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In place of the Hungarian university it put the Czechoslovak Comenius university. Some of the Hungarian professors were repeatedly arrested and were kept in jail without proper warrant.
The expelled professors for a time held their lectures at Budapest until the university was re-established at Pécs. Here a Lutheran theological school was added to the existing faculties of law, medicine, and philosophy.
THE ROYAL HUNGARIAN COUNT STEPHEN TISZA UNIVERSITY OFDEBRECEN As early as the Reformation Debrecen had a college which in 1588 became autonomous by adopting the rules of the University of Wittenberg. Its catalogue, from this time on, contains a complete list of enrolled students. The school taught Reformed theology, philosophy, and, beginning with 1800, also law. The TransTibiscan Synod of the Reformed Church had for decades striven to elevate its school to the rank of a university. This desire was fulfilled by the law of 1912, which established a state university at Debrecen with the faculties of Reformed theology, law and political science, medicine, philosophy, philology and history, mathematics and natural sciences. The erection of the clinics, delayed somewhat by the War, is now completed, and the university has a splendid campus at its service, located on the edge of the city in the midst of a big forest.
Accordingly, since the World War the Hungarian nation has set up three universities in all at the cost of the greatest financial effort. This had to be done for the sake of distributing students and elevating the standard of instruction, to make possible the proper allocation of the succession of professorships, and to decentralize intellectual life of the nation by creating large outlying centres of learning. The four universities of Greater Hungary, therefore, live on and function in dismembered Hungary also. As Count Klebelsberg has said, "If Prussian politicians after Jena counteracted their political defeat and ruin by founding universities, then we cannot add to our great political catastrophe by permitting the reunion of our universities."
132 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY
UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATIONThe various faculties of the university are composed of the professors and matriculated students. The faculty consists of ordinary and extraordinary professors appointed by the governor on recommendation by the Minister and the faculty, of private docents confirmed by the Minister, and, finally, of instructors.
These are assisted by adjuncts and assistants appointed by the faculty and confirmed by the Minister.
The ordinary and the extraordinary professors (who cannot exceed the regular professors in number) and two representatives of the private docents constitute the governing body of the faculty. At their head is the Dean, who is elected from the midst of the regular professors by the governing body and whose duty it is to preside at the faculty meetings.
At the head of the university is the Rector, who is elected from one of the four faculties successively each year by the electors of each faculty. He is the president of the university Senate, the chief judicatory authority, consisting of the Rector of the previous school year (ex-Rector), the Deans, and the Deans of the previous school year (ex-Deans). The director of the central office of the university Rector is the secretary of the Senate. At the head of the Registration Office is the Quaestor (Registrar).
Hungarian universities have self-governing rights (autonomy),
which include the following:
a. The university elects its own Rector and Deans.
b. The university itself nominates candidates for vacant professorships either by invitation or by competition.
c. It empowers young scholars to lecture within certain fields in the capacity of private docents.
d. The university determines its own' courses and curricula.
e..The university admits candidates for doctorates, examines, and initiates them.
f. The Rector of the university exercises the right of filling all administrative offices and positions in the university, except the head of the library, the business office, and positions falling within the right of the head of the State. In these latter cases the Senate enjoys only the right of recommendation.
g. The Rector or Senate exercises disciplinary rights over professors, officers, students, and all employees of the university.
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 133h. The university Senate or faculties may discuss and decide all matters of general interest to the university, administrative, educational, or disciplinary.
i. The university may maintain international contacts; it is represented abroad by its Senate.
The Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology The curriculum and plan of examinations at the Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of the Peter Pázmány University of Budapest was royally sanctioned in 1917.
The course extends over five years. The curriculum is as follows: First year: Oriental languages, philosophy, Old Testament, New Testament literature. Second year: Philosophy, Old Testament exegesis, New Testament, fundamentals of dogmatics. Third year: Systematic theology, Church history, homiletics, sociology. Fourth year: Systematic theology, ethics, education, catechetics, homiletic exercises. Fifth year: Church law, pastoral theology, education, Church art and archaeology, homiletics, and catechetical exercises.
There are twelve chairs. Seminary courses are offered in the main subjects, which are not required for a diploma. Four semesters of seminary work, however, are required of candidates for the Doctor's degree, and this must be completed prior to the fourth examination. Furthermore, four examinations and a printed thesis are required for a Doctor's degree. The examinations may be taken in any order provided the student has already studied the specified subjects of the examination. The first examination may be taken during the third year. Each examination, conducted by four professors, lasts two hours. The examinations are divided thus: (1) Oriental languages, Old and New Testament; (2) Church history, Church law; (3) fundamentals of dogmatics and systematic theology; (4) canonical law and pastoral theology.
The course extends over four years, two of which may be spent in any Protestant Theological Seminary either in Hungary or abroad. Students from a Reformed Theological Seminary in Hungary may be transferred to the Faculty of Reformed Theology at the end of any semester. Each student must take at least
twenty semester hours of work. The courses are as follows:
Hebrew, Old Testament exegesis, theology of the Old Testament, Old Testament literature, New Testament Greek, New Testament exegesis, New Testament theology, New Testament literature, dogmatics, philosophy of religion, life of Jesus, apologetics, Christian ethics, encyclopedia of theological sciences, history of religion, history of Christianity, Hungarian Protestant Church history, literature of the Hungarian Protestant Church, introduction to pastoral theology and home missions, home missions, pastoral theology, statistics, homiletics, liturgies, catechetics, Church law, history of dogma, symbolics, practical exegesis, history of philosophy, education, seminar in philosophy, economics, common law, public health.
At the end of the fourth semester each student is required to take a written and oral examination. The subjects of the oral examination are: (1) Old Testament literature; (2) New Testament literature; (3) history of Christianity; (4) history of religion; (5) philosophy of religion. For the written examination a student selects one of three problems given in each of the above subjects.
The Faculty of Theology at a meeting in June votes individually upon each candidate for a diploma. With a diploma students may take their first qualifying examination before a committee of Synod, and after two years of field work they may apply for their final qualifying examination. Students desiring the Doctor's degree must take a separate examination before the Faculty of Theology. The following may be candidates for the doctorate: (1) those who obtained their diplomas from this Faculty; (2) those who, upon completing a Theological Seminary, spent at least a year as regular students either in this Faculty or in the Faculty of a university abroad.
The examination for the doctorate must be taken before the Faculty of Reformed Theology from one of the following groups of studies: (1) Old Testament science; (2) New Testament science; (3) Church history; (4) systematic theology and ChrisUNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 135 tian ethics; (5) practical theology and Church law. The basis of the examination is a written and published thesis upon a subject in the student's chosen field. The time of the oral examination is a minimum of one hour and a maximum of two hours.
The Faculty of Lutheran Theology At the Faculty of Lutheran Theology of the Elizabeth University of Pécs, established in 1923, the curriculum and plan of examination, which were sanctioned by the Regent in 1926, are today in force. According to this the course consists of four years. A student must take at least twenty semester hours and pass an examination in each at the end of each semester. The subjects offered are encyclopedia of theological science, Old Testament exegesis, introduction to Old Testament, Old Testament theology, Hebrew, New Testament exegesis, introduction to New Testament, New Testament theology, life of Jesus, New Testament Greek, Church history, history of Hungarian Protestantism and Church law, history of dogma, systematic theology, symbolics, dogmatics, ethics, apologetics, catechetics, liturgies, homiletics, pastoral theology, home and foreign missions, modern Church life, practical exegesis, Church law, history of religion, psychology of religion, philosophy of religion, religious education, history of philosophy, seminar in philosophy, Christian character building, economics, Hungarian common law, a seminar in Hungarian history, history of literature, or history of culture, public health, German, biblical Slovak language, and Church Latin. At the end of the fourth semester an examination is taken in encyclopedia of theological sciences, introduction to the Old and New Testaments, Church history, history of religion and education. At the end of the eighth semester another examination must be taken, consisting of a written and an oral part. The written work is done in the fields of biblical and systematic theology. The candidate must show by his work that he is satisfactorily acquainted with theological sciences, knows modern theology and is capable of independent judgment. The oral examination consists of three parts: (I) biblical exegesis and theology; (II) systematic theology; (III) history of Hungarian Protestantism, Church law, catechetics, liturgies, homiletics, pastoral theology. A period of two to four weeks intervenes between examinations.
EDUCATION IN HUNGARYThe Faculty of Theology is entitled to grant Doctor's degrees for either work done or honoris causa. The degree of Doctor of Theology may be obtained only four years after completion of the courses of the Faculty of Theology on the basis of the following groups of studies: Old Testament exegesis and theology;
New Testament exegesis and theology, history of the Christian Church, systematic theology, practical theology, educational law and history of Hungarian Protestantism, general science of religion, and religious education. The examination for the Doctor's degree is both written and oral. The written examination consists of a published independent and scholarly dissertation, which is evidence of the candidate's knowledge of his field and of the scientific method and thus may be regarded as a contribution' to Protestant theology.
The Faculty of Law and Political Science The curriculum and plan of examinations of the Faculty of Law and Political Science is regulated substantially by the Royal Decree of 1883. This stipulates that during the four-year course there are two examinations. The subjects of the first examination, which may be taken at the end of the second semester, are (a) Roman law and (b) history of Hungarian law. The second examination, which may be taken at the end of the fourth semester, consists of (a) Hungarian common law and (b) economics and finances. The subjects of the qualifying examination in law are (a) Hungarian civil law in connection with Austrian civil law, for practical purposes; (b) criminal law and procedure; (c) commercial law, (d) civil procedure; (β) Hungarian administrative law. The subjects of the State examination in political science are: (a) constitution and government; (b) Hungarian administrative law; (c) principles of financial law and institutions; (d) canon law; (e) Hungarian governmental statistics of population, education, and economics.
For the doctorate in law three examinations and a dissertation, for the doctorate in political science two examinations and a dissertation, are required. The examinations in law are: I. (a) Roman law, (5) canon law, (c) legal philosophy and international law. Π. (α) Hungarian common law, (b) administrative and fiscal law, (c) politics, (d) Hungarian criminal law and procedure. III. (a) Hungarian civil law, (b) Austrian civil
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 137law, (c) Hungarian civil procedure, (d) commercial law. The examinations in political science include: I. (a) legal philosophy and international law, (6) canon law, (c) Hungarian common law, (d) politics. Π. (α) economics and finances, (6) statistics, (c) Hungarian administrative and financial law.
This system of examinations involved very great disadvantages, namely, onesidedness in training and the fact that the third year was not used for research by students, since no examinations were required. The regulation of 1911 tried, as an experiment and within a limited sphere, to remedy this defect by introducing a third examination, the subjects of which were Hungarian civil law, and criminal law and procedure. Reforms in this respect, however, are not yet completed; in fact, a basic reform of the entire system has been pending for years.