pursue university work.

The regular subjects of the colleges for girls are: (a) religion and ethics; (b) Hungarian language and literature or, in schools of another language of instruction, the language and literature in use; (c) German language and literature; (d) French, English, or Italian language and literature; (e) Hungarian and world history; (/) geography; (g) natural science, chemistry, and hygiene; (h) physics; (i) mathematics; (;) psychology and education; (k) drawing and history of art; (I) housekeeping and economics; (m) needlework; (n) singing; (o) physical training.

Extra subjects, such as modern languages, shorthand, typewriting, music, and so forth, are also offered. Inasmuch as the college is easier and more practical than either of the other two types of girls' schools, the number of periods per week in the first and second grades is a maximum of 24 and in the rest, 28.

Only such students may be enrolled as have finished their tenth year and have satisfactorily completed the fourth grade of the elementary school. Upon completion of the eight grades, the student is eligible for maturity examinations. Whoever has SECONDARY EDUCATION 125 passed these examinations is eligible to enter all higher institution's of learning to which the certificate of maturity from any girls' secondary school entitles the holder, with the exception's of the scientific and technical universities.

It must be made clear why these colleges for girls are not listed among the secondary schools. While upon first sight they bear many resemblances to the secondary schools, in the first place, they do not prepare their pupils for the universities as do secondary schools; in the second place, the field covered by various subjects, as will be seen, does not come up to a standard which would be sufficient basis for continued university work.

Nevertheless, the creation of this type was motivated by serious reasons. Statistics show that only about two-thirds of the girls enrolled in the Gymnasiums ever attend the university. For instance, in the school year 1924-1925 there were 1,752 students enrolled in the first grade, while only 557 attended the eighth grade; in other words, about two-thirds dropped out and either enrolled in another type of school or were satisfied with the education received before leaving. This experience shows that girls who cannot stand the strain and pace of the secondary school and yet desire more education than the middle school can give need this special type of school, which will meet their peculiar needs.

THE CURRICULA OF GIRLS SCHOOLS

126 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY PART THREE

UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH





INSTITUTIONS

I. HUNGARIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICY AFTER

THE WORLD WAR

The Hungarian educational policy, instituted by the far-reaching activities of Count Kuno Klebelsberg following the War, is based upon two fundamental principles, as we may gather from his speeches in Parliament. First, it desires to raise the educational standard of the masses; this object is served by the latest laws relating to elementary and middle schools. Second, it aims to produce professional men in all fields of science, who as experts will be able to solve the great cultural, economic, technical, and health problems of the country by virtue of their training and their knowledge. It is this object that the hew conception of cultural policy desires to accomplish and for which a program for the systematic development of the various branches of learning has been elaborated. The present resources of the country have been fully taken into account in preparing this program, and the plan has been developed and supplemented judiciously.

Of course, attention was first directed to the building up of the universities, the chief centers of knowledge. Inasmuch as the Universities of Kolozsvár and Pozsony were lost as a result of the Treaty of Trianon, the nation had to make great sacrifices, first of all in the relocation and re-equipment of these institutions. It was thus that the universities at Szeged and Pécs came into being with new buildings, clinics, and other institutes to take their place next to the ancient Peter Pázmány University at Budapest and the University of Debrecen, founded in 1912. At the same time the vast clinical plant of the University of Debrecen was erected. At present there are plans to unite all the scientific 128 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY institutions of the University of Budapest and locate them in new buildings on the shore of the Danube.

The program of the new cultural policy includes the organization and establishment of institutions for scientific research. The erection of the Astronomical Observatory at Sváb Hill and the Biological Research Station at Tihany followed each other rapidly, and an institution for geophysical research has also been set up at Lágymányos, a ward of Budapest. The building programs of both the National Archives and the National Museum have reached completion. New life seems to have been breathed into the great national collections (museums, archives, libraries) by their amalgamation into an autonomous organization known as the National Association of Museums and Collections.

Within the last few years a third aim has been to create permanent contacts with great cultural nations and their institutions, to train young Hungarian scholars in great Western centres, and to bring about the possibility of continuous research abroad. This aim is being served by the Collegia Hungarica in Vienna, Berlin, Zurich, and Rome. It is also aided by the many fellowships which the Ministry has provided for students who desire to continue their higher education abroad free of financial care.

The increase of professorships in the new universities and of scientific positions in museums, archives, libraries, and institutes of research has made it possible for a great number of scholars to devote their w7hole lives to research. In order to ensure the intellectual and material interests of learned organizations, a National Association of Scientific Societies and Institutions was organized in 1923, which soon established a press for its publications. And in order to determine a program for Hungarian scientific and technical research, the National Congress of Natural, Medical, and Technical Sciences was held in 1926. Its beneficent influence upon scientific life is felt in every way.

II. UNIVERSITIES

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN PETER PÁZMÁNY UNIVERSITY OF BUDAPEST

Hungarian rulers in the Middle Ages established three universities (Pécs, Buda, and Pozsony), which, however, could not thrive on account of the troubled conditions of the country. The present university was brought into being by the Counter-ReforUNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 129 mation, having been founded by Cardinal Peter Pázmány in

1635. It was established at Nagyszombat with a faculty of theology and philosophy and was enlarged in 1667 by the addition of a faculty of law. Maria Theresa in 1769 proclaimed it a royal institution and, adding a faculty of medicine, raised it to the status of a full university, removing it in 1777 to Buda, the centre of the country. By order of Joseph II it was later removed to Pest.

In 1848 it was brought under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Worship and Instruction. Its organization was established by the Ordinance of 1849. The university assumed the name of its founder in 1921. By the gifts of Peter Pázmány and various kings, the university has considerable property of its own in the form of land, forests, buildings, printing press, and bonds.

A good portion of the university's endowed property (1,974 acres of farm land and 13,759 acres of forest), which falls within territory separated from Hungary, has been confiscated by the Czechoslovakian government. The university has appealed to the International Court at The Hague to annul the confiscation of its property on the basis of Article 250 of the Treaty of Trianon, according to which the property of Hungarian nationals may not be confiscated, and of Article 246, which stipulates that both natural and fictitious persons fall under the classification of Hungarian nationals. The university as an organization is an independent fictitious person and is to be differentiated from the Hungarian government. On the basis of the register of legal property which substantiates this status, the university regards itself as the sole and rightful owner of the property under question in Czechoslovakia.

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN FRANCIS JOSEPH UNIVERSITY OF SZEGED

(FORMERLY OF KOLOZSVÁR) In the midst of the wars with Turkey, the first prince of Transylvania, John Sigismund, opened a college at Gyulafehérvár {Alba Julia) in 1560. Other similar schools were subsequently founded by Stephen Báthory at Kolozsvár in 1581. In 1698 the Jesuits founded a university at Kolozsvár, which, after the dissolution of the order, existed only as a college. Finally, the law of 1872 established a university at Kolozsvár, which was divided into four faculties: law and political science, medicine, philosophy, language and history, and mathematics and natural sciences.

130 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY The university assumed its name in 1881 by permission of the king, Francis Joseph. The university soon received excellent buildings and rich equipment from the State.

When the Roumanians occupied Kolozsvár in 1918, they took into their possession all the buildings, clinics, institutions, and libraries of the university, which had been growing up during a half century, and in 1920 the Roumanian king, amidst great celebrations, opened it as a Roumanian university. Former Hungarian professors were expelled from the country by the Roumanian government. These for a time lived in Budapest along with the expelled professors of the University of Pozsony and held their lectures in that city until the University of Kolozsvár was located at Szeged and that of Pozsony, at Pécs.

THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN ELIZABETH UNIVERSITY OF PECS (FORMERLY

OF POZSONY) A few years after the establishment of the University of Kolozsvár the idea of a third university was broached. During the eighties the Ministry began to consider it seriously. It was forced to do so by the overcrowded conditions of the faculties of law, medicine, and science at the University of Budapest. The larger outlying cities had for years been in competition to get the new university. In 1912 new universities were finally founded at Pozsony and Debrecen, having been made necessary in part to further Hungarian scientific and intellectual life, to decentralize higher education and in part to decrease the unusually large number of students studying at Budapest. The assurance of continued succession among professors and a healthy competition among universities were also expected.

Pozsony had in the course of history been the seat of a number of schools. It was here, in the sixteenth century, that King Matthias established the Accidentia Istropolitana of university rank. Maria Theresa, at the end of the eighteenth century, established an academy with faculties of philosophy and law, which after 1874 functioned only as a law school. The university established in 1912, which received its name from Queen Elizabeth, consisted of faculties of law and political science, medicine, philosophy, philology and history, and mathematics, natural sciences, and agriculture. The faculty of law was opened in 1914, the faculties of medicine and philosophy in 1918. The Czech

UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 131

government in 1919 occupied and took possession of the already thriving and excellently equipped university, putting an end to the Hungarian faculties and even dissolving the faculty of law.



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