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A significant stride forward was made in 1912 and 1913 when the doctorate in law was made a requirement for judges, while hitherto it was required only of lawyers, and when the practical qualifying examination's for judges and lawyers were unified.
The Faculty of Medicine The training of doctors underwent a radical reform in 1875.
The course became one of ten semesters with twenty semester hours of obligatory work. At the end of the second semester there was an examination in mineralogy, botany, and zoology and at the end of the fourth semester, in physics, chemistry, anatomy, physiology, and general pathology. At the completion of the course the first examination embraced practical anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathological anatomy, and the second consisted of practical examination in the chief clinical subjects. The concluding theoretical examination consisted of therapeutics, surgery, legal medicine, and public health administration. On passing these examinations, a candidate became a doctor of medicine.
This system was in force until 1901, when' a period of interneship was made obligatory in the interests of practical instruction. The examinations in natural sciences were dropped, an examination in anatomy, physiology, physics, and chemistry being made obligatory after the fourth semester. This ensured a theoretical basis for clinical instruction. The subjects of the second examination are: anatomy, pharmacology, general 138 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY pathology, medical jurisprudence, and public health administration. The third examination added mental pathology, children's diseases, dermatology, and sexual diseases to the four principal clinical subjects (therapeutics, surgery, ophthalmology, obstetrics, and gynecology).
This system remained in force for twenty years; in 1922 a new system was instituted. According to this the course continued to consist of ten semesters, but the year of interneship was merged with the years of study. This aimed to bring about more practical instruction' and to make practice in the hospital more effective. An examination in physics, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology before the fifth semester was made an absolute requirement for clinical work. At the end of the course comes the second examination in anatomy, pharmacology, and general pathology. This is followed by an examination in the clinical subjects and by the third examination. The fourth and concluding examination embraces public health administration and medical jurisprudence. This scheme of examinations, while laying more emphasis on practical instruction, not only maintained but actually strengthened the theoretical basis.
The Faculty of Philosophy The criticisms of the German universities by Kant, advanced in his Der Streit der Fakultäten, applied also to the old Hungarian Faculty of Philosophy prior to 1848. This Faculty came under the influence of German' idealism and in 1848 instituted the principle of freedom in teaching and learning. The Entwurf of 1850, by adding the philosophical course of two years to the six-year course of the Gymnasium, permitted the Faculty to devote itself purely to scholarly tasks. It also was freed from the engineering course, which was added to the Joseph Technical University. In addition, the chairs of botany, zoology, mineralogy, and chemistry were transferred from the Faculty of Medicine to the Faculty of Philosophy and with this transfer the Faculty of Philosophy assumed an equal rank with the other Faculties. The use of compulsory textbooks and semester examinations was done away with and the system of private docents was introduced, thereby increasing the number of elective subjects. The foundation of various scientific institutes and the increase of chairs, keeping pace with the development and
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 139differentiation of the sciences, soon made up for the previous half century, and the Faculties of Philosophy at Budapest and Kolozsvár gradually rose to a European standard.
The great differentiation of sciences and the necessity for taking individual inclination and ability into consideration made it imperative to reform the already anachronistic examination for the doctorate now in existence. The Regulation of 1873 requires a printed dissertation from the candidate and a two-hour oral examination in three related subjects, one as a major subject and two as minor subjects.
All the regulations with reference to organization, curriculum, and plan of examinations which governed the Faculty of Philosophy at Budapest were made to apply in the Faculties of Philosophy at Kolozsvár (1872), Debrecen (1914), and Pozsony (1918), with the exception that, on the style of the French faculté des lettres and faculté des sciences, the mental sciences (philosophy, philology, and history) and the natural sciences (mathematics also) have become separate, independent faculties in these universities.
Promotio sub Auspiciis Regis (Gubernatoris) A more solemn form of conferring the doctorate is what is called the promotio sub auspiciis regis, revived in 1893 and designed to recognize special merits and to serve as an encouragement to the younger generation. Accordingly, two students who have completed their secondary school and university studies with a record of "excellent" all through are chosen annually from alternate Faculties and, by the permission and under the patronage of the king (Regent), are granted the doctorate in the presence of a representative of Government, who presents a valuable ring to the candidate as the gift of the king (Regent).
Another form of the doctorate is the honorary degree (doctor honoris causa). This degree may be granted to eminent persons in' the field of scholarship by permission of the king (Regent) through the medium of the Minister.
UNIVERSITY INSTITUTES AND SEMINARSDuring recent decades Hungarian Universities and higher institutions of learning have been more and more enriched by the instruments of modern university life and scientific research, by 140 EDUCATION IN HUNGARY various scientific institutes and seminars. The universities at Budapest, Debrecen, and Pécs have four, eight, and six seminars, respectively, in the Faculties of Theology. The Faculties of Law and Political Science at Budapest, Szeged, Debrecen, and Pécs have twelve, nine, six, and five seminars, respectively.
The Faculties of Medicine have the following institutions: At Budapest—two Institutes of Anatomy, two Institutes of Pathological Anatomy, an Institute of Physiology, Institute of General Anatomy and Therapeutics, Institute of Bacteriology, Institute of Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health Administration, Institute of Medical Jurisprudence, Institute of Brain Tissues, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Physiological and PathoRöntgen logical Chemistry, University Pharmacy, Central Institute, four therapeutic clinics with 470 beds, three surgical clinics with 468 beds, two eye clinics with 211 beds, two obstetrical and gynecological clinics with 397 beds, a Psychiatric and Neurological Clinic with 150 beds, a Children's Diseases Clinic with 184 beds, a Clinic of Dermatology and Sexual Diseases with 88 beds, a Clinic of Urology with 97 beds, an Ear Clinic with 25 beds, a Clinic of Stomatology with 8 beds, and a Nose and Throat Clinic with 24 beds—a total of 2,122 beds. At Szeged—an Institute of Descriptive Anatomy, Institute of Evolution and Tissues, Institute of Physiology, Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Diseased Tissues, Institute of General Pathology and Therapeutics, Institute of Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health Administration, Institute of Medical Jurisprudence, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Medical Chemistry, University Pharmacy, Therapeutic Clinic with 94 beds, Surgical Clinic with 44 beds, Eye Clinic with 96 beds, Clinic for Women with 76 beds, Clinic of Psychiatry and Neurology with 105 beds, Clinic of Children's Diseases with 38 beds, and Clinic of Dermatology and Sexual Diseases with 102 beds—a total of 555 beds. At Debrecen—Institute of Anatomy, Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Institute of General Pathology and Physiology, Institute of Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health Administration, Institute of Medical Jurisprudence, Institute of Physics, Institute of Chemistry, Central Röntgen Institute, Therapeutic Clinic with 153 beds, Surgical Clinic with 142 beds, Eye Clinic with 72 beds, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology with 153 beds, Clinic of
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 141Psychiatry and Neurology with 120 beds, Clinic of Children's Diseases with 132 beds, Clinic of Dermatology and Sexual Diseases with 104 beds, and Nose and Throat Clinic with 14 beds—· a total of 890 beds. At Pécs—Institute of Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Institute of Physiology, Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Institute of Pathology, Institute of Pharmacology, Institute of Public Health Administration, Institute of Medical Jurisprudence, Institute of Physics, Institute of Chemistry, Central Röntgen Institute, Therapeutic Clinic with 150 beds, Surgical Clinic with 120 beds, Eye Clinic with 80 beds, Clinic of Obstetrics with 120 beds, Clinic of Neurology and Psychiatry with 120 beds, and Clinic of Dermatology and Sexual Diseases with 110 beds—a total of 850 beds.
The Faculties of Philosophy have the following institutions:
At Budapest—Eleven seminars, Museum of Greek Philology, Museum of Coins and Antiques, Collection in Aesthetics, Collection in History of Art, Collection of Christian Archaeology, Library of Philosophy, Library of Pedagogy, Library of History, Collection in History of Hungarian Culture, Egyptian Collection, Geographical Institute, Cosmographical Institute, Collection of Mathematical Instruments, Collection' of Physics Instruments, Institute of Experimental Physics, Institute of Practical Physics, three Institutes of Chemistry, two Botanical Institutes, Institute of Botanical Geography, Institute and Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, Institute and Museum of Mineralogy and Petrography, Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Geological Institute, Institute and Museum of Palaeontology, Institute of Radiology. At Szeged—Philosophical Institute, Institute of Pedagogy, Institute of Hungarian History, Institute of the History of the Middle Ages and Modern Times, Institute of Ancient History, Archaeological Institute, Institute of Hungarian Philology, Institute of History of Hungarian Literature, Institute of German Philology and Literature, Institute of French Philology and Literature, Institute of Classical Philology, Institute of Ural-Altaic Philology, Geographical Institute, Seminar in Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry, Institute of Experimental Physics, Institute of Practical Physics, two Institutes of Chemistry, Institute of Mineralogy and Geology, Institute of Zoology, Institute of Botany and Specimen Gardening. At Debrecen—Institute of Philosophy, Institute of Pedagogy, InEDUCATION IN HUNGARY etitute of Educational Psychology, Institute of Phonetics and German, Seminar in Classical Philology, Museum in Classical Philology, Seminar in Modern Philology, Seminar in History, Geographical Institute. At Pécs—Library and Laboratory in Pedagogy, Library of Philosophy, Institute of Classical Philology, Institute of Hungarian Philology, Institute of German Philology, Institute of French Philology, Institute of World History, Institute of Hungarian History, Geographical Institute.
UNIVERSITY STUDENTSUniversity students are either ordinary, that is, those who have been fully admitted on the basis of a certificate of maturity from a secondary school, and extraordinary, that is, those not fully admitted from whom no definite previous training is required, the only condition being that they shall have completed their sixteenth birthday. Foreign students may be admitted as ordinary students, provided they have the proper preliminary qualification. In this case jurisdiction lies with the respective faculties.
Iri 1895 the king granted permission to women to study, with certain limitations, in the Faculties of Philosophy and Medicine and the School of Pharmacy. Since 1926 the following rule is in force with reference to the admission of women to a university. Women are not permitted to be enrolled in the Faculties of Roman Catholic Theology arid Law and Political Science.
However, in a limited number they may be enrolled in the Faculties of Reformed and Lutheran Theologies, Medicine, Philosophy, Philology and History, and Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
Regulations regarding the admission of women to other colleges of university rank may here be mentioned. They may not be admitted to the engineering, mechanical engineering, or chemical engineering departments of the Royal Joseph Technical University, but they may obtain permission from individual professors to attend lectures as guests. In the department of architecture, inasmuch as the quota is not always filled by men, five per cent of the students allowed may be women. In the Faculty of Economic Sciences women may be admitted to the departments of agriculture and commerce without any limitation; they are excluded from the departments of economics, administration,
UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS 143and foreign affairs: and within certain limits they may be enrolled in the training department for teachers of commercial subjects. Women may be enrolled in the School of Pharmacy without any reservations.
Following the World War, students flocked to the universities in such numbers that lecture rooms proved inadequate and sound training was impaired. The anxiety also manifested itself that, if the increased number of professionally trained men could not be given jobs in the country, reduced as it was to one-third its former size, a dangerous intellectual proletariat would be created, which would possibly give rise to another revolution.
Parliament therefore passed a special law regulating admission to the universities. This law stipulated that the number of students to be enrolled in the various faculties should be fixed by the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction on the basis of the suggestions of the individual faculties (numerus clausus).